RP-08. History of Israel


  1. Abraham


  1. The Birth and Call of God
  2. Abraham in Egypt
  3. Abraham – Lot separated
  4. God’s Covenant with Abraham
  5. Hagar and Ishmael
  6. The Covenant of Circumcision
  7. The exit of Hagar and Ishmael


  1. Isaac


  1. Isaac – Birth of the Son of Promise
  2. The marriage of Isaac
  3. The death of Abraham
  4. The children of Isaac – Esau, Jacob


III.  Jacob


  1. Jacob going to Laban – The dream at Bethel
  2. The sons of Jacob


  1. Joseph


  1. Joseph becoming slave at Egypt
  2. Joseph at Potiphar’s house
  3. Joseph becoming governor of Egypt
  4. Jacob’s descendents going to Egypt
  5. Israelites becoming slaves at Egypt


  1. Israelites released from Egypt under the leadership of Moses


  1. The birth of Moses
  2. The call of Moses
  3. Moses and Aaron meeting the Pharoah
  4. The passage of Liberty – The Exodus
  5. Israelites’ journey through the wilderness
  6. Israelites reach the Promised Land of Canaan


  1. Joshua and other Judges


  1. Joshua
  2. Judges


VII. The United Kingdom of Israel and the Kings of the United Kingdom of Israel


  1. Saul
  2. David
  3. Solomon


VIII. Israel after kingdom of Solomon – The Division of the United Kingdom


  1. The Ten Tribes of Israel (northern territory)
  2. The Two Tribes of Judah (southern territory)
  3. The kings of Judah and the contemporary northern Israelite kings


  1. The Fall of Jerusalem – Judah’s Babylonian Captivity of seventy years


  1. The Fall of Jerusalem
  2. Judah’s ruler – Kedaliah’s Appointment
  3. Jew’s return to their motherland (Jerusalem) from Babylon.


  1. The different rules over the fallen Palestinian Judaean Nation


  1. Greek rule over Palestinian territory
  2. The rule of Dalamites
  3. Judah – the rule of Maccabees
  4. Roman rule


  1. Judaea of Jesus’ Time (New Testament Judaea)


  1. The Birth of Jesus
  2. Jerusalem demolished by the Roman rule (A.D. 70)


XII. Alien domination over destroyed / demolished Jerusalem


  1. Byzantine Rule
  2.  Persian Rule
  3. Arabian Rule
  4. The Holy Wars
  5. Mamlluk Rule
  6. Ottaman Rule
  7. English Rule


XIII. The Formation of Modern Israel






History of Israel – Judah


  1. Abraham


  1. Abraham’a Birth and Divine Call (Gen: 11:31, 12:1-4)


        Abraham belongs to Chaldea, by birth, but Hebrew by race. Abraham was born by about B.C.2165. Hebrews are his generations. Hebrews were later known as Israelites. Abraham is the Father of Israelites. In the later days, the Jewish religion was practiced by his descendents. When God called him, he was living in Mesopotamia (Chaldea). Mesopotamia is one of the ancient civilizations. These Mesopotamian territories are presently found in the land of Iraq. Sarai is the name of the wife of Abram. Abram followed the path shown by God (Acts:7:2-5).


Note: The Old Testament years are approximately calculated.


  1. Abram in Egypt (Gen:12:6-8, 10-20)


       Egypt was the foremost important kingdom among the ancient kingdoms of the world. Abram went with his wife Sarah (Sarai) to Canaan. Then he went to the country of Egypt. The life of Abram is nomadic. God did not tell Abram to go to Egypt. So he again came out of Egypt with his wife. He built the first altar at Canaan and worshipped God soon after he came from Egypt. This altar was situated between Bethel and Ayi.


  1. Abram separates from Lot: (Gen: 13:1-13)


Lot was the son of Abram’s brother. There was no place for both of them to live together in Canaan, because they had plenty of sheep and herds. There were frequent quarrels between the shepherds. So Abram and Lot separated peacefully. Lot went to the eastern part of Jordan. Jordanites were hard core sinners. But Abram lived in Hebron with his herds. Abram lived in the path guided by God.


Abram rescued Lot: Lot was a rich man, living in Sodom. The kings of Ellasar and Elam plundered the riches of Lot. This was brought to the notice of Abram. Abram went with 318 trained  servants and rescued Lot’s belongings. Melchizedek, the king of Salem, blessed Abram. Abram gave one tenth to the King Melchizedek, when he won the war. This was the beginning of the ONE TENTH concept. Abram proved himself a good warrior and captain through this victory.


The beginning of Moabites and Ammonites (Gen:19: 30-38)


 Lot went out of Zoar, because the Sodomites were tough and hard core sinners. So God destroyed Sodom. Lot’s wife became a pillar of salt, because of her disobedience. Lot was living in a cave with his two daughters. The elder daughter told her younger sister that there was no man in the earth to lie with them and to preserve the seed of their father.


 She suggested that they give wine to their father and lie with him. Thus both the sisters (daughters of Lot) conceived by their father. God despises such wrong relations. Moab is the son begotten by the elder; Benami, known as Ammon, is the son begotten by the younger. Moabites and Ammonites are the descendents of the two sisters respectively. The Moabites and Ammonites worked against the Israel throughout the history.


  1. God’s covenant with Abram (Gen:14:15)


     Abram and Sarai were childless. God revealed Himself to Abram, at this time. God told Abram that his descendents would be as numerous as the stars of the sky. Abram asked God how he could make this promise his own. God told Abram to bring a young calf, a goat, a ram, turtle-dove, pigeon etc. and sacrifice them by cutting them into two. Abram did not cut the birds to make them into pieces. When deep sleep fell upon Abram, the birds ate the broken bodies meant for sacrifice. This was a slackness at sacrifice. Because of this, Abram’s generations were slaves for 400 years. But God told that the fourth generation people would come returning to this place. Abram was living in the land of Canaan, then.


  1. Hagar and Ishmael (Gen:16)


      Abram’s wife Sarai had no issue. Hagar was An Egyptian woman, who served Sarai as her maid. Sarai allowed Abram to make Hagar his concubine, as was the custom of those days. This way, Hagar gave birth to Ishmael through Abram. Abram was eighty six years old then. Ishmael’s race too became twelve tribes later. They lived to the east of Egypt. They too observed the custom of circumcision.


  1. The Covenant of Circumcision (Gen:17)


    Abram became ninety nine years of old now. God again appeared to Abram and made a covenant with him. “Abram, Father of countless nations” is the meaning of his name. From that day, Abram’s name was changed and he was called ‘Abraham’.  The Covenant of Circumcision is the symbol for this. According to this, every male child should be circumcised on the eighth day of his birth. So, Abraham circumcised all the males born in his household.


    God appeared to Abraham again and promised him. It was God’s promise that a male progeny would be given to Abraham through Sarai. Isaac was born to Sarai for whom the monthly period ceased. Abraham was hundred years old when Isaac was born to him.


  1. Hagar and Ishmael sent out


      Isaac was the son borne by Sarai, in her old age. Isaac was circumcised on the eighth day of his birth. Ishmael and Isaac were growing in the same house. Sarah didn’t like Hagar’s son claiming equal heirship with her own son. So Sarah asked Abraham to send the maid away with her son. Abraham was very grieved to hear this, however, to avoid unnecessary conflicts; he sent Hagar and his son (Ishmael). What Abraham gave to Hagar was only bread and a bottle of water. With that the two reached Beersheba. The water in the bottle was finished. Hagar laid her child in one of the bushes. She walked away, unable to bear the child’s death. God heard the cry of the child and urged Hagar to lift the child and promised her that a great nation would come out of him. He became expertised as an archer. His mother married an Egyptian woman to him.


  1. Isaac


  1. Birth of the Child of Promise (Gen:21)


     ‘Sacrificial Offering’ was the worship code of Abraham. Sacrificing animals at worship was the mode of worship. God tested Abraham: God demanded Abraham to offer Isaac as a burnt offering on the mount of Moriah. Abraham and Isaac proceeded according to the command of God. Abraham was trying to sacrifice Isaac by the mode of sacrificial offering by binding him. At that moment God told Abraham not to raise his hand on Isaac. Then Abraham sacrificed a goat in the place of Isaac. That place was called Jehovah-jireh. Yahweh, is the Hebrew word to refer to God. Isaac lived with his father and mother. Mother Sarah died at the age of 127. Abraham purchased a land and buried Sarah at Hebron.


  1. Isaac’s Marriage (Gen:24)


     Abraham became very old. One day he called his steward and told him to bring a bride for his son from his native land and from among his kith and kin, because he did not like to marry a girl for his son, as wife from the land of Canaan. His steward (or servant) went to the city of Nagor of Mesopotamia. There was a well from which women drew water. The steward lifted his eyes and prayed to the God of Abraham. It was then that Rebekah came there with a pot of water on her shoulder. She was the daughter of Bethuel, a close relation of Abraham. She was a beautiful woman and a virgin. Abraham’s servant asked for water to drink. That lady provided water for him and his camels. Abraham’s servant gifted bracelets and studs to her. The servant understood that she was the daughter of Bethuel. At that time Rebekah’s father Laban came towards the well. Laban took Abraham’s servant to his house. Abraham’s servant revealed the intention of his coming over to that place. Rebekah, accompanied by ten maids, was sent to Abraham’s house to marry Isaac. Rebekah came to Isaac in the company of her maids. Isaac married Rebekah inside the tent of his mother.


  1. Abraham’s death (Gen:25:1-11)


     After Sarah’s death, Abraham married Keturah. Abraham had many children through Keturah. The Hebrew history tells that the Midianites were the descendents of Abraham, born through Keturah. Abraham gave them gifts and sent them to the eastern country, even while he was still alive. Thus Abraham avoided the children of Keturah giving problems to Isaac. To Isaac, Abraham gave all the riches he had. Abraham lived for 175 years and died. He was buried by Isaac and Ishmael in Ephron.


  1. Isaac’s Children – Esau and Jacob


     Through father Abraham, there were many races, like Israelites, Ishmaelites; Isaac was the rightful heir of Abraham. Isaac’s wife gave birth to twins. Esau was the elder son and the younger was Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when these were born to him. Esau was expert in hunting, Jacob lived in tents comfortably. Isaac was fond of Esau because the food brought by Esau by hunting was relished by him. One day Jacob prepared a tasty gruel, when Esau came tired from outside. Esau asked for some porridge from Jacob. Jacob told Esau to sell his elder son’s birth right to himself and promised to provide the porridge for drinking to him. Esau sold his birth right to Jacob and hence despised it. So Esau lost his birth rights. Thus Esau got his name Edom (Gen:25).


Esau deceived (Gen:36)


      Isaac reached his old age. His eye sight became very dull. Isaac called his loving son Esau and asked him to bring hunted food, so that he could bless him. Rebekah overheard this and she immediately  killed a goat and prepared  tasty dishes. She gave these deliciously prepared food to her loving son Jacob. Jacob placed them before his father and received blessings from him, thus deceiving his elder brother. When Esau came to know of this, he became very angry. So Jacob escaped from the wrath of his brother. Esau married an Ishmaelite woman. Edomites lived in the place of Idumea. Herodites are a sect of Edomites.




  1. Jacob going to Laban – Bethel Dream


       Jacob received blessings by deceiving his father. So Esau was annoyed at his brother. Esau planned to kill Jacob. When Rebekah came to know of this, she sent Jacob to his brother Laban to save his life. Jacob went towards his uncle’s house as wished by his parents.


 The dream Jacob had at Bethel (Gen: 27,28)               


      Jacob traveled towards the house of Laban. When he came to a place, the Sun was setting.  To spend the night, he took one of the stones spread over there. He rested his head on the stone he took. Jacob saw a dream then. There was a ladder touching heaven and earth. Angels were ascending and descending over it. The promise of God to Abraham was reminded again to Jacob, by God. So the stone Jacob used for resting his head, was raised as a pillar of remembrance. That place was known as Luz at first. It was called ‘Bethel’ after this.


Jacob reaches the house of Laban (Gen:29)

      Jacob went towards the eastern country side. He saw a well of the fields. Shepherds. They feed water from that well for the flocks. The mouth of the well was covered with a big stone. The stone will be rolled, when the flocks were gathered. Rachel, daughter of Laban, was tending and driving sheep. Jacob removed the stone and showed water to his uncle’s flocks. Laban was told of all that happened near the well. Laban came and took Jacob with him. There, in the house of Laban, Jacob worked for seven years and married Leah. Then he again worked for seven more years and married Rachel whom he loved very much.


  1. Sons of Jacob (Gen:29:31, 30:43)


      Jacob gave birth to 12 sons. Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali, Gath, Asher, Issakkar, Zebulon, Judah, Levi, Joseph and Benjamin were the twelve sons of Jacob; and Dinah was his daughter. The sons of Jacob became the Israelites. All these twelve became the head of the twelve tribes of Israel. Then Jacob came back to Canaan along with his belongings. He met his brother Esau on his way. Both were reconciled. Jacob made an altar at Bethel, where he had seen a dream and worshipped God there. Jacob’s sons were shepherds, tending sheep. Jacob loved Joseph foremost among all his sons.




  1. Joseph becoming slave at Egypt


       Jacob was living in the land of Canaan. Jacob presented Joseph with a special coat, a multicoloured one.. This caused jealousy among the other brothers and they hated Joseph. Besides, Joseph had seen a dream. In his dream, all his brothers including his parents, bowed down before Joseph. This increased the jeaousy of his brothers. Joseph’s brothers, who were the sons of Jacob, went for tending sheep. Joseph was then a seventeen year old lad. Joseph was sent to know the wellness of his brothers and how they were faring, but when his brothers saw him from afar, they tried to kill him. But Reuben wanted to save Joseph from their plot. They put Joseph in a deep pit. This time Judah saved Joseph from that pit. Then Joseph was sold for twenty pieces of silver as a slave. It was a trader who purchased Joseph. Joseph was again sold to Potiphar as a slave in Egypt, through these traders.


  1. Joseph in the house of Potiphar (Gen: 39, 40)


       Potiphar was captain of the guard of Egypt. Potiphar’s wife cast her eyes upon Joseph. One day she called Joseph to lie with her. Joseph refused and rejected her enticements. She tried many times, but Joseph did not yield to her lustrous advances. So she charged him falsely and Joseph was put in jail. But God was with Joseph.


  1. Joseph becoming the Governor / Ruler of Egypt (Gen:41)


      In the heathen lands where the scriptures were not read and even when the scriptures were not fully written, God revealed certain things through dreams. There were another two stewards of Pharoah, kept imprisoned in the same place where Joseph was kept. Both of them had dreams in the prison. Joseph gave interpretation to their dreams. What Joseph interpreted came to pass: one was executed and the other steward was replaced in his former position. At this juncture, Pharoah had a dream and Joseph was called to the presence of Pharoah the king. Joseph told the dream and explained the meaning of it very correctly, as God revealed it to him. So he was raised and given a fine position at Pharoah’s court, and Joseph became Egypt’s Prime Minister. Joseph was thirty years of age then. Joseph married an Egyptian woman, by name Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On.


  1. Jacob and his descendents going to Egypt (Gen:42-47)


     Those days, there was a severe famine which affected Asia and Africa. So the people from all countries came to Egypt for buying grain. Jacob also sent his sons to Egypt for purchasing grain. After lot of pains and tribulations, Joseph’s brothers, when they went to purchase grain at Egypt, recognized Joseph, seated as the governor of Egypt and they realized how the dreams of Joseph were materialised. Jacob was rejoiced to find Joseph alive and ruling over Egypt, through his other sons. There were 70 more Israelites who went along with Jacob to Egypt.


 The Family of Jacob in Egypt (Gen:48-50)


      Joseph introduced his father, who came to Egypt, to Pharaoh. Pharaoh entertained them and put them to stay in the land of Koshen. There they lived by tending their flock. Israelites took possession of the land of Koshen. Israelites lived there for many years and they were multiplied. Jacob lived there for seventeen years. His life is a total of 147 years. Jacob blessed the sons of Joseph (Manasseh, Ephraim) too. When Jacob died, he was buried in the land of Egypt.


  1. Israelites becoming slaves at Egypt (Ex:1)


      Joseph lived for 110 years. His body was preserved as a mummy according to the Egyptian medical technologies of those days. All of Joseph’s brothers died in Egypt. After 400 years, there arose in Egypt a new dynasty of Pharaoh, who did not know Joseph. He saw how the Israelites were multiplying and flourishing in Egypt. The Egyptians were worried about the enrichment of the Israelites and they persecuted and suppressed the Israelites through various difficult tasks and hardship. Ultimately Israelites were forced to slavery in the land of Egypt; and there was the order of the Pharaoh to kill the male children of the Hebrews, with the intention of contolling the population of the Hebrew tribe.



  1. Israelites released from Egypt under the Leadership of Moses


  1. The Birth of Moses (B.C. 1520) – Exodus: 2


             The tribe of Levi was one of the .twelve tribes of Israel. Levi tribe is the generation of Levi, son of Jacob. Moses was born in the tribe of Levi. It was the order of Pharaoh, the Egyptian king, to throw the male Hebrew children into the river Nile. But Moses was kept inside a basket made of bulrushes (papyrus) and placed along the reeds by the river side. It so happened that the daughter of Pharaoh came there to have bath. The child was crying at that time. Pharaoh’s daughter adopted the child and handed him over to the mother of the child, with the help of Miriam, sister of Moses, to be brought up for her. The meaning of Moses is ‘drawn out of water’. Moses was a man, burdened with the cause of his people, of his race and of his nation. In his zeal and zest for protecting his people, he came across various struggles and during one such confrontation, he killed one Egyptian to save a Hebrew. So Moses had to run for his life, to escape the wrath of Pharaoh, to the land of the Midianites. Jethro was the Midianite priest then. Jethro had seven daughters and they were feeding their flocks. Moses helped those women to provide water to their flock. When Reguel (Jethro) heard of the good will of Moses, he called Moses to his place. He married his daughter, Zipporah to Moses. Moses too undertook the work of tending to the sheep.


  1. The Call of Moses (B.C.1440) – Ex:3


            The Pharaoh reigning at the time of Moses’ escape from Egypt had died. Israelites were crying and groaning under slavery. God heard their cries. God remembered His Promise to Abraham. The promise given to Abraham was related to the Land of promise. During one of these days, Moses reached the mount of Horeb with his flock. He saw a thorny bush burning with fire; but the burning bush was not turned to ashes. When Moses witnessed this rare phenomena, he went near to the burning bush. God appeared in a flame of fire. Then God called Moses telling, “Moses, Moses”, “The land you are standing on is a holy place; remove your shoes from your feet. I am the God of your forefathers; I am the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob”. Moses covered his face, as he was afraid. Then God told Moses, “I saw the sufferings of my people, and the tribulations they are undergoing in Egypt”. God added “I have come down to save them from the hands of the Egyptians and to take them to a vast land of milk and honey”. Again God told Moses to go immediately as he had been chosen by God to go to Pharaoh to liberate the people from the clutches of the Egyptians. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob told Moses that “I am that I am”. God gave Moses the power to cause miracles. Moses took his brother Aaron with him and went to Egypt again.


  1. Moses and Aaron meet Pharaoh


           These two brothers stood before Pharaoh and asked him to allow the Hebrews to set off from Egypt so that they could worship God at the wilderness and give their sacrifices. Moses caused miracles, bestowed on him by the power of God. He caused varied miracles and signs. The staff becoming a serpent, water turning to blood, frogs spread over the houses, flies throughout the country, cattles dying, burns caused, shower of hail are some of the signs and wonders caused /provoked by Moses (Ex:4-11). The first Passover was performed at Egypt (Ex:12). Passover means ‘passing over’. It is also known as the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The laying down or dedication of the first born is related to Passover. After 400 years of slavery, the Israelites were redeemed from the land of Egypt, through Moses. The people who were released from Egypt  were known as the “Church of Wilderness”. They made the desert voyage. (Ex:13).


Note: The ‘church of wilderness’ refers to the people of Israel. It was also known as the church of Israel. 


  1. The Exodus from Egypt (B.C.1440) – Ex:12-19


          Moses was trained in the Egyptian arts at the palace of Egypt. He was a God’s servant and a trained man for the service of God.  The Israelites traveled in the same route shown by God. This journey of theirs is known as the “Voyage of Liberation”. The Voyage of Liberation is related to their Land of Covenant. This land was promised to their forefathers. Israelites are a people of the Covenant. The Pillar of Cloud and the Pillar of Fire were guiding them through their journeys and the Israelites had to undergo many difficulties on their way and at last the Church of Israel came near Mount Sinai. They were given the Ten Commandments near the Mount Sinai. The Ten Commandments (Decalogue) were kept inside the “Tabernacle of Covenant”. The Laws of Moses based on the Ten Commandments, with Moses as leader and giver, became the rule of the religion and community of the Israelites. The Tabernacle of the Congregation was made at the time of this journey. The Tabernacle of Congregation was constructed according to the rule of the Scriptures. Pentateuch is the compilation of the Holy Rules (Torah). The first five Books of the Hebrew Bible are actually a compilation of “Torah”. The Law of Moses was given during the exodus from Egypt. This Law of Moses became the national law for the Israelites.


 The Hebrew Bible


         The Jewish history is 4000 years old. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are the Jewish (Hebrew) Patriarchs. The Hebrew patriarchical history is known to us through the Hebrew Scriptures. The Hebrew Scriptures include the history of liberation of the Jewish people. The Hebrew scripture was compiled with historical intention. After Christ, the Hebrew Scriptures became the Old Testament. Jesus is foretold in the Old Testament (Jn:5:39). Jesus is the fulfillment of the Old Testament (Rev:19:10)


  1. Journey through the Wilderness (Ex:20 – Deut:34).


        The Israelites who were released from Egypt with the help of Moses traveled through the Israelite wilderness and reached the wilderness of Zin. God gave the ”Ten Commandments” to the Israelites at the mount of Sinai. And Moses gave the Holy Laws (Torah), on the basis of Ten Commandments, to the Israelites. This is the political law or the governmental law of the nation of Israel. During their journey through the wilderness, they sent 12 people to spy the land of Canaan. Due to the wrong information provided by ten of these spies, the Israelites were upset and they thought of returning to Egypt. So God punished them for their unbelief. Hence the distance that could be crossed in 40 days was covered through a period of 40 years, nearly 38/39 years. The Israelites were roaming around in the wilderness of Sinai and God provided and fed them with ‘Manna’. And the Tabernacle of Congregation was constructed according to the design of God shown to Moses.


  1. Israelites reaching Canaan, the Land of Promise


        After 39 years, the Israelites planned to start again from the desert of Zin and to reach the Promised Land of Canaan, encircling the Dead Sea and along the borders of the Moabite land. During this period, Moses died on Mount Nebo and God buried him, by the eastern bank of River Jordan. After the death of Moses and Joshua took the leadership of the Israelites and led them.


  1. Joshua and Other Judges

(Period of Judges’ Reign)

  1. Joshua


       Joshua became the leader of Israelites, after Moses (Josh:1-24).  Joshua was a great warrior. Under his headship, the Israelites crossed Jordan, and reached the land of Canaan. They captured the city of Jericho first. Afterwards, they took hold of many regions in Canaan, through many battles. Besides, Joshua divided the Promised Land among the twelve tribes of Israel. The Tribe of Levi was given the task of the Tabernacle of Congregation, instead of land. He led the Israelites for about 25 years, and won over the Promised Land through many wars (B.C.1400-1375). Joshua subdued the land of Canaan and divided it among the Israelites. All the twelve tribes of Israel lived in Canaan.


  1. Judges


       The judges ruled over Israel for 400 years, after Joshua. There were 13 judges who took care of the Israelites by releasing them from the bondage of other neighbouring nations and guided them. Thus God reigned over Israel through these judges, till B.C.1050. Samuel was the last of the judges of Israel. Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Barak, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jepthah, Ibzan, Elan, Abdon and Samson are the judges who fought many wars and protected the Israel from their enemies (Judges:1-21). After the rule of the judges, there began the reign of kings in Israel. Samuel was the last of the line of judges. (1 Sam:1-8).



  • The United Kingdom of Israel and the Kings of the United Kingdom


  1. King Saul (B.C.1050-1010)


      There were frequent wars between the Israelites and the Philistines. The Philistines took away the Ark of the Covenant and the Israelites were trying to redeem the Ark of God. Samuel, born in B.C.1150, ruled Israel many years, according to the Will and Guidance of God. But the Israelites preferred reign of kings than the rule of judges. Rule of judges lasted till the time of Samuel. Saul was the first king, following the rule of judges. Samuel anointed Saul according to the interest and demand of the people and by the Command of God (1 Sam:9).


     Saul was appointed the first king of Israel. Saul defeated the Ammonites and the Philistines. Jonathan, son of Saul, was a great warrior. Goliath was the leader of Philistines. The Philistines were camping around the Israelite territory and Goliath was threatening the Israel and abusing the God of Israel. David defeated Goliath with a sling and smooth stone, in the name of the God of Israel. It was a great victory for the Israelites and it was celebrated in great pomp among the people. Michal, daughter of Saul, loved David. David married the daughter of Saul. But Saul grew jealous of David because of the popularity enjoyed by him with the people. He was persecuting David throughout. David feared God and he held himself from killing Saul, his tormentor, a number of times, even though he could have easily annihilated him. Jonathan, son of Saul and David were great friends Jonathan was loyal to David and he helped him against his enemies.


       Samuel had died by this time. Saul also died in the war against the Philistines. Saul’s sons were also killed. Saul ruled over the kingdom of Israel for about 40 years (1 Sam: 9 – 31).


  1. King David (B.C.1010 – 970) – 2 Sam:1-24


      David was appointed king after the death of Saul. But Abner, the captain of Saul, made Ishbosheth king over Israel. Ishbosheth was one of the sons of Saul. So there were constant internal wars between Judah and Israel. These wars were fought between the house of Saul and house of David. At one stage, Abner was killed by Joab, captain of David; Ishbosheth was also murdered. Then all the tribes of Israel accepted him, so  David became king of Israel, united to Judah. David won great victories over the Philistines. The Ark of Covenant came to Jerusalem. David fought many wars and extended the kingdom. Thus David ruled over the whole of Israel. David too ruled over Israel for 40 years. Israel became a strong and mighty kingdom during the reign of David.


  1. King Solomon (B.C.970-930) – 1 kings:1-11


        King Solomon was entreating God for wisdom, when he was made king after David. God gave him wisdom in great measure. Solomon was making arrangement to build a Temple of God, in Jerusalem, in the place of the Tabernacle of the Congregation. The Temple of God was built according to the norms specified by God; and the palace was constructed in a fine manner. The Ark of Covenant was brought inside the temple. There, inside the Ark, were  the two tablets of the Decalogue. The rule prescribed for the Temple of God at Jerusalem was that the length be 60 yards, the breadth be 20 yards and the height 30 yards. Solomon reigned over Israel for 40 years. The reign of Solomon was known as the “Golden age of Israel”.






VIII. The United Kingdom of Israel broken into two


  1. Israel – Ten tribes (Northern Territory)


           After Solomon’s death, the united Israel was separated and made into two. Solomon’s son Rehoboam was charging more tax so the ten tribes rebelled against him and as a result, the Israelite nation was divided as northern and southern country. The territory of the ten tribes was known as North Kingdom (Israel) and the territory of the two tribes was known as South Kingdom (Judah). The tribes of Reuben, Simeon, Dan, Naphtali,Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, and Ephraim lived in the north; Bethel was the capital of the north country. Later the capital was Samaria.


  1. The Land of Judah – Two Tribes (Southern Territory)


          Solomon’s son ruled over Judah, after Solomon’s death. His name was Rehoboam. He was 40 years old when he became king. Jerusalem was the capital of the southern country. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin were united in the south. This was also called Judaea.


  1. The Kings of Judah and their contemporary Israelite kings


Rehoboam, the first king of Judah  (B.C.930 – 913)


Rehoboam, son of Solomon, was the first king of the divided country of Judah. Rehoboam was 40 years old when he became king. He ruled at Jerusalem for seventeen years. His mother was the Ammonite woman, Naamah. Rehoboam did evil in the sight of God. He made high places for idol worship and they worshipped idols under the green trees. During his fifth year of reign, Egyptian king Shishak brought his forces against Jerusalem. The house of God was plundered. The riches of the palaces were taken away. After Rehoboam, it was Abijam who was made king (1 Kings:14).


Judah’s second King Abijam (B.C.913 – 910)


Abijam was the second king of Judah. He ruled at Jerusalem for 3 years. His mother was Machah. She was the daughter of Abishalom. He too sinned the same manner as his father. He did not obey God as his forefather David. Abijam died and was buried in the city of David. His son Asa was made king after him. (1 Kings:15:1-8)


Judah’s third King Asa (B.C.910-869)


 The first king of Israel was Jeroboam. He was not of the tribe of Judah. Asa was made king of Judah during 20th year of the rule of the first Israelite king Jeroboam. Asa ruled at Jerusalem for 41 years. Asa did good rule like his forefather David. He removed the Sodomites from the country. He removed all the idols from Judah. There were frequent wars between Israel’s King Baasha and Judah’s king Asa. During Asa’s second year of reign, Nadab ruled Israel. Nadab was the son of Jeroboam. Nadab ruled Israel for two years (1 Kings: 15:9-24)


      During the third year of the rule of Asa, Baasha killed Nadab and ruled the Israel. Baasha walked in the evil way like Jeroboam. He was responsible for the sins of Israel. The Word of the Lord came to Jehu against Baasha and Hanani’s son Jehu prophesied against Baasha (1 kings:16:1-4). Baasha led Israel to their sinful ways. During Asa’s 26th year, Elah became king of Israel.


Zimri was the captain of Elah’s army. Zimri killed Elah in his palace by hacking him and he became king of Israel. This happened during the 27th year of Asa’s reign. Zimri destroyed the family of Baasha. But Zimri could rule only for seven days. Then Omri became king of Israel. He ruled Israel for 12 years. Omri bought the hill of Samaria for 80 kg of silver from Shemer and he gave the name ‘Samaria’ to that hill. From this time, Samaria became the head of the northern kingdom Israel. Omri did evil in the sight of  God. Omri died and was buried at Samaria.


After Omri, Ahab became king of Israel. This was during Asa’s 38th year of reign. Ahab ruled Israel for 22 years. His rule was evil in the sight of God. Ahab married Jezebel, daughter of the King of Zidon. A temple of Baal was built at Samaria. Baal’s worship spread over Israel. The prophet Elijah and Ahab became enemies because the prophet was reproving him for his evil ways. When the prophets of Baal and Elijah made their sacrifices, God accepted the sacrifice of Elijah. The Syrian king Benhadad brought his forces against Israel. Ahab won over the Syrians. Again the Syrians attacked the Israelites. This time also the Israelites won. But Ahab and the Syrian king Benhadad made an agreement. There was no war for 3 years, due to this agreement. But again there was war between Syrians and the Israelites. Ahab died in the battle, and the dogs licked his blood. This was a fulfillment of the prophesy of the prophet.


Judah King Jehoshapat (B.C.872 – 848)


  When Ahab was king of Israel in his 4th year, Jehoshapat became king of Judah. Jehoshapat was the son of Asa, king of Judah. Jehoshapat was 35 years old, when he became king. He ruled at Jerusalem for 25 years. Jehoshapat ruled righteously and did good in the sight of God. Jehoshapat died and he was buried in the city of David. Jehoshapat’s son Jehoram ascended to the throne after him. During Jehoshapat’s 17th year, Ahaziah became king of Israel. Ahaziah ruled Israel from Samaria for two years. He did evil in the sight of God. He supported the worship of Baal. The Moabites opposed the Israelites during Ahasiah’s time. Elijah was the prophet of God during this period (1 King: 22:41-53, 2 King:1:1-2: 27).


Jehoram – King of Judah (B.C.848-841)


   Jehoshapat’s son Jehoram became the king of Judah (2 Kings:8:16-24). Jehoram became king at his 32nd year and ruled for 8 years. He married the daughter of Israel’s king Ahab; did evil in the sight of God. Even then, God did not destroy him immediately due to the promise He has given to David. During Jehoram’s days. The Edomites rebelled against Judah and appointed a king for themselves. After Jehoram, his son Ahasiah became king of Judah.


Ahasiah – King of Judah (B.C.841)


 Judah king Ahasiah was the son of Joash. Ahasiah was 22 years old when he became. He ruled at Jerusalem for one year. (2 Kings:8:25-9:29). His mother Athaliah was the daughter of Omri, the Israelite king. Ahasiah did evil in the sight of God. He fought with Hazaael, king of Syria. During the time of Elisha, the prophet, Jehu became king of Israel. Jehu killed Ahasiah, king of Judah. Jezebel too was killed by Jehu. The children of Ahab, the Israelite king, were massacred by Jehu. Jehu destroyed Ahasiah’s kinfolks too. Jehu killed everyone who worshipped Baal. Jehu removed Baal worship from Israel. But the worship of golden calf at Bethel and Dan was not completely stopped. Jehu ruled over northern Israel for 28 years, from Samaria. Jehu’s son Jehoahaz became king of Israel after Jehu.


 Athaliah, Queen of Judah (B.C.841-835) – 2 Kings:11:1-16


    Athaliah was the mother of Ahasiah. She ruled Judah for six years. When she came to know about her son’s death, she stood up and destroyed the royal house. But Joash, the son of Ahasiah escaped. Joash was hiding with Jehosheba, his aunt, in the Jerusalem temple. Athaliah was ruling Judah during this time. Joash was anointed king of Judah among tight security and he was declared king by the priest Jehoiada. Joash was only 7 years old when he was anointed king. Later Athaliah was killed by the king’s men.


Judah king Joash (B.C.835-796) – 2 Kings:11:17-12:21


  During Jehu’s seventh year of reign, Joash (Jehoash) became king of Judah. Joash ruled for 40 years at Jerusalem. Jehosh did good rule in the sigh of God. But the House of God was not maintained. Also, the alien worship altars were not removed from the territory of Judah. Syrian king Hazael planned to attack Jerusalem. But he returned without attacking Jerusalem, because he was given lot of gold by Joash. After Jehoash (Joash), his son Amaziah became king. Jehu’s son Jehoahaz was ruling Israel during this time. He ruled for 17 years from Samaria. He walked in the sinful ways of Jeroboam. Prophet Elisha was prophesying during the time of Judah king Jehoash. At this time, Israel and Syria were warring against each other. The Israelites won three times in these wars (2Kings:13).


Judah King Amaziah (B.C.796-767) – 2 Kings:14:1-22


  Amaziah was the son of Judah king Joash. He was 25 years old, when he became king. He ruled from Jerusalem for 29 years. His mother was Jehoaddan. Amaziah walked righteously in the sight of God. He followed his father Jehosh. But altars remained and sacrifices and incense offerings continued. He killed his father’s assassins, who were his servants also. During the 15th year of Amaziah, Jeroboam II became the king of Israel. He was the second Jeroboam. He united with Israel the Judah cities of Damascus and Hamath, which belonged to Judah. After Jeroboam, his son Zachariah became king of Israel.    


Judah King Azariah (Uzziah) (B.C. 792 – 740) – 2 Kings:15:1-7


  After Amaziah, the people of Judah made Azariah the king. Azariah was 16 years old when he became king. He ruled for 52 years at Jerusalem. His mother was Jecholiah of Jerusalem. King Azariah had the second name Uzziah too. Isaiah was the prophet during Uzziah’s time. Azariah walked uprightly like his father. But he had not yet removed the idol worship places. People were worshipping there and burning incense. Uzziah built Elath and restored it to Judah. He built towers in Jerusalem and fortified them. He built towers in the desert and dug many wells. But when he was strong he became haughty, and he transgressed against the Lord. He dared to burn incense upon the altar of incense in the Temple of the Lord. Uzziah died of leprosy as the Lord smote him for his arrogance in the Temple of the Lord. His son Jotham became king of Judah.

(2 Chr:26:1-23).


Zechariah was king of Israel during this time. Zechariah did evil in the sight of God. It was Shallum who became king after Zechariah. He ruled at Samaria for one month. After him Gadi’s son Menaham ruled Israel. During this time, the Assyrian king Pul attacked the northern Israel territory. The Israelite king paid tribute to Pul and retained the kingdom (2 Kings: 15:14-22). Menaham ruled at Samaria for ten years. After him, Pekahiah became the king of Israel. This was at the 50th year of Azariah, as Judah’s king. Pekahiah did evil in the sight of God.


Judah King Jotham (B.C.750 – 735) – 2 Kings:15:7-38


 Jotham is the son of king Azariah (Uzziah). He became king of Judah during Israel’s king Pekah’s second year. Jotham was 25 years old when he became king. He ruled Jerusalem for 16 years. His mother was the daughter of Zadok, named Jerusha. Jotham walked uprightly before God. He did everything as his father did, but the idol worship altars were not removed. He built the higher gates of the Jerusalem temple. His son Ahaz became king after him.


Judah King Ahaz (B.C.735-715) – 2 Kings:16:1-20


   Ahaz became king of Judah during the 17th year of Israel king Pekah’s rule. Ahaz was 20 years old, when he became king. He ruled at Jerusalem for 16 years. He did not walk uprightly as forefather David. He put his son to walk through fire and sacrificed his son as burnt offering. He sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places and did idol worship. The Syrian king Rezin and the Israelite king Pekah laid siege of Jerusalem during his rule. But Ahaz was not overcome by them. Then the Syrians drove the Jews at Elath and captured it. So Ahaz sought the help of the Assyrian king Tiglath Phlezer (Pul). So the Assyrian king attacked the Syrian city of Damascus and killed the Syrian king Rezin.


When Ahaz ruled for 12 years, Elah’s son Hoshea became king of Israel. During his rule, Assyrian king Shalmanezer laid siege to Samaria for 3 years. Thus the Assyrian king Shalmanezer came against Israel. So Samaria came under the rule of Assyria. Many of the Israelites were exiled to Assyria. These exiled Israelites were placed at Assyrian villages. In that place, the Assyrian were placed at Samaria. So there was mixing of race between the Samaritans and the Assyrians. Due to the inter mixing of race, the Israelite culture was destroyed. Samaria was taken by the Assyrians and the Assyrian worship methods were introduced in Israel. They made burnt offering of their children and worshipped Molech. They made graven images and worshipped in groves under every hill and under every green tree. In B.C.722, the reign of north Israel came to an end with Hoshea’s ninth year rule. There was no more “north nation” country of the Israel after this (722 B.C.).


Judah King Hezekiah (B.C.715-686) – 2 Kings: 18: 1-20:21


    Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, was the king of Judah. He was 25 years old when he became king. Hezekiah ruled over Jerusalem for 29 years. His mother Abi was the daughter of Zechariah. Hezekiah walked uprightly like his forefather David. He destroyed the high places and altars. He also broke down the stone altars kept for idol worship. He broke the brazen serpent image made by Moses, because the Israelites were making incense offering to them till then. Hezekiah followed the Laws of God , given through Moses. During Hezekiah’s 4th year of reign, the Assyrian king Shalmanezer laid siege to Samaria (north – Israel). The Assyrians captured Samaria and the Israelites were exiled to Assyria. This time the north Israelite rule (of the ten tribes) at Samaria came to an end (B.C. 722). Then, in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, Jerusalem too was laid siege by the Assyrians. Hezekiah took the gold from the Jerusalem temple and gave it to Sennacherib of Assyria. Isaiah was the prophet of the time of Hezekiah. Prophet Isaiah prophesied at Judah. Manasseh became king of Judah after Hezekiah.


Judah King Manasseh (B.C.697 – 642) – 2 Kings: 21:1-18


    Manasseh is the son of Hezekiah, king of Judah. He was 12 years old when he became king. He ruled at Jerusaelm for 55 years. His mother was Hepzibah. Manasseh did evil in the sight of God. He rebuilt the altars removed by his father. He made altars for Baal. He worshipped all the host of heaven and paid homage to them. He built  altars for all the host of heaven in the court in front of Jerusalem Temple. He made his son pass through fire. He developed his faith in observing times, enchantments and familiar spirits. Worship of graven images was accepted and practiced in Judah. After Manasseh, his son Amon became king.


Judah King Amon (B.C642 – 640) –  2 Kings:21:19-26


  When Amon became king, he was 22 years old. He ruled at Jerusalem for 2 years. His mother was Meshullemeth. He too did evil in the sight of God. He followed Manasseh’s ways. He worshipped the same images, his father worshipped. Amon did not walk in the path of God. His servants conspired against him and Amon was killed in his own house by his court people. But the people of the land killed those who killed Amon. Then they made his son Josiah as king.


Judah King Josiah (B.C.640 – 609) – 2 Kings:22:1-23: 30.


 Josiah was 8 years old when he became king. He ruled at Jerusalem for 31 years. His mother was Jedidah, daughter of Adaiah. Josiah walked uprightly in the presence of God. He did not move to the right or to the left of his forefather David. He mended the temple of Jerusalem. He heard the Book of Law of Moses, read. He completely removed the worship of alien gods in Judah. He made arrangements for the Jews to celebrate the Feast of Passover. In the 18th year of Josiah’s rule, the Feast of Passover was observed and celebrated in great measure. He ruled at Jerusalem according to the Laws of Moses. He went to fight against the king of Egypt supporting the Assyrian king. Pharaoh Nechoh sent Ambassadors to him and advised him to restrain himself, but Josiah did not listen to the words of Nechoh. In the battle, archers shot at Josiah and he was killed at Megiddo. Josiah’s palace stewards took his body and buried him at Jerusalem. His son Jehoahaz was made king after him.


 Judah King Jehoahaz (B.C.609) – 2 Kings: 23:31-34


 When Jehoahaz became king, he was 23 years old. He ruled at Jerusalem for only 3 months. His mother was Hamutal. Jehoahaz did evil in the sight of God. Finally, Jehoahaz was imprisoned by Pharaoh Nechoh and taken to Egypt and he died there. Those days the Jews paid tribute to Pharaoh Nechoh. After Jehoahaz, another son of Josiah, was made king of Judah. His name was Eliakim, and he was  known as Jehoiachim.


 Judah King Jehoiachim (B.C.609 – 598) –  2 Kings: 23:35 – 24:7)


 King Jehoiachim paid tribute to Pharaoh. His real name was Eliakim (2 Kings:23:31–34). Jehoiachim charged too much tax from people for paying tribute to Pharaoh. He paid tribute in the form of silver and gold. He was 25 years when he became king.  He ruled at Jerusalem for 11 years. He did evil in the sight of God. He persecuted the prophet Jeremiah (Jer:22:18, 19, 26: 20-23). During the time of Jehoiachim, Nebuchadnezzar attacked Judah in B.C.605. After the death of Jehoiachim, his son Jehoiachin became the king of Judah. The 18th king of Judah, Jehoiachim was buried along with his ancestors.


Judah King Jehoiachin (B.C.598 – 597) – 2 Kings:24:8-16


  After Jehoiachim, his son Jehoiachin became the 19th king of Judah. He was also known as Jeconiah. or Coniah. He was 18 years old, when he became king of Judah. He ruled at Jerusalem for only 3 months. He too did evil in the sight of God. That time Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem again. He laid siege to Jerusalem. So Jehoiachin, the king of Judah, surrendered to the Babylonian king. The temple of Jerusalem was broken. The vessels and other materials of the temple were taken away. All the Jews including Jehoiachin were taken as captives to Babylon. Even the soldiers were exiled to Babylon. This happened in the year B.C.597.


Zedekiah,  King of Judah (B.C. 597 – 586)  –  2 Kings: 24:17-20


  Jehoiachin’s uncle (father’s brother) was Mattaniah. He was renamed Zedekiah and he was made king in the place of Jehoiachin. He was 21 years old when he became king. He ruled at Jerusalem for 11 years. But he made a foolish attempt, a political mistake, of plotting against the Babylonian king, who seated him on the throne. In addition, he joined hands with Egypt and opposed the Babylonian rule. So the Babylonian emperor Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem the third time and captured Jerusalem in 586 B.C. He destroyed the temple of Jerusalem and its gates. The direct foreign rule formally started from the times when Babylon took hold of Jerusalem. Zedekiah was made blind and taken to Babylon.


  1. The Fall of Jerusalem – The Babylonian Captivity of the Jews


  1. Jerusalem Falls (B.C.586) – 2 Kings:25:1-21


            Jerusalem was besieged during the time of Zedekiah. At the eleventh year of Zedekiah, there was a great famine. Even food was not available to the Jews. The sons of Zedekiah were killed at the time of Babylonian aggression. The royal family was taken to Babylon in fetters. The Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed. The palace and the houses at Jerusalem were put to fire. Even big houses were burnt down. Only the poor people remained in Jerusalem.


  1. Gedaliah appointed as the Governor of Judah – 2 Kings:25:22-30; Jer:25:11-13


         Judah became the slave of Babylon. Gedaliah was made governor of Judah at Jerusalem. Gedaliah was the son of Ahikam, son of Shapan. Gedaliah ruled for only two months, from the fifth month to the seventh month (2 Kings:25:8,25). He was murdered then. Jehoiachin was released and restored by the Babylonian king Evilmerodoch, in his old age. The Babylonian king was giving daily allowance to Jehoiachin. Thus the Jews were under bondage for 70 years. This was the fulfillment of the prophecy of Jeremiah.


  1. The Return of the Jews to their mother land (Jerusalem) from Babylon (B.C.538)


         Cyrus, the Persian king, defeated Babylon. So Babylon lost its fame as an empire. Cyrus ordered the Jews to go back to their mother land. Cyrus was prophetically anointed by God (Isaiah:45:1-5). The Jews returned to their country in batches. The first batch reached Jerusalem, with Zerubbabel (B.C.538). They rebuilt the Temple of God and dedicated it in B.C.515. The second batch came under the leadership of Ezra (B.C.458). He too carried out the maintenance work of the Jerusalem Temple (Ezra:1-10). The third batch came under the leadership of Nehemiah (B.C.444). Nehemiah was the ruler of Judah then. He repaired the walls of Jerusalem (Neh:1-13). The vessels and ornaments of the Jerusalem Temple were brought back and worship of God restored. The maintenance of the city of Jerusalem was carried out in great measure. The Feast of Passover was celebrated with great pomp after 70 long years. Ezra read the Holy Laws (the Hebrew canon) in front of the people who had returned from Babylon. The mixed marriages between Assyrians and Jews were stopped. The Feast of Tabernacle was celebrated again. The people turned their minds to their God whom they despised for many years. The gentiles, other than the Jews, were relieved from their Jewish bond of marriage. They wanted their children to know the genealogies and ancestral facts of their race and nation. The Hebrew Bible is the fulfillment of their desire. It is Jewish belief that the compilation of the historiography of the Hebrews was done under the leadership of Ezra. The Old Testament book Malachi was written during this period.


  1. The different Rules in the Palestinian Judah


  1. The Grecian Rule in Palestine (B.C.333 – 323)


     Alexander was the emperor of Greece. He defeated the Persians in B.C.331. Thus Alexander established the Grecian rule in Palestine. Due to this, Jerusalem came under the rule of Greece. Later, Alexander died in his young age while he was in Babylon.


  1. The Ptolemaic Rule in Palestine (B.C. 323 – 198)


     The Greek empire was divided among four captains of Alexander after the death of Alexander (320B.C.). Ptolemy was one of these captains. He defeated the Egyptian kingdom. His descendents are known as Ptolemites. Ptolemites ruled over Palestine.


     B.C.198 – 166    Seleucus was another captain, who defeated Syria. Seleucus ruled over Palestine after Ptolemites. He controlled the Jewish religious worship. The Grecian culture was introduced in Judaea at this time. The pious and ardent Jews opposed this ban and rebelled against this.


  1. Maccabean Rule in Judah (B.C.166 – 63)


       Hasmon was of the Jewish group. The Jewish Hasmon had five children. The Jews rebelled against Seleucus under the leadership of these five people. They recaptured Jerusalem by defeating the Syrian – Seleucus army and cleansed the Temple of God. So the Jews were getting released till B.C. 166 – 63. The Hasmonaeans who defeated Seleucus, ruled over Palestine. Those were the days of Jewish Liberation. It can be called the beginning of Democracy of the Jews. The Jewish border was widened during Hasmonaean rule. The Jews prospered during this time. It was during this period, the Jewish sects of Pharisees and Saducees evolved.


  1. The Roman rule in Palestine (B.C. 63 – A.D. 313)


     Pompey was the captain of the Roman army. He captured Jerusalem in B.C. 63. So Jerusalem came under the Roman rule. There was culture-mix taking its root in Jerusalem. Herod was the king appointed by the Romans. Herod was of the race of Edomites. The city of Damascus was the seat of Roman rule. The Jews did not like the Roman rule. The Jews, who had been imbibed the spirit of liberation, were called as Zealots. The Romans deprived the riches of the Jewish nation. The Jews waylaid such acts of extraction and tried to prevent it. So they were called as ‘way side robbers’. But all of them were very patriotic and zealous for the cause of their nation. In the same way, they were very religious and pious too. Their belief was that the nation of Israel was promised to their ancestors. So they were organizing and conducting a sort of revolution frequently. Herod was a powerful ruler and hence the Jews couldn’t succeed in their attempts to liberate their country. With the intention of getting the support of the Jews and in order to please them, Herod renewed the Jerusalem temple. But even then, he was not successful in gaining the Jewish confidence.


  1. The Birth of Jesus and the Judaea of New Testament


  1. Birth of Jesus (B.C. 4/5)


Jesus was foretold in the Hebrew Bible by the prophets (Jn:5:39). Jesus was born in the 4th or 5th year of B.C. Herod who sought to kill Jesus at His infancy was dead in B.C. 4. His control and power were reduced step by step. Roman dominance was growing again in Jerusalem. Jesus’ Mission of Redemption was Good News of the Kingdom. A.D. 27 was the commencing year of Jesus’ redemption work. Jesus’ death and resurrection took place in the year A.D.30. Judaea was under Roman rule throughout this period of Jesus’ ministry. After the ascension of Christ, the church began on the day of Pentecost at Jerusalem and started growing gradually.


  1. Jerusalem devastated by Roman rule (A.D.70)


After the day of resurrection of Jesus Christ, from the Day of Pentecost, a great number of Jews became Christians (Acts: 2:40 – 42). The other Jews (Hebrews) persecuted these Christians. Moreover, since Pilate was persecuting the Samaritans cruelly, they were submitting their grievance to the Roman authorities about these cruelties (A.D. 36). Hence the Roman emperor called Pilate back to Rome. Pilate was then taken exile to a region known as Gaul. Pilate died there by committing suicide. Herod Agrippa, grand son of the former Herod was appointed the ruler of the Palestinian – Judaean territories ruled by Pilate and senior Herod,  by the Roman emperor. Herod Agrippa was punished by God (Acts: 12: 20 – 23). Felix (Acts: 24), Festus (Acts: 25, 26) and Florus respectively were made rulers of Judaea, after Agrippa. Florus was the cruelest of these three. So the Jews worked a rebellion against the Roman rule in A.D.65 – 66. They killed the Roman soldiers placed at the Fort of Mazada. Besides, Eliezer, the chief guard of the Jerusalem, formed a revolutionary army named Zealots and rebelled against the Roman rule. This revolution spread over to the other parts of Judaea. To check this revolution, the emperor Nero sent the Roman army to Jerusalem, under the leadership of the Roman captain Cestus. This army laid siege to Jerusalem and remained there for about six months. Later, when Cestus allowed his army to take rest, the Jews availed the opportunity; they came out of the fort of Jerusalem and attacked the Romans; they killed 6000 Roman soldiers. Thus, the Jews were strengthened in their spirits, and they regained confidence to oppose the Romans. The rebellion which took place in A.D. 68 was thought of as a cause for the suicide of Nero. After one year, Vesbesian was made the emperor of Rome, after he controlled the rebellion. Vesbesian, under the leadership of his son Titus, sent 80,000 Roman soldiers to suppress the rebellion, and he demolished the Jerusalem temple in 70 A.D. The Jews were sent out of Jerusalem. They lost their nation, because they were scattered all over the world. After the devastation of Jerusalem, some of the Judaean territories were under the Roman rule for 300 years. Besides, the close contact between the Jews and the Christians was formally lost since A.D.70, because the Jews were scattered away from Jerusalem (the Jewish Diaspora). And after this scattering of the Jews, God has not yet raised any prophet from among the Jews (Israel).


XII. Foreign Rule over the Destructed Jerusalem


  1. Byzantine Rule (A.D.325 – 614)


 The eastern Roman rule, with Constantinople as capital, was known as the Byzantine Reign. The Jews were not allowed to visit Jerusalem during Byzantine rule. Only on 8th September, the anniversary of Jerusalem’s destruction, the Jews were allowed to visit Jerusalem. But when Roman emperor Constantine became Christian (A.D.313), the Christians numbered more in the land of Israel. It is history that religions which were backed and pampered by the Roman reign spread and grew in strength. There were many churches built over the land of Judaea during this period.


  1. Persian Rule (A.D. 614 – 634)


   The Persian captain Cyrus II, captured Jerusalem along with the Palestinian territory, in A.D. 614. The Jews welcomed him, since he gave word that there would be relief (freedom – liberation) offered to Jerusalem. But he did not keep his word. He even destroyed many churches in Jerusalem. The Byzantine army again entered into Jerusalem and chased out the Jews, in A.D.629. So a confused state of affairs remained between A.D.629 and 636, in Judaea.


  1. Arabian Rule (A.D.636 – 1099)


     Mohammad Nabi established the religion of Islam; those who followed him were known as Mohammedans or Muslims. The Muslims captured the Israelite areas in A.D. 637. The Caliph reign was conducted in Damascus and Egypt. Muslim rule spread in Israel. However, the Jews were allowed to live peacefully. The Jews who paid taxes worshipped in Jerusalem. In A.D. 717, worship places were taxed upon. And the Jews left the country and fled to different places, because they were persecuted. So the Jews numbered very low in the land of Israel.





4.The Holy Wars (A.D. 1099 – 1291)


   Rome came under the jurisdiction of Pope, for two centuries. During these days, the European countries attempted to release (redeem) the holy land (Israel) from the hands of the Muslims. Jerusalem was laid siege to, for five weeks, in A.D. 1099. During this siege, the non-Christians were massacred in Jerusalem. The Jews controlled this and checked this very strictly and seriously. However, Jerusalem came under Pope within a few years. But the Palestinian territory, where the Jews resided, had not been christianised fully.


  1. The Mumluk Rule (A.D. 1291 – 1516)


                Mamluk means slave. The slaves at Egypt were united against their master and they formed an army; they captured Palestine. This rule commenced in A.D.1291, at Damascus. The forts of Acko, Yabah were destroyed. International and inter-state trade was introduced. But local trade of the country was destroyed. Because of this, the Jewish community economically suffered a heavy drought. The famine caused the people to eat cats, dogs, donkeys (asses) etc; they had even resorted to eating their children.


  1. Ottaman Rule (A.D. 1517 – 1917)


         The Ottaman (Turkish) ruled over Judah, for the next four centuries. The country was divided into four for the purpose of administration. During this rule, there were 1000 Jewish families residing at Judah. Jews were residing in the regions of Jerusalem, Hebron, Gaza, and Galilee. These Jews of the original Hebrew ancestry did not leave Jerusalem. In A.D.1566, there were many Jews, who came from outside the land of Israel. By the sixteenth century, the Jews became 10,000 in number. Agriculture and other profession grew and they prospered. The first group of Jews of Russia came back to their motherland in A.D.1882. In the 19th century, European missionary work increased in Judaea and throughout the world. There were a number of archeologists who came to Jerusalem. So research in the Geography of Bible increased. The contact between Israel and the European countries strengthened. In 1903, there was again a group of Russian Jews, returning to their motherland. European excavation and other research processes increased in the 19th century. By A.D.1914, the Jewish population in Jerusalem was 85,000. At this stage, the English army entered Israel in A.D. 1917. General Alenbi was the captain of the English army. Ottaman Turkey was relieved of its rule in Judaea, by the victory of the English army.


  1. English Rule (A.D.1918 – 1948)


       The Jews were living happily and peacefully during the English rule, under the head of Alenbi. Palestine became the Jews’ motherland in A.D.1922. Palestine as the motherland of Jews had been recognized by the European countries. The Jews came from Russia in A.D.1919 to Palestine. In 1924, the Jews from Poland returned to their motherland. The Hebrew University was established in 1925. Hebrew became the reigning (official) language. English, Arabi, and Hebrew are reigning (official) languages. During the period of 1924 – 1932, more than 60,000 Jews returned to their motherland. The second world war was fought during 1939 – 1945. The Jews multiplied and prospered in everyway at this time.


XIII. The Formation of Modern Israel


  The nation of Israel was born on 14th May, 1948. This is fulfillment of the prophecy of prophet Isaiah. (Is”66:7-10).


    During the period between 14th may, 1948, when Israel became independent, and 6th October 10, 1973, there were about four great wars fought between Israel and the Arabian nations. Israel won all the battles and thus this nation is shining as a model to all the countries of the world.


Students’ Research Subject


     Write a research paper on any period or an incident which is mentioned in the history of Israel. Write neatly or type not less than 50 pages and submit it at the CALS office.


Note:  Kindly mention your name and register number in your research paper.





  • Good News Bible
  • The Open Bible
  • The Spirit filled Bible
  • Thomson Reference Bible
  • Facts about Israel History
  • Wellmington Guide to Bible
  • Talk thru the Bible (Bruce Wilkinson)
  • Tents, Temples and Palaces (International Correspondence Institute)
  • The Prophesies fulfilled in Israel – Tamil (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4)
  • The Jews – Life and History – Tamil





                                                                                                Compiled  by:


                                                                                      Rev. Dr. Joel Chellathurai

                                                                                      Pr. H.Ravi Kumar






Foreign Occupation in Jerusalem


            Year                                                 Events


  • C.586      Jews exiled to Babylon     


  • 538       Cyrus’ permission to let the Jews return to their mother

                                         land, during the Persian rule in Palestine


  • 537   Foundation laid for the New Jerusalem Temple by the Jews         

                                        who returned to Jerusalem, by the order of Emperor Cyrus 


  • 515   The renovated temple was dedicated


  • 445 – 443    The Walls of Jerusalem mended and rebuilt under the         

                                       Leadership of Nehemiah.


  • 333                  Alexander the Great imposed the Grecian rule in Palestine.


  • 323 – 198    Rule of the Dalamites (Captain of Alexander)


  • 198 – 166    The rule of Seluccus in Palestine


  • 166 – 63     Maccabean rule in Palestine


  • C.63 –  Roman rule – Pombey (Roman captain) captures

                 313 A.D        Jerusalem and  establishes  the Roman rule in  

                                       Palestine in  63 B.C.


  • 37 B.C.        Herod appointed ruler of Palestine by the Romans


  • C. 5/4       Birth of Jesus


  • D. 29/30       Jesus’ Crucification


  • 65/66               Jews’ rebellion against the Romans


  • 70   Jerusalem and the Temple destroyed by Titus
  • 73   Jews in Mazada


  • 132 – 135  Barcoach battles against the Romans


  • 313 – 636   Byzantine Rule in Palestine
  • 390 Compilation of the Dolmite Commentary
  • 614 The Persian occupation
  • 636 – 1099   Israel comes under Arabian rule
  • 1099 – 1291  Latin rule in Palestine (The Rule of the Cross)


  • 1291 – 1516   The Mamlukh rule


  • 1517 – 1917   Ottaman Turkish rule


  • 1564 The Jewish Canon released  (Sultan Aruk)


  • 1860 The Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt (reconstructed)


  • 1882 – 1903   Russian Jews return to their motherland

                                       (First Aliah)


  • 1897                 Theodar Karzil  – The first Congress inaugurated


  • 1904 – 1914   Return of the Russian and the Polish Jews

                                       (second Aliah)


  • 1906 Tel Aviv, the city of Jews (Judah) built (first Giftus)


  • 1917 400 years of Ottaman rule comes to an end


  • English rule begins in Israel


  • 1919 Russian Jews return to their motherland (third Aliah)


  • 1920    Jewish National Convention formed


  • 1924 Professional and Educational institutions established


  • 1924 – 32   Polish Jews return to motherland (fourth Aliah)


  • 1925    Establishment of the Hebrew University


  • 1929    Hebronite massacred by Arabian terrorists


  • 1933 – 39    German Jews coming back to their motherland

                                      (fifth  Aliah)


  • 1937    The Israelite Nation and the declaration of the Peel   


  • 1939 – 45   Second World War
  • 1947                  International Congress commits to the formation of        

                                       Arab and Jewish nations 


  • 1948, May 14    Formation of the present Israel Nation

      History of Israel and  Judah







  • Abraham C. 2165
  • Isaac
  • Jacob
  • 12 Tribes
  • 400 years in Egypt
  • Moses
  • Joshua
  • 13 Judges
  • Samuel
  • Saul 1050  C.       United Israel Kings
  • David 1010 B.C.
  • Solomon              970  C.


Southern Country (Judah) Kings                            Northern Country (Israel) Kings    




                           Years (B.C.)                                                         Years (B.C.)


Rehoboam  –  930 – 913                                                          930 – 908  –    Jeroboam


Abijam  –       913 – 910                                                          909 – 886  –    Naadab


Asa           –    910 – 869                                                          908  –  886  –  Baasha


Jehoshephat   872 – 848                                                          886  – 885   –  Elah     


Jehoram        848 – 841                                                           885 –               Zimri


Ahaziah       841                                                                      885 – 880        Tibni


Athaliah      841 – 835                                    Joel                             885 – 874        Omri

Jehoash       835 – 796                                            Elijah       874 – 853        Ahab               


Amaziah    796 – 792                                                             852 – 841        Ahaziah           


Uzziah       792 – 740                          Isaiah                         841 – 814        Joram        

   (Azariah)                                                                                                    (Jehoram)


Jotham      750 – 735                                             Elisha       814 – 798           Jehu


Ahaz           735 – 715                         Micah                           814 – 798     Jehoahaz


Hezekiah    715 – 686                                                              798 – 782      Joash


Manasseh   697 – 642                                                              793 – 753     Jeroboam


Amon         642 – 640                        Naahum                        753               Zechariah


Josiah         640 – 609                        Zephaniah                     752               Shallum


Jehoahaz    609                                  Habahuk                        752 – 742      Menaham


Jehoiachim  609 – 598                     Jeremiah                           742 – 740      Pekahiah                                              


Jehoiachin   598 – 597                                                              752 – 732       Pekah


Zedekiah    597 – 586                     Obadiah                           732 – 722       Hoshea





















Northern country fell by the Assyrian capture in B.C. 722


Babylon Captivity of 70 years in B.C.586


     A gap of 400 years









The first batch of exiled Jews return to Jerusalem in B.C.538 / 536


















JESUS CHRIST                                       

                                                                           John the Baptist

Jerusalem Temple destroyed by Titus in A.D.70








                                                  After nearly 1878 years           



Formation of modern Israel on May 14th, 1948


                                                                                            Prophets in whose names no             

                                                                                                     Books are written