MD-035. Research Methodology







Page No.










Meaning of Research




The Characteristics of Research




Meaning of Research Methodology




Types of Research





Fundamental, Pure or Theoretical Research





Applied Research





Social Research







Meaning of Research Design




The Characteristics of a Good Research Design
























Need for Research Design






















By Observation




Through Personal Interview




Through Telephone Interviews





By mailing of questionnaires




Through schedules







Meaning of the Research Report




Style and Language




Pagination, Size, Spacing and Numbering




Parts of a Research Report







Title Page


Preface / Foreword


Table of Contents





The Text




Main Body of the Report







The Reference Material













Basic Guidelines to Remember Before Logging





Don’t rely exclusively on Net Resources





Narrow Research topic before logging on





Know subject directories and search engines





Keep a detailed record of sites visited and the sites used





Double – Check all URLs that you put in your paper




Evaluating the Specific Resources that on the net















Audience Level











Content Reliability / Accuracy


























            Research in every field is very essential for development and progress.  Research is an inseparable part of human knowledge.  Society has marked on to its present form with the help of constant research and investigation.  The facilities we enjoy today are the result of research and development.  A long march from stone-age to computer age has been the world to the other end. Instant communication through internet, computers, advancement in biological and medical sciences and achievements in electronic technologies are fruits of research.


            Research is the pioneer of all types of development when the modern society is keep on development through constant research in every area of life.  Theological institutions should also give importance to research and contribute to the development of church and society.


            “Where there is no vision people perish” is the proverb (29 : 18) in the Bible.  Similarly where there is no research, development stagnates.


            The contemporary society is facing many socio-economic and cultural problems.  Ethical issues are not addressed properly.  Church existing in the midst of pluralistic society has to deal with various problems such as theological, political, sociological, economic and ethical issues.   


            The problems of violence, terrorism, injustice to women, dalits, tribals and other minority communities, environment and trial to national and inter-national peace and harmony demand collection of data proper analysis and evaluation and presenting of possible solution.  Of course Churches and seminaries have a role to play in finding answers to these contemporary problem through research.  We need the enlightenment and guidance of the Holy Spirit in our study, research and development programmes and projects.


            In stead of being satisfied with preaching and teaching, church should involve in training the members of the church to do research and to write articles, books  on theological and contextual issues. These efforts can lead people to rediscover newer insights and solution based on the Bible.  However, to train people in research, right guidelines are necessary.


            Research should not stop with getting the degree but it should go on in our lives in search of answers for the problems and should contribute for the transformation of our society.


            Research methodology is an important discipline in education.  Research is necessary for the study of a subject or a problem in any one of learning.  It is also acceptable written form.  Research methodology enables the researcher to follow important guidelines and procedure in order to pursue authentic and relevant research in any given discipline.


            Correct research procedure helps not only students and scholars in their academic pursuit but it also helps those who want to write books, novels, reports, stories, dramas and fiction.



            It simply means that any inquiry or search for information is  research.


            Investigation of every kind, which is based on original sources of knowledge, may be styled as research.


Oxford English Dictionary says Research is a search or investigation directed to the discovery of some facts.


Webster’s International Dictionary explainsResearch is a careful or diligent search or a studious inquiry or examination or a critical and exhaust investigation or experimentation; having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusion, theories or laws in the light of newly discovered fact and the practical application of such new  or revised conclusions, theories or laws.


  1. Slesinger and M. Stephenson say Research is the manipulation of things concepts or symbols, for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of a theory or in the practice of an art.



John Best says Research is systematic activity directed towards the discovery and the development of an organized body of knowledge.


From the above definitions, it is clear that activities that go by the name of research involve mainly a re-search; i.e., activities undertaken to repeat a search.



            Some of the characteristics of research are:

  1. Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. It may be an attempt to answer a question or to determine the relation between two or more variables.
  2. Research emphasizes the development of generalization, principles of theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences.
  3. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.
  4. Research requires expertise. The researcher knows what is already known about the problem and how others have investigated it.
  5. Research demands accurate observation and description.
  6. Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose.


            Every researcher will have an aim or aims.  Its aim may be to discover new facts or verify and test old facts, analyses their sequences, inter-relationships and casual explanation, or to develop new scientific tools, concerts and the theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour.


            Research should never be treated as a piece of compilation of work.  By reading a number of books and compiling their material in yet another book is of no research.  Research is always expected to be something original or a piece of work that advances human knowledge.  This may be done in several ways such as re-interpretation of an existing theory, investigation of an unexplored area of development of a new theory etc. The main thing therefore is that a researcher should select a field of operation that offers possibility of inquisition or quest.



            Mere collection of data or facts cannot be a ‘be all and end all’ of research.  It is something more than a collection of data.  The facts that a researcher has  collected, do not serve the purpose if they are viewed as isolated phenomena.  The researcher has to penetrate the secret of their occurrence and their relationships.  Moreover, a systematic method has to be followed in gathering the authoritative information for research.  The method a researcher follows in pursuing a research is Research Methodology.


            Dickinson Mc Graw and George Watson define methodology as the procedure by which researchers go about their work of describing explaining and predicting the  phenomena.


            Kaplan defines methodology as ‘a study – description, explanation and justification – of methods, and the methods themselves’.




            Researches have been classified differently depending upon the approach, the purpose and the nature of a research activity, broadly speaking; researches can be classified into three categories such as Pure Research, Applied Research and Social Research.


1.5.1    Fundamental, Pure or Theoretical Research

            Research motivated by the desire to know or to understand for the sake of knowing is often called ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.  In pure research, the researcher makes persistent and patient efforts to discover something new to enrich the human knowledge in a fundamental fashion.  Such research is known as fundamental research.  To a pure scientist, ‘knowledge is the highest good, truth is the supreme value, and all the rest is secondary and subordinate’.


            Fundamental research may be entirely a new discovery, the knowledge of which has not existed so far.  Such a discovery may follow from the researcher’s own idea or imagination.  The discovery may have nothing to do with an existing theory.  Galileo’s or Newton’s contributions are fundamental in character as these depend upon their own imagination and scholarship.  Since these fundamental contributions form the basis of different theories, such a research is theoretical as well.


            Pure research may take the shape of an improvement in the existing theory.  Since theory is always based on assumptions, there is enormous scope for altering or formulating new set of assumption and adding new dimensions to the existing theory.



1.5.2    Applied Research

            Research motivated by the desire to know in order to use knowledge for practical concern is often called ‘Applied Research’.  This type of research is based on the application of known theories to the actual operational field or population.  The Applied Research is conducted to test the empirical content or the basic assumptions or the very validity of a theory under given condition.  In case of a theory not holding good, the researchers interest may further be stimulated to know why  a given theory dose not apply  and what modifications would be required to make the theory operational in that situation.


            Applied research often takes the form of a field investigation and aims at collecting the basic data for verifying the applicability of existing theories in give situation.


1.5.3    Social Research

            Social research is a systematic method of exploring analyzing and conceptualizing social life.  Social research seeks to find explanation to unexplained social phenomenon for the betterment of human destiny.


            According to P.V. Young, social research may be defined as a scientific undertaking which seeks to

  1. discover new facts or verify and test old facts.
  2. analyze their sequences, inter-relationships and causal explanations.
  3. develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour.


            A social researcher is interested in the discovery and interpretation of social processes, patterns of behaviour,  similarities and dissimilarities that apply to typical social phenomena and social systems generally.  All research is essentially socially oriented.  Whatever branch of knowledge it may be, research has a social bearing.


            Research in social sciences is the direct outcome of man’s urge to understand his society, its nature and working.  Social phenomena thus, play a crucial role in the direction and depth of social research.  Social scientists may not be as precise as physical scientist in making predictions because they deal with human behaviour.  Individual human beings may be unpredictable, but collectively they tend to be reasonably predictable and social metric measures have facilitated the job of a researcher to compile, analyze and predict social events.


            Social Research has immense value to mankind.  New knowledge, new methods and new inventions become known and illuminate the path of man progress.  Social research brings forth  new social relations, resolves ambiguities and enhances comprehension of social interactions.  Vague superstitions and dogmatic ideas are replaced by objective and scientific reasoning.  Social research is also useful in guiding social policies and planning.  It sharpens human intellect and promotes better control and organization of a society.  Social research helps in promoting better social welfare.










            The formulation of a research design is a pivotal point for the success of a research programme.  To design is to plan, i.e., designing is the process of making decisions before the situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out and  to be  directed towards bringing an expected situation under control.


            According to Pauline V. Young a research design is ‘a plan of action, a plan for collecting and analyzing data in an economic, efficient and relevant manner’.


            According to Miller, research design is ‘a planned sequence of the entire process involved in conducting a research study’.


            Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, and by what means concerning a research study constitute a research design.  A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.  In fact, the research design is the conceptual structures within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.  As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data.


            Whatever may be the nature of the research topic all research design should take into consideration the following questions.

  1. What is the study about?
  2. Why is the study undertaken?
  3. Where will the study be carried out?
  4. What types of data are needed?
  5. Where can the required data be found?
  6. What period of time will the study include?
  7. What method as of data collection will be used?
  8. What are the criteria for selecting the data?
  9. What are the methods and approaches employed?
  10. How will the data be analysed?
  11. What is the style of presenting the research project?
  12. Will the research work meet the requirement of the degree programme?


            Before beginning the research, learners should answer the above questions.  It is good to write the answers to the above question which in turn will become the research design.  This will help them to prepare the thesis proposal at a later stage.



            The research design is a blue-print and therefore, at best it is only tentative.  Every design has its own strengths and weaknesses and at same time, there is no such thing as a single correct design.  A good research design should satisfy the following four conditions:  Objectivity, Reliability, Validity and Generalization of the findings.


2.2.1.   Objectivity

            The objectivity of the findings pertains to the methods of collection of data and scoring of the responses.  Any research design should permit the use of measuring instruments which are fairly objective in which every objective and in which every observer or judge seeing the  performance arrives at precisely the same report.  This ensures the objectivity of the collected data which will be used for the analysis, inferences and generalizations.


2.2.2    Reliability

            Reliability refers to ‘consistency’ throughout a series of measurement, i.e., If a respondent gives out a response to a particular item, he is expected to give the same response to that item whenever he is asked subsequently.  On the contrary, if the respondent keeps on changing his responses to the same item when he is asked repeatedly, then the investigator will be facing a difficulty in considering which one of these responses is the genuine response of the respondent.  So the investigator should frame his items in such a way that the respondent cannot but give only one genuine response.


2.2.3    Validity

            Any measuring instrument is said to be valid when it measures what it purports to measure.  For example, an intelligence test, constructed for measuring intelligence, should measure only intelligence and nothing else.






2.2.4    Generalization

            Once it is ensured that the measuring instruments used in a research investigation yield objective, reliable and valid data, a well planned research design has to answer the generalisability of the findings of the study.  That is how best the data collected from a sample can be utilized for drawing certain generalizations, applicable to a larger group (population) from which the sample is drawn.  A research design, thus helps an investigator in his attempt to generalize the findings, provided he has taken due care in defining the population, selecting the sample and using the appropriate statistical analysis while planning his research design.


            Thus a good research design should ensure that

  1. The measuring instrument can yield objective, reliable and valid data,
  2. The population is defined in unequivocal terms,
  3. The requisite size of the sample is collected by using the most appropriate technique of sample selection,
  4. The appropriate statistical analysis has been employed, and
  5. The findings of the present study can be ‘generalized’ without being contaminated by the errors of measurement or sampling error.


            Generally, the design which minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed is considered a good design.  One single cannot serve the purpose of all types of research problems.





            Research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximum information with minimal expenditure, effort, time and money.  An architect is said to design a building.  The architect takes decisions such as how large the building will be, how many rooms it will have, how these rooms will be approached, what building materials will be used and so on.  The designer does all this before the actual construction begins.  Similarly, we need a research design or a plan in advance of data collection and analysis.


            Research design stands for advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis keeping in view the objective of the research and the availability of staff, time and money.  Preparation of the research design should be done with great care as any error in it may occur in it and it may upset the entire project.  Research design, in fact, has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at end as such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the research work.


            Without a well thought-out research design, many researchers do not serve the purpose for which they are undertaken.  In fact, they may even give misleading conclusions.  Thoughtlessness in designing the research project may result in rendering the research exercise futile.  It is, therefore, imperative that an efficient and appropriate design must be prepared before starting research operations.  The design helps the researcher to organize his ideas in a form whereby it will be possible for him to look for flaws and inadequacies.






3.1       FACT

            Fact is an empirically verifiable observation.  It can be expressed in a proposition.  But, it is distinguishable from the proposition: a proposition is a statement – true or false about a phenomenon; a fact is one which is responsible to make the statement true or false.


            For example, ‘The Supreme Court of India consists of twenty six judges’ is a proposition because it is capable of testing.  When the proposition is tested it becomes a fact so, it is a fact that the Supreme Court does consist of twenty six judges.  Since, it is a fact, the proposition that the Supreme Court consists of twenty eight judges is not true.


            Facts help to initiate theories.  Theory refers to the ordering of facts in some meaningful way.  Facts also lead to the reformation of existing theory.  They also classify and redefine theory.


3.2       THEORY

            Theory refers to the relationship between facts or the ordering of them in some meaningful way. Before the dawn of science, theories were founded upon speculations.  There were more and more armchair theorizing than systematic enquiry.  But today theory is no longer a speculation.  It is the gradual outgrowth of constructive study of the accumulated facts, empirically verified over a period of time, until from the plausible evidence and demonstrable relation; thus consistent generalizations or logical principles can be formulated.


Arnold Rose defines a theory as ‘an integrated body of definitions, assumptions and general propositions covering a given subject matter from which comprehensive and constituent specific and testable principles can be deducted logically.


3.3       HYPOTHESIS

Going hand in hand with the selection of a research problem is the formulation of a suitable hypothesis.  ‘HYPO’ means less than and ‘THESIS’ means a generally held view.  Hypotheses therefore, mean ‘a less than generally held view’.


According to Goode and Hatt, “Hypothesis is a proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity”.


Webster’s new International Dictionary of English Language defines the word hypotheses as “a proposition condition or principle which is assumed perhaps without belief in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined”.


These definitions suggest that hypothesis simply means a mere assumption or some proposition to be proved or disproved.  But for a researcher, hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to resolve.  Quite often a research hypothesis is a predictive statement, capable of being tested by scientific methods.








            In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate.  There are several ways of collecting the appropriate data which differ considerably in context of money costs, time and other resources at the disposal of the researcher.  Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey.   If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examines the truth contained in his hypothesis.  But in the case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways:



            This method implies the collection of information by way of investigator’s own observation, without interviewing the respondents.  The information obtained relates to what is currently happening and is not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes of respondents.  This method is no doubt an expensive method and the information provided by this method is also very limited.  As such this method is not suitable in inquiries where large samples are concerned.



            The investigator follows a rigid procedure and seeks answers to a set of pre-conceived questions through personal interviews.  This method of collecting data is usually carried out in a structured way where output depends upon the ability of the interviewer to a large extent.



            This method of collecting information involves contacting the respondents on telephone itself.  This is not a very widely used method but it plays an important role in industrial surveys in developed regions, particularly, when the survey has to be accomplished in a very limited time.



            The researcher and the respondents do come in contact with each other if this method of survey is adopted.  Questionnaires are mailed to the respondents with a request to return after completing the same.  It is the most extensively used method in various economic and business surveys.  Before applying this method, usually a Pilot Study for testing the questionnaire is conduced which reveals the weaknesses, if any, of the questionnaire?  Questionnaire to be used must be prepared very carefully so that it may prove to be effective in collecting the relevant  information.



            Under this method the enumerators are appointed and given training.  They are provided with schedules containing relevant questions.  These enumerators go to respondents with these schedules.  Data are collected by filling up the schedules by enumerators on the basis of replies given by respondents.  Much depends upon the capability of enumerators so far as this method is concerned.  Some occasional field checks on the work of the enumerators may ensure sincere work.


            The researcher should select one of these methods of collecting the data taking into consideration the nature of investigation, objective and scope of the inquiry, financial resources, available time and the desired degree of accuracy.  Though he should pay attention to all these factors but much depends upon the ability and experience of the researcher.

























            A Research Report is the product of one’s own study.  The preparation of the report is the final stage of the research.  Its purpose is to convey to the interested persons the whole result of the study.  It is at the stage of report writing that the researcher assembles the findings of the study, draws conclusion and evaluates his own findings.


            Preparing a research report is a highly skilled work.  It is a technical activity which demands all the skills and patience from the researcher.  It requires considerable effort, patience and penetration and an overall approach to the problem, data and analysis, as well as firm control over language and greater objectivity.  Besides, perfection in the research report is achieved by continuous and persistent thought and creative and intelligent writing.


            The report should focus on the target audience.  The report for the lay public should be simple, interesting and lucid.  Uncertainty about target group results in ineffective communication.  Only hard and patient work in the facts, careful critical assessment and intelligent planning of the organization of the report can facilitate communication.








            Good style is like a clean pane of glass; light passes through it unobstructed from the mind of the writer to the mind of the reader.  Flaws in style obstruct the view or distract the reader.


            The main aim of the thesis writer is accuracy.  Nothing is more important to him than the devoted pursuit of truth.  In preparing the research paper he has two guiding notions: (i) to tell the whole truth and (ii) to capture the attention of the reader in respect of the whole truth which he is seeking to reveal.  Intelligent selection of words, paragraphing, the careful use of punctuation and observance of the rules of grammar should provide smooth reading and attempt to project ideas in an orderly manner.


            The draft should be read with a critical eye for grammar and composition.  Certain linguistic flaws are likely to affect the meaning and expression of ideas.  Sentences have to be exact and unambiguous.  The use of punctuations saves long sentences from uncertain or ambiguous meanings.  Brief and crisp sentences convey the meaning directly flavor but have the danger of distorting ideas.  The use of quotations should be such that the general flow of ideas is not affected.  The use of Latin or other foreign words may be desirable occasionally to secure the fullest expression but indulgence in their use will give the appearance of pomposity.





            The research paper should be written or typed on good quality standard paper (8½ by 11 inches). There must be a margin of an inch and a half at the top and on the left and a margin of an inch at bottom and on the right.


            Every page in a thesis or dissertation is given a number.  There are separate series of page numbers.  The preliminaries are numbered using Roman Numerals such as (i, ii, iii).  The title page is assigned the number i  although this number is not typed.  All other pages beginning with the first page of Chapter 1 and including bibliography and appendices are numbered with Arabic Numbers (1, 2, 3).  The Arabic Numerals appears in the upper right corner one inch from top and side.  The first page of  each chapter, which likes the title page, has no page number.


            The quotations have to single spaced in all entries.  Footnotes has to be spaced in single and also the bibliographic entries having more than one line have to be single spaced but there should be double space between the bibliographical entries.  The body of the test has to spaced with one and half (1.5) line.  It is recommended that each paragraph be indented five spaces.



            Generally thesis and report consists of three parts; the preliminaries, the text and the reference materials.

5.4.1    Preliminaries       Title Page       Preface / Foreword       Table of contents


             5.4.2     The Text       Introduction       Main Body of the Report       Conclusions


     5.4.3     The Reference Material       Bibliography       Appendices       Index


5.4.1   Preliminaries Title Page

            The title page forms the first contact of the reader with the report.  It indicates the subject matter.  The effectiveness of the title is supported by details like the name of the individual or organization for which the report is made, the date and other information.  The title should be appropriate enough to catch of the contents.  It means that the title should faithfully indicate the central theme of the report.

            The title is typed in capitals and not underlines.  Below the title, material may be centered against the left and right margins of the page. Preface / Forword

            Preface to a report is an introduction which serves the main purpose of establishing the early contacts with the mind of the reader of the report.  Hence, the preface appears unnecessary if there is an introduction to the subject.  A preface becomes a redundant appendage to a research report, if it takes the place of an acknowledgement. Acknowledgement recognizes the persons to whom the writer is indebted for guidance and assistance during the study.  The reference to the names of consultants, typists, librarians, and other assistants and even relatives has become a matter of inclusion.  The justification to reward them is unquestionable.  A preface cannot be written until a thesis or major is in its final form.


            A foreword embodies the words of one’s patron or the scholarly commendation of the report to the readers.  A foreword may not seem as important as a preface.  It is left to the research worker’s judgment and choice. Table of Contents

            The table of contents includes the major divisions of the thesis; the introduction, the chapters with their subdivisions and the bibliography and appendices.  Page numbers for each of these divisions are given.


            The table of contents gives at a glance the design of a report and the logical order of the arrangement of materials of the report.  In short-form reports, a table of contents may not be necessary.  In long-form reports, the table of contents may have to be elaborate in its incorporation of sub-heads and sub-sections.


            The heading ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS’ in capitals is centered at the top of the page.  Two spaces below this, the heading page appears at the right margin.  Below this are preface and list of tables.  Below this again the chapters appears at the left margin.  Chapter headings are typed in full capitals without terminal punctuation and numbered consecutively.  Sub-headings are normally two spaced under the main headings. The final table of contents cannot be prepared until the entire final draft of as report or thesis is typed.  Only then can page numbers be inserted.


5.4.2   The Text

            The thesis proper follows the preliminaries detailed above and begins with the first page of the text.  The text is the most important part of a thesis as it is in this section that the writer presents his facts or the basic tenets of his argument.  The text contains an introduction, the major report of the study, with appropriate sub-division and a summary which contains the findings, conclusions and recommendation arising from the study. Introduction

            It is meant to prepare the reader to follow the subject matter of the report.  It has to convey the nature of the subject, the purpose of the research, the plan of analysis and methodology adopted. Main Body of the Report

            The core of the subject matter of the report constitutes the body.  It should redeem the promises made in the introduction.  The main part of the report can be subdivided and sequentially arranged.



  • Conclusion

            It opens new vistas of study for the readers.  The general comments pertaining to the significance of a piece of research and the location of the research work in the general body of knowledge should be attempted in this section.


            In conclusion, the developments of the previous chapters should be succinctly restated, important findings discussed and conclusions drawn from the whole study.


            The conclusion should leave the reader with an impression of completeness and of positive gain.


5.4.3   The Reference Material Bibliography

            Bibliography incorporates the literature referred to and actually utilized in the preparation of the report.  The broad purpose of a bibliography is to provide the reader with a fair chance to estimate the thoroughness and scholarliness of the report.  Although the word ‘bibliography’ itself really means ‘booklist’, the bibliography should list all sources consulted in the preparation of the papers: books, periodicals, articles, government documents, unpublished materials, pamphlets, films, radio or television broad-casts, records, lectures and interviews.


            A bibliography is a list in alphabetical order by author’s name.  It begins on a new page at the end of the paper.  It follows the main body of the text and is a separate but integral part of a thesis.  Pagination is continuous and follows the page numbers in the text.


            The following order is usually observed while writing the reference:  Name of the author, Title of the Book, Publishers address, year of Publication, Page Number.


Name of the Author :  Each entry in a bibliography should start with the author’s last name at the left hand margin.  It should be noted that if the author is woman, her first name is given in full.  When two or more authors’ name are to be reported for the same article, then, except for the author’s name, the other ‘authors’ names are to be given in such a way that their first names occur first and then the second name.  When there are two or more works by the same author, the author’s name must be replaced by a series of eight dashes in the second and subsequent entries.


Title of the Book : Title of the book is usually given in si inverted commas and is followed by the edition number if any.  In a bibliography, a capital is used to begin all key words in the title of books and journals but for articles, manuscripts, thesis and unpublished papers, the procedure are to use a capital only to begin proper nouns and the first word of the title.


            If an article is to be quoted, its title is also given in single or double inverted commas and followed by the following information: (1) The title of the journal / magazine, (2) volume number in Roman numerals like V (for 5), followed by the year of publication, (3) Number of the journal in parenthesis.


Publishers Address : The name of the publishers of the book or journal will be given, followed by its place of publication and if possible the full of the publishers.


Year of Publication :  The name of the author is followed by the year of publication which is given in parenthesis.  At times the year is given towards the end of the references.


Page Number : Wherever possible the page numbers referred to are given. Usually it is indicated as follows: 20 – 30 means the researcher has referred to pages from 20 to 30 in that book or journal. Appendices

            An appendix is prepared with a view to avoid congestion details and data, from the main body of the report.  It provides supplementary materials, computations and a rare  extract for the purpose of references.  It is difficult to lay down maxims for an ideal appendix.  All materials relevant to the report but of a character which hinders the smooth flow of the main theme should be deposited in the appendix.


            A single appendix should be headed APPENDIX centered on the page in capitals without punctuation.  The title of the appendix also should be centered on the page entirely in capitals without punctuation, and three single spaces below the heading.  Materials such as pictures, statistical tables or significant documents are placed in separate appendices.  Subsequent appendices are numbered B, C and so on, each starting on a new page.  Each page on the appendix is numbered consecutively with the rest of the thesis and proper margin should be provided.  Appendices should be listed in the table of contents together with page number.  Appendices may be placed between the final chapter and the bibliography or immediately after the bibliography. Index

            At the end of the report, an index should invariably be given.  The index acts a good guide to the reader.  Index may be prepared both as subject index and as author index.  The subject index gives the names of the subject (topics or concepts) along with the number of pages on which they have appeared or discussed in the report.  The author index gives the similar information regarding the names of authors.  The index should always be arranged alphabetically.

























            More and more students are turning to the internet when doing research for their assignments, and more and more instructors are requiring such research when setting topics.  However, research on the Net is very different from traditional library research, and the differences can cause problems.  The Net is a tremendous resource, but it must be used carefully and critically.


            The printed resources you find in the Library have almost always been thoroughly evaluated by experts before they are published. Furthermore, when books and other materials come into the University library system, they are painstakingly and systematically catalogued and cross-referenced using procedures followed by research libraries the world over.  This process is the basis for the way materials are organized in the Library, and it makes possible the various search functions of the Web catalogue.


            On the Internet, on the other hand, “anything goes”.  Anyone can put anything they want on a Web site, there is no review or screening process, and there are no agreed-upon- standard ways of identifying subjects and creating cross-references.  This is both the glory and the weakness of the Net – it’s either freedom or chaos, depending on your point of view, and it means that you have to pay close attention when doing research on-line.  There are a great many solid academic resources available on the Net, including hundreds of on-line journals and sites set up by universities and scholarly or scientific organizations.



6.1.1    Don’t  rely exclusively on Net Resources

            Sometimes researcher’s assignment will be to do research only on the Net, but usually their instructors will expect them to make use of both internet and Library resources.  Cross – checking information from the Net against information from the Library is a good way to make sure that the Net material is reliable and authoritative.


6.1.2    Narrow research topic before logging on

            The internet allows access to so much information that they can easily be overwhelmed.  Before they start their search, researchers must think about what they’re looking for, and if possible formulate some very specific questions to direct and limit their search.


6.1.3    Know subject directories and search engines

            There are several high quality peer-reviewed subject directories containing links selected by subject experts.  Google, all the web (or Fast), Alta Vista, Yahoo and other search engines differ considerably in how they work, how much of the Net they search, and the kind of results researcher can expect to get from them.  Spending some time learning what each search engine will do and how best to use it can help them to avoid a lot of frustration and wasted time later.  Because, each one will find different things for them, it’s a good idea to always use more than one search engine. For specialized search engines and directories they might also like to try Beaucoup which  includes, 2,500 + search engines and directories or the Search Engine Colossus International Directory of Search Engines that includes search engines from 230 + countries around the world.


6.1.4    Keep a detailed record of sites visited and the sites used

            Doing research on the Net inevitably means visiting some sites that are useful and many that are not.  Keeping track is necessary so that they can revisit the useful ones later, and also put the required references in their paper.  Don’t just rely on browser’s History function, because it retains the Web addresses or URLs of all the sites been visited, good or bad, and if they’re using a computer at the University the memory in the History file will be erased at the end of their session.  It’s better to write down or bookmark the sites they’ve found useful, so that they’ll have a permanent record.


6.1.5    Double-check all URLs that you put in your paper

            It’s easy to make mistakes with complicated internet addresses, and types will make their references useless.  To be safe, type them into the Location box of browser and check that they take to the correct site.



            The following points are guidelines for evaluating specific resources that find on the Net.  If a researcher asks these questions when looking at a Web site, they can avoid many errors and problems.


6.2.1    Authority

  1. Who is the author?
  2. Is the author’s name given?
  3. Are their qualifications specified?
  4. Is there a link to information about them and their position?
  5. Is there a way to contact them?
  6. Have you heard of them elsewhere?
  7. Has the author written elsewhere on this topic?


6.2.2    Affiliation

  1. Who is the sponsor of the Web site?
  2. Is the author affiliated with a reputable institution or organization?
  3. Does the information reflect the views of the organization, or only of the author?  If the sponsoring institution or organization is not clearly identified on the site, check the URL.  It may contain the name of a university or the, which is used by many educational institutions.  Government sites are identified by the extension.  Gov. URLs containing .org are trickier, and require research: these are sites sponsored by non-profit organizations, some of which are reliable sources and   some of which are very biased.  Sites with the .com extension should also be used with caution, because they have commercial or corporate sponsors who probably want to sell something.  The extension name often means a personal Web page with no institutional backing; use such sites only if checked on the author’s credibility in print sources.


6.2.3    Audience Level

            What audience is the Web site designed for?  Don’t use sites intended for elementary students or sites that are too technical for research needs.


6.2.4    Currency

  1. Is the Web site current?
  2. Is the site dated?
  3. Is the date of the most recent update given? Generally speaking, Internet resources should be up-to-date; after all, getting the most current information is the main reason for using the Net for research in the first place.
  4. Are all the links up-to-date and working? Broken links may means the site is out-of-date; they’re certainly a sign that it’s not well-maintained.


6.2.5    Content Reliability / Accuracy

  1. Is the material on the Web site reliable and accurate?
  2. Is the information factual, not opinion?
  3. Can you verify the information in print sources?
  4. Is the source of the information clearly stated, whether original research material or secondary material borrowed from elsewhere?
  5. How valid is the research that is the source?
  6. Does the material as presented have substance and depth?
  7. Where arguments are given, are they based on strong evidence and good logic?
  8. Is the author’s point of view impartial and objective?
  9. Is the author’s language free of emotion and bias?
  10. Is the site free of errors in spelling or grammar and other signs of carelessness in its presentation of the material?
  11. Are additional electronic and print sources provided to complement or support the material on the Web site?


            If  you can answer all these questions positively when looking at a particular site, then you can be pretty sure it’s a good one; if it doesn’t measure up one way or another, it’s probably a site to avoid.  The key to the whole process is to think critically about what you find on the Net; if you want to use it, you are responsible for ensuring that it is reliable and accurate.




















7.1       FOOT NOTES

7.1.1    For a book

  1. Initial of the author – follow by full stop
  2. Surname of the author or editor-followed by comma
  3. Full title of the book when mentioned for the first time. (Underlined if type – written or italics if computer is used)
  4. Serial abbreviation / editor’s name / translator name of any within brackets – followed by semicolon – colon
  5. Place of publication – followed by colon
  6. Name of the publisher – followed by comma
  7. Year of the publication – followed by closing bracket and comma.
  8. Volume number – followed by comma
  9. Page numbers – followed by full stop



J.P. Hyatt, Commentary on Exodus (NCB; London Plights, 1971), p. 251


7.1.2    For Journal Article / Essay in a Book / Unpublished Thesis

  1. Initial of the author – followed by a full stop.
  2. Surname of the author (s) – followed by comma.
  3. Full title of the article / essay / within the quotation marks – followed by comma.
  4. Full title / abbreviation of the journal / book with underline or italics font (If reference to an essay from a book is made, then the name of the editor should be given within brackets as above in the case of book).
  5. Volume number – followed by comma.
  6. Issue number – followed by comma.
  7. Months and year – within brackets followed by comma.
  8. Page numbers – followed by full stop.



  1. John Kirubakaran, ‘Friends Focus’, Vol-5, IS 8, (Aug, 2010) P.7.

            Faith Kulothungan, ‘Rural Echo’, (Jan – March, 2010), P.24



7.2.1    For a Book

  1. Surname followed by comma and the initials with full stop.
  2. Full title of the book (underlined if type-written or italics font in computer print).
  3. Serial abbreviation / translator’s name if any (written in the bracket) – followed by semi colon.
  4. Place of publication – followed by colon.
  5. Name of the publisher – followed by comma.
  6. Year of publication – followed by closing bracket and a full stop.
  7. Please note that the uses of brackets are option.





(Translation) Noth, M. Leviticus: A Commentary (OTL; tr. J.E. Anderson, London: SCM Press, 1965).

Enns, Paul. Moody Hand Book of Theology, Chicago: Moody Press, 1989.


7.2.2    For Journal Article / Essay in Books

  1. Surname of the author of the article or editors – followed by comma and the initials with the full stops.
  2. Full title of the article / essay within a quotation marks followed by a comma.
  3. Full title of the journal / book or abbreviation or the journals (with underline or italics font).
  4. Volume Number.
  5. Issue Number.
  6. Months and Year (within brackets) – followed by comma.
  7. Full page numbers – followed by full stop


Davies, E.W. ‘Inheritance Rights and the Hebrew Levirate Marriage’, VT,  31, 32 (1931), pp.139-144.

Gottwald, N.K. ‘Early Israel and the Canaanite Socio-economici system’, Palestine in tribulation; the emergence of ancient Israel (SWBA 2; eds.  D.N. Freedman and D.F. Graf; Sheffield: Almond Press, 1033), pp. 25-37.


7.2.3    Books authorized by one person


Ken Gnanakan. Kingdom Concerns; A Biblical Exploration Towards a Theology of Mission (Bangalore: Theological Book Trust, 1997, third edn.), pp.27-30.



Gnanakan, Ken. Kingdom Concerns: A Biblical Exploration towards a Theology of Mission, Bangalore: Theological Book Trust, 1997, 3rd edn.


7.2.4    Two Authors

Foot Note

Herman E. Daley and John B.Cobb Jr. For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, Environment and a sustainable future. (Boston: Beacon press, 1989), pp.399-400.


Daley, E Herman and John B.Cobb Jr. For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, Environment and a sustainable future. Boston: Beacon press, 1989.

7.2.5    Three Authors


Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin and Sandra Postel. Saving the Planet: How to shape an Environmentally Sustainable Global Economy.  (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1991), p.86    



Brown, Lester R, Christopher Flavin and Sandra Postel. Saving the Planet: How to   shape an Environmentally Sustainable Global Economy,  New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1991.    


7.2.6    More than Three authors


Claire Sellitz, et al. Research in Social Relations (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964), p.361


Sellitz, Claire, et al. Research in Social Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. 


7.2.7    Institutions, Associations, Group and Similar Bodies as Author


Public Interest Research Group, Alternative Economic Survey 1993-94. (Delhi: Public Interest Research Group, 1994), pp.24-27.


Public Interest Research Group, Alternative Economic Survey 1993-94.  Delhi: Public Interest Research Group, 1994.


7.2.8    No Author’s Name


Religion and Development in Asian Societies (Colombo: Marga Publications, 1974), pp.33-37.


Religion and Development in Asian Societies.  Colombo: Marga Publications, 1974.


7.2.9    Editor as a Collection


Harijenter Singh, ed. Caste Among Non-Hindus in India. (New Delhi: National Publishing Company, 1977), p.61. 


Singh, Harijenter, ed. Caste among Non-Hindus in India.  New Delhi: National Publishing Company, 1977.


7.2.10  More than one editor


Utsa Patnaik and Manjari Dingwaney, eds. Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India. (Chennai: Sangam Books, 1985), p.149.


Patnaik, Utsa and Manjari Dingwaney, eds. Chains of Servitude: Bondage and Slavery in India, Chennai: Sangam Books, 1985.


7.2.11  Newspaper


Bharat Dogra, “The Cost of the IMF Loan”, (Deccan Herald, 27th  June  1988), p.8 



Deccan Herald, 27th June 1998, p.8. 


7.2.12  Interviews


Interview with Gladys Stains, at St. marks Cathedral, Bangalore on 7th May 2000


Stains, Gladys, Interview at St. Mark’s Cathedral, Bangalore on 7th May 2000. 






















  1. Explain the topic.
  2. The purpose of the study – why have you chosen this topic?
  3. The objectives of this study – what are you going to achieve?  2 or 3 objectives.
  4. Define the scope of your topic – indicating issue question of your topic and try to answer (2 or 3 sentences)
  5. The process of the study that you have undertaken to deal with the topics – library, internet, interview, questionnaire etc.
  6. The content of the study – 1 chapter 1 sentences
  7. Review of literature of your topic
  • What others have done in related to topic
  • Your opinion on those topics
  • What they have failed to do that on that topic
  1. The definition of terms and terminologies
  2. The significance of the study – uniqueness of your study, why different from others?
  3. The references cited and its list – foot notes and bibliography


In conclusion the entire work will be within the work of this synopsis.






  1. Use British English.
  2. Always write in third person objectively.
  3. Type in one and half space on A4 size bond paper.
  4. Number all pages either at the bottom centre or top right with Arabic numerals and the preliminaries be numbered in lower Roman number.
  5. Both footnote and the bibliography must be spaced ‘1 space’.
  6. The quotations must ‘1 spaced’ in all entries.
  7. All quotations should be footnoted.
  8. All quotations must be indented one tap (5 spaces) from the left hand margin.
  9. Follow the footnote format


Ibid – Consecutive Footnote – same author, same book, same or different page.

Op.cit – Non-consecutive Footnote – same author, same book, different page.

Loc.cit – Non-consecutive Footnote – same author, same book, same page.














Presented to the Faculty,




In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirement of the Degree

Doctor of Ministry





Due Date:        ____________                        Date Submitted:  ____________


Expected word / page count: ________         Actual word / page count: _________





I declare that this thesis is my own unaided work.  I have not copied it from any person, article, book, website, or other form of store.  Every idea or phrase that is not my own has been duly acknowledged.



Signature: ______________




Register No.  

Month and Year of Submission























LETTER GRADE:           













































Resources used and recommended for further Reading


  1. The art of research Writing by Dr. D.C. Sharma & Dr. Abraham K. Cmi.