BL - 44 The Book of Revelation

A.   Authorship
  John, the apostle is the author of this book.  The book itself identifies John as the author (1:1,4,9 ; 22 : 8).  External evidence also supports John’s authorship.  Church Father Irenaeus (140-203), attributed “Revelation” to “John, the Lord’s disciple”.  Justin Martyr (100-165), Tertullian (150-220) supported John’s authorship as well.
B.    Date and Place of this Book
This book was written from the isle of Patmos (1 : 9).  Roman government sent its prisoners to Patmos.  It had many granite quarries.  The prisoner had to work in this granite quarries.  Apostle John was also banned in this isle.  On the Lord’s  day (Sunday), he received Revelation concerning future things.  He probably wrote this epistle between 90-95 AD.
C.      Recipients
                   Primarily this book is addressed to seven churches (1:4).  However, according to the interpretation given to 1 : 3 ; 2 : 7, John intended this book to have a wider audience.  Hence, Revelation is applicable to seven churches as well as all churches during charge age.
D.      Occasion
                   The churches were being  persecuted by unbelieving Jews and by political authorities of Rome.  Roman authorities banned John, the apostle at Patmos island.  He was forced to work in a granite quarry at very old age by his persecutors.  While he was banned, John was asked to record the visions and revelations that were given to him and to send them to the seven churches in Asia (1 : 10-11).
E. Purposes
                   Revelation is written with two purposes.  On the one hand, it is written to provide spiritual instruction and moral admonition (1 : 3 ; 2 : 5).  On the other hand, this book informs the readers regarding events in the imminent future and of the second coming of Christ (1 : 1,19).
F.      Interpretation of Revelation
                   There are various views concerning the book of Revelation.  Some popular views are presented and evaluated here in the light of God’s word.
  1. Preterist View
The word   Preterist is derived from Latin.  “Preterist” basically means “Past”.  According to this view, the events mentioned in Revelation are past events, which happened in the first century, especially about 70 AD.  However this view lacks biblical support.  Limiting the book of Revelation to the first century is wrong; because many events, especially the personal return of Christ, are yet to be fulfilled.  Hence many Bible scholars reject this view.
  1. Historical View
This view is also known as continuous historical view.  This view interprets Revelation as a forecast of church history from Pentecost to the Second Advent of Christ.  Some who propagate this view do not believe the Millennial rule of Christ on earth.  So many scholars who believe Millennium reject this view.
  1. Futurist View
This view advocates its interpretation  based on Rev. 1 : 19.  According to this view, some chapters  (1-3) of Revelation have been fulfilled in history.  But chapters (4-22) are yet to be fulfilled.  The events mentioned in these chapters (4-22) will be fulfilled in future.  Many true bible believing scholars accept this view.  This could be correct view.
Note :  This study notes on Revelation is prepared, based on Futurist view.
Key Terms to know before studying of Revelation
Snatching away of believers on the clouds.
7 Year suffering under the rule of Antichrist
Judgemement seat of Christ
Giving of Rewards to believers by Christ
Marriage of the Lamb
Christ’s Union with the church
False messiah
False Prophet
Supporter of Antichrist
Second coming of Christ
Jesus’ visible return on Mt. Olivet
Battle place between world armies
Bottomless Pit
Place where satan is bound for 1000 years
Thousand years earthly rule of Christ, as King
First Resurrection
Resurrection of all believers
Second Resurrection
Resurrection of all unbelievers
Second death
White Throne Judgement
Judgement of all unbelievers to hell
Eternal Kingdom
Everlasting kingdom of God in New Heaven and New earth
New Heaven and New earth
Newly created spheres after annihilation of present earth
New Jerusalem
City of God
Awards given for the good works of believers
A simple outline of Revelation as given in Revelation 1 : 19
  1. Things which you have seen (vision of Christ – Rev.1)        – Past
  2. Things which are (the seven churches of Asia Minor – Rev. 2 – 3) – Present
  3. Things which will be hereafter (Future things after Repture – Rev. 4-22) – Future
A Chapter – by- chapter outline of Revelation
  1. Glorious vision of Christ
  2. Message to four churches in Asia Minor
  3. Message to three churches in Asia Minor
  4. The Glorious throne of God
  5. Christ Receives the seven-sealed scroll.
  6. Six seals of the scroll are opened
  7. Sealed 1,44,000 Israelites and Multitude of martyred Gentiles
  8. Seventh Seal opened / Four Trumpets
  9. Two More Trumpets called Woes
  10. Mighty Angel and the Little Scroll
  11. Two witness / The Seventh Trumpet
  12. Satan’s attack on Israel
  13. United activities of Satan – Antichrist – False Prophet
  14. Victory of Christ Anticipated
  15. Seven Angels with the Bowls of God’s wrath
  16. Seven Bowls of wrath poured out on Earth
  17. Religious Babylon Destroyed
  18. Political Babylon Destroyed
  19. Second coming of Christ
  20. Millennial Kingdom / Great white Throne Judgement
  21. New Earth / New Jerusalem
  22. The River of Life.
I.       Introduction and Appearance of Exalted Christ 1 : 1-20
  1. Introduction 1 : 1-3
                   Apostle John records the Revelation of Jesus Christ by promising the blessing to those who read, hear and obey (3).
  1. Salutation to the seven churches in Asia Minor 1 : 4-8
                   The Triune God is the source of salutation.  “The Seven Spirits” represent the seven fold ministry of the Holy Spirit as mentioned in Isaiah 11 : 2,3.  Seven means full or complete according to Hebrew concept.  Hence seven spirits refers full / complete work of the Holy Spirit (1 : 4 ; 3 : 1 ; 4 : 5 ; 5 : 6).  The terms “First born from the dead” refers the Resurrection of Christ (5).  All the believers will experience resurrection as Jesus resurrected first.  He will come again to this earth on the clouds (Acts 1 : 9-11).  The term “Alpha and Omega” speaks of Christ’s eternal existence.  Alpha is the first letter of Greek and Omega, the last letter.  Hence it means Jesus is from the beginning and will be to the end.  He always exists (1 : 10-18 ; 22 : 12-13 ; Heb. 13 : 8).
  1. Appearance of Exalted Jesus Christ 1 : 9-20
                   John saw this vision on the Lord’s day (Sunday) when he was in Patmos.  In this vision, Jesus appeared to him in the midst of seven golden lampstands by wearing “garment down to the foot” (12,13).  Lampstands here probably symbolize the seven churches.  This long garment represents Jesus’ majesty, honor, and dignity, Likewise “golden girdle” represents His faithfulness and righteousness (Is. 11 : 5 ; Eph. 6 : 14).  His white hair represent wisdom and absolute purity (Is. 1 : 18); flaming eyes sumbolize his ominiscience ; fine brass symbolizes Omnipotence and power to judge sin; voice like many waters symbolizes his authority and command; seven stars probably suggest seven angels or the seven messengers (Pastors) of the seven churches.  Since they are in His right hand, Christ protects the messangers of the churches (1 : 20 ; Jn. 10 : 28-30); Two edged sword suggests the power of His word (Heb. 4 : 12 ; Isa. 11 : 4 ; 49 : 2 ; Rev. 19 : 15 ; Eph. 6 : 17); shining countenance symbolizes His glory (Rev. 21 : 23; Mt. 17 : 2).  By seeing glorious Jesus, John fell at His feet.  Jesus touched him with right hand and encouraged (17-20).
II.      Message to the Seven Churches 2 : 1-3:22
                   In this section, the message is given to the seven churches in Asia Minor.  These seven churches represent the every local churches all over the world during the church age.
  1. Message to the church at Ephesus 2 : 1-7
                   Ephesus was the capital of Asia.  This city was famous for commerce through its seaport and for temple of Diana (Act 19).  This temple was one of the seven wonders of ancient world.  Paul had spent three years at Ephesus and established a church (Act. 20 : 31).  Timothy served as its first bishop / Pastor (1 Tim. 1 : 3).  Acquila, Priscilla and Apollos had ministered here (Act 18 : 19, 24, 26).  Apostle John stayed in Ephesus before and after his exils in Patmos (Angel of the church probably refers to the Pastor / Messengers of the church 2 : 1).
Jesus Christ walks in the midst of churches (lampstands) and examines and knows their activities (1,2).  This church did not allow false prophets and false apostles to teach its believers.  It also hated Nicolaitans (6) because Nicolaitan did not give importance to the word of God but they were power mongers followed, false prophets and lived immoral life (2 : 14,15).  Although this church hated false prophets, it had left its first love to Christ.  So Christ asks them to repent to the first love (4,5).  The tree of life is a symbol eternal life (22 : 2).
  1. Message to the Church at Smyrna 2 : 8-11
Smyrna was approximately 55 Km north of Ephesus.  This city was the loveliest, hence it was called the ornament of Asia.  It was the second wealthiest in Asia in the first century, because of its natural seaport, (Modern name Izmir) famous for wine trade.  There was a temple for Tiberias (26 AD).  The end of each street arrived at the temple.  Smyrna means Myrrh (an ordinary perfume – bitter to taste.  Mt. 2 : 11f.  Jn. 19 : 39).  Its fragrance is not available until crushed.  Likewise, the sweetness of church was not brought forth until the church was crushed by persecution.  This city had many Jews who opposed to the gospel of Christ.  This church was probably built by Paul during his stay at Ephesus (Act. 19 : 10).
Christ is presented as the first and the last which means He is the eternal God (Is. 44:6 ; 48 : 12), and  the resurrected one (Jn. 10 : 18 ; Heb. 12 : 4 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 55-56).  Christ appreciates this church for its perseverance during persecution done by the Jews.  Christ encouraged the church saying that persecution would be for short time (10 days is a figure of speech for short time- 10).  He promised crown of life and victory over second death (second death refers to hell – 20 : 13-15).
  1. Message to theChurch at Pergamos 2 : 12-17
Pergamos means ‘married’.  This city was located 64 Km. north of Smyrna.  This was a wealthy city due to its idolatry and cult practices (gods Dionysus and Zeus) Pergamos was a famous educational centre and medical centre.  Galen, a most famous physician of ancient world, next to Hippocrates was native of this city. This city was famous for emperor worship; they worship Ceasar  Augustus.  So this city was called Satan’s seat (13).
Christ is pictured here as the one who has two-edged sword. (1 : 16 ; 2 : 16 ; 19 : 15,21).  Christ appreciated this church for facing persecution.  Antipas was the first martyr in Asia Minor (13).  However Christ condemned this church for mixing the truth with false doctrine of Balaam and Nicolaitans (2 : 6,14,15).  He asked to repent those who follow false doctrine of Balaam.  Doctrine of Balaam refers to using (God’s name for making money for selfishness (Num. 22-25 ; 31 : 15,16, Act. 15 : 28,29 ; 1 Cor. 10 : 27-29).
Two things are promised here for believers; ‘The Hidden Manna’ refers to satisfying life of Christ (Jn. 6 : 31-35 ; 2 Cor. 4:3); the white stone with a new name.
Note :  In ancient legal courts, a white stone was given as a sign of acquittal.  Christ uses this ancient practice to show that the believers will be acquitted from all charges of sin (Rom. 8 : 11).
  1. Message to the church at Thyatira 2 : 18-29
Thyatira was about 64 Km. southeast of Pergamos.  It was a great commercial centre, specially of the dying industry and for the woolen goods.  Lydia was also from this city (Act. 16 : 11-15).
Jesus’ flaming eyes denote his anger against sins, and his brazen feet stand for judgement (1 : 15 ; Isa. 63 : 1-6).  Jesus appreciated this church for its charity, service, faith and patience.  However He condemned a woman (Jazebel).  She was a prophetess (20).  She misled many against God’s word and made them to commit immorality.  This church did not excommunicate her from its membership.  Hence Christ was against her and her followers.  Neverthless, Jesus promised the rulership for the overcomers (26). 
  1. Message to the Church at Sardis 3 : 1-6
Sardia (Modern name – Sart, village) was located 48 Km. south of Thyatira.  It was located on a ridge about 1500 ft. above the plain land – thus it was supposedly impregnable.  Due to the overconfidence of the people, this city was defeated twice by its enemies (Cyrus.  549 BC; Antiochus, the Great 214 BC).  A church was established in the middle of first century.
Jesus is presented here as having the perfectness of Holy Spirit (Seven Spirit refers to Perfectness of Holy Spirit) and as having perfect authority over seven churches (seven stars probably refer to the seven elders of the church).  Only a few were true believers (14).  In general, this church failed, in keeping God’s word.  So Christ advised the churches to be watchful, be strong, to remember, to repent and to holdfast. (2-3).
Jesus promised crown.  Jesus will not blot out believers name from the book of life but He will confess their name before the Father (5-6).
  1. Message to the Church at Philadelphia 3 : 7-13
Philadelphia (Modern name – Aleschir) was located 45 Km. southeast of Sardis.  Philadelphia means “brotherly love”.  This small town was gateway to central Asia Minor.  This town was famous for agriculture, specially of grapes.  The church at Philadelphia was faithful.
Jesus is presented here Holy, True, who has the key of David and who has the power to open and to shut.  The key of David shows his ruling authority (5 : 5 ; 22 : 16; Is. 22 : 22).  This church was faithful to God’s word, so Jesus promised that He will keep the church “from the hour of trial” “Hour of Trial” refers to universal Tribultion during Antichrist rule.  Since Christ said so, we could understand that the church age believers will not go into Tribulation period.  True believers who believe Jesus Christ as their only saviour will go into rapture before the beginning of Tribulation period (10).  Other promises are given in verses 11-13.
  1. Message to the church at Laodicca 3 : 14-22
Laodicca was located 70 Km. southeast of Philadelphia.  Antiochus of Syria founded this city about 250 BC and named the city after his wife Laodice.  The name means “Judgement of the people”.  This city was a great banking and financial centre.  It was famous for black wool, and for poultice, which treated eye ailments.  Although this city was known for medicine of eye, the church of this city was spiritually blind (3 : 17).  This city manufactured cloths.  It was proud of its garments.  However the church was spiritually naked in the sight of God (3 : 17).
Jesus Christ is identified as the Amen (2 Cor. 1 : 20) and the faithful and true witness ( Rev. 1 : 5 ; 22 : 6) and the creator (Col. 1 : 16-17).  He condemned this church for its lukewarm character and spiritually blindness and spiritual nakedness.  Christ counsled the church to have the white garments and eye medicines, so that it may be clothed spiritually and have vision spiritually.
Note :  White garment refers to the righteousness of God, which a believer gets, by trusting the Lord Jesus Christ as saviour.
Jesus also called its members to have fellowship with Him daily (3 : 20).  The believers will be participating in the Millennial rule of Christ (Rev. 20 : 6 ; Mt. 19 : 28).
Special Note :  We could see the church upto chapter three of Revelation.  From the chapter four, we do not see anything mentioned about the church.  It makes us to understand that the church raptures before the events mentioned beginning from chapter four.  Hence church will not enter into Tribultion.  When the tribulation is going on the earth, the church believers will receive their reward at the judgement seat of Christ.
III.    Message concerning Future events to the World 4 : 1-22 : 11
          Note : Chapters 4-19 deal about Tribulation period and its events.
  1. A Glorious Throne in Heaven 4 : 1-11
4 : 1 – “After these things” – This phrase indicates the events ‘after the rapture of the church’.  John is transported spiritually to heaven to see what happens in earth and in heaven after rapture.  The voice invited John was of the Lord Jesus Christ (1 : 10-11).
4 : 2-3 – God is on the throne, indicating God’s sovereignity (Ps. 103 : 19).  The three things compares God’s nature with Jasper (White Diamond 21 : 11) referring God’s Holiness; Sardis (Deep blood red) referring God’s avenging wrath against rebels; Emerald (Green) referring God’s mercy, Rainbow remainds us God’s faithfulness (Gen. 9 : 11-17).
4 : 4-11 – Lightening, thundering and voices indicates the power of God and judgements.  Seven Spirits indicate the fullness of Holy Spirit’s work (Isa. 11 : 2) ‘Sea of glass’ denotes God’s Holiness in all His majesty (Ex. 24 : 10 ; Ezk. 1 : 26).  ‘Four living creatures’ are angelic creatures like Seraphim (Is. 6 : 2-3) and Cherubim (Ex. 25 : 20).  They praise God always.
As the living creatures praised God, the twenty-four elders worshiped God by glorifying God (11).
          Notes on Twenty-Four elders
Some think these 24 elders represent 12 tribes of Old Testament and 12 apostles of New Testament.  Others think these are twenty-four angels, but angels are not usually given thrones, and they can not be called elders.  So they are not angels.  Many Bible scholars believe these 24 elders are the representatives of the Church Universally.  Because the highest office in the church is the office of the elder (Act. 15 : 6 ; 20 : 17,28).
  1. Christ Receives the Seven-sealed Scroll 5 : 1-14
5 : 1-4 – The book (scroll) was in the right hand of the Father.  But none was worthy morally to open it in heaven and in earth.  Since no angel in heaven or a man in earth was worthy to open it.  John wept by seeing unworthiness of created beings.
5 : 5-14 – Although there was none worthy, there is one worthy that is Jesus Christ (the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David – Gen. 49 : 9,10 ; Is. 11 : 1,10; Jer. 23 : 5 ; Zech. 3 : 8).  Lion is the symbol of strength, the root of David denotes the royal line of Christ.  While the elder said this to John (5), Jesus appeared there as lamb slain.  This slain lamb symbols the crucifixion of Christ and its standing in heaven denotes His resurrection (6).  Seven means full.  The seven horns represent His full authority as King; Seven eyes represent His omniscience of Jesus Christ (Zech. 4 : 10).  The resurrected Jesus is the only one in heaven or in earth worthy to open the scroll (Act. 4 : 12).  So Jesus received the scroll (book – 7).  When Jesus received the scroll the four living creatures (special angels) and twenty-four elders praised Him first (8-10), then all the angels praised (11-12), finally all the creation praised (13-14 ; Rom. 8 : 19-22; Phil. 2 : 10,11).
  1. Six Seals of the Scroll are Opened 6 : 1-17
Note : As Jesus opens the first seal in heaven, the period of Antichrist (Tribulation Period) begins  in  the earth.
The First Seal ( 6 : 1-2) – Lamb (Jesus Christ) opens the first seal.  At that time, a white horse came.  Antichrist is on that white horse.  He conquers many countries by making peace treaties and deception.  From the opening of this seal, he will begin his control over Israel too. (Dan. 9 : 27 ; Rev. 11 : 5 ; Mt. 24 : 5 ; 1 Thes. 5 : 3 ; 2 Thes. 2 : 3-12).
Note : Some think the person in this white horse is Jesus Christ .  But this could not be so.  Jesus is the one who opens the book here.  Christ’s reign will not bring prolonged war.  Antichrist has a bow.  But Christ usually has two edged sword (19 : 15).  Moreover Jesus will come victoriously on earth in Rev. 19 : 11-16.  Since Jesus Christ comes on the white horse in chapter 19, the person coming on the white horse in chapter 6 : 1-2 could be Antichrist only.
The Second Seal (6 : 3-4) : The fiery red horse symbolizes blood shed / war.  People groups will fight one another due to civil war.  There will be war in the name of religion, language, race, and caste.  So there will be no peace in the earth.  The false peace Antichrist makes at the opening of the first seal will last shortly (1 Thes. 5 : 3).
The Third Seal (6 : 5-6) : The black horse symbolizes the suffering and death due to famine.  Famine and Starvation are the consequences of civil war (Lam. 4 : 8,9 ; 5 : 10; Jer. 1 : 2-6 ; Ezk. 4 : 10, 16-17).  The scales (balances) symbolizes the ration system.  Due to famine everything except oil and wine will be distributed through ration system.  Antichrist will start controlling the commerce  and trade.  Food expenses will be high (6).
The Fourth Seal (6 : 7-8) : The Pale horse symbolizes deaths everywhere .  Pale colour is the colour of dead body.  Death occurs due to war, starvation, plagues, and animals.  Due to ecological changes and deforestation, the wild animals will enter into country side and kill many people (Mt. 24 : 4-7).  The Numerous deaths are the natural consequences of all previous seals. (Refer Chart-1).
The Fifth Seal (6 : 9-11) : When the fifth seal was opened, John saw many souls of martyrs who were killed by Antichrist during the period of first four seals.  These martyrs asked the Lord to avenge their enemies (Ps. 74 : 9-10 ; 79 : 5; 89 : 46; 94:3-4).  The Lord said to them (It was said)  to wait until other believers were martyred.
Note :  These martyrs are probably the Jewish and Gentile believers who love Jesus Christ during the tribulatiln period.  During this period, He will kill those who love Jesus.  Since the text does not say anything about church martyrs, they could be tribulation martyrs.
The Sixth Seal (6 : 12-17) – When the Sixth Seal is opened, there would be six catastrophic events (earthquake, sun becoming black, moon becoming as blood, falling of stars, changes in sky and removal of mountains and islands).  The cosmic upheavals will make universal terror in the hearts of all people.  But they will not repent of their sin, instead of repenting, these sinful men will hide themselves from God like Adam (Gen. 3 : 8-10).
Note : By the opening of the Sixth seal, the period of tribulation will reach its middle point (3 ½ years).
  1. Sealed 1,44,000 Israelites and Multitude of Gentile Martyrs 7 : 1-17
Note :  Chapter 7 has two interludes, before the seventh seal is opened (8:1).  In this chapter, John describes the general picture of all martyrs of Tribulation period (antichrist rule).
7 : 1-3 – These four angels represent the four winds (Probably God gave permission to them to control the winds).  The seal is the mark on believers of God/Jesus Christ.  This seal is the sign of God’s protection so that the wrath of God will not affect them.  But Antichrist will persecute them since he hates God’s people.
First Interlude (7 : 4-8) : 1,44,000 Jews will be sealed from 12 tribes of Israel.  They live during tribulation period (7 : 14).  The seal is on their foreheads (Probably visible seal).
Note :  Levi tribe is included in this list.  But Dan is omitted from the sealed ones.  Probably because of its idolatry (Lev. 24 : 11 ; Jud. 18 : 1-2 ; 30 : 31; 1 Kgs. 12 :28).  Since Dan is left in the list of sealed, many rabbis think, that antichrist would come from the tribe of Dan (Gen. 49:16ff).  However, a few men from the tribe of Dan will be saved and inherit the millennial blessing (Ezk. 48 : 1,32).  Moreover, instead of Ephraim, Joseph’s name is mentioned, in the list.
Second Interlude (7:9-17) – John saw a great multitude from all nations.  They had white robe and palm branches – white robe and palm branches symbolize righteousness and victory respectively.  They praised God for their salvation (10).  When they praised, the angels, the 24 elders, and four living creatures also praised God (11-12).  As 1,44,000, Jews, these great multitude is also saved during tribulation period.  (13-14).  Since they are saved during tribulation period, they will receive a special place of service before the throne of God in heaven.  They will also reign with Christ in His Millennial Kingdom (Rev. 20 : 4-6).  Jesus will satisfy them by giving the living water.  They will have no more suffering.
  1. Opening of Seventh Seal and Four Trumpets – 8 : 1-13
Note :  The seventh seal is opened at the beginning of the second half of seven year tribulation period.  This means the seventh seal is opened after the mid point (3 ½ years) of tribulation.
The Seventh Seal (8 : 1-6) :  This seal marks the beginning of the second half (Second 3 ½ years) of Tribulation period.  When this seal was opened, there was a silence for half an hour.  This silence is the breathless silence expecting terrible events on earth.  These are seven angels with trumpets.  At that time, another angel came and added incense and prayer of tribulation saints to offer on the golden altar.  The smoke ascended before God.  Then the angel took the fire in the censer and threw the fire on the earth.  This is the sign for the seven angels to prepare themselves to blow the trumpets.  There will be thunder and earthquake at the opening of the seventh seal.  This earthquake indicates coming judgements.
General Notes on Trumpets :  Trumpets are a warning signal (Ex. 19 : 16, 19).  Israel used to prepare for their journey in the wilderness and to go for war when they hear trumpet sound.  Likewise these seven trumpets introduce to the people about the coming judgements and future events.  Some plagues released by the blowing of the trumpets are reminiscent of the plagues of Egypt. (Ex. 7 : 17-21; 9 : 23-25; 10 : 21-23).
The First Trumpet (8 : 7) –  Fire (Probably lightening) and hail will fall on earth.  This will cause a great damage to vegetation.  Trees and grass will be burned up. (Ex. 9 : 18-35 parallel in OT).
The Second Trumpet (8 : 8-9): “a great mountain burning with fire” may refer to the burning volcano.  The ashes of volcano may fall in sea (probably in the Mediterranean sea).  Due to this 1/3 of sea life will be estinguished.  The sea might become like blood due to the death of sea animals.  The fall of burning fire of volcano  destroy many ships (OT parallel. Ex. 7 : 17-21).
The Third Trumpet (8 : 10-11) :  “Star . . . burning like a torch” refers to a great meteor.  Its name is wormwood, which symbolizes bitterness (A Palastinian herb bitter and poisonous).  Its pieces may fall on water bodies.  Due to this the fresh water sources are contaminated.  People who drink of this water will die or have diseases.  (Already scientists have warned about the dangerous effects of water pollution.)
The Fourth Trumpet (8 : 12-13) – The sun, the moon and one third of stars are affected.  Due to this, the light will decrease.  The decrease of light will have a great effect upon animal life, human life, and plants on the earth. (Lk. 21 : 25 ; Mt. 24 : 29).  At this trumpet, an angel announces woe to inhabitants of the earth.
  1. Blowing Two more Trumpets called woes 9 : 1-21
          The Fifth Trumpet / First Woe (9:1-12)
The star (9:1) is not the real star in heaven,  but it probably refers to a spirit being because personal pronoun “to him” is used to describe him.  In the Bible, the term star in some places refers to the angels (Job. 38 : 4-7).  Thus the star (9:1) efers to an angel.
Note : Some think this star could refer to satan, himself because the text says “a star falled”.  The important fallen star (Fallen angel) is satan.
This angel was given the power to open the bottomless pit (Abyss).  When he opened the bottomless pit, smoke and locusts came out of it.  These locusts are strange being (7-10).  Probably these locusts are demon possessed as demon possessed swine (Lk. 8 : 33).  These locusts are very ferocious and venomous creatures.  They will torment the people for five months.  Their sting is as painful as scorpion.  However, they attack those who do not have the seal of God.(Rev. 7 : 1-8).  These locusts have a king whose name is Abaddon.  This means both in Hebrew and in Greek Destroyer/Destruction.
The Sixth Trumpet  / Second woe (9:13 – 21) – When the sixth angel blew the trumpet, a voice (probably voice of prietstly angel – 8 : 3) told to release the four angels.  This voice came probably in response to the prayer of saints (6 : 10 ; 8 : 2-6).  These four angels may be evil angels because they are bound in Babylons (Good angels are never bound).  These four evil angels will begin their destructive works from Babylon region.  They will do harm to humanity for 13 months (v : 15).  Probably four angels use a huge demonic army to kill the people.  The three plagues (Fire, smoke, brimstone) may refer sickness due to atomic bombs too.  After seeing this great destruction, others did not repent of their sin and of worshiping demons. (20,21).
  1. Mighty Angel and the Little Scroll 10 : 1-11
Note : Chapter 10 and 11 are also interlude about tribulation.  It is an inset before explaining the seventh trumpet.
This mighty angel is a powerful special angel with special mission and purpose.  When he shouted there came a great thunder (seven thunder = a perfect great thunder).  With that thunder, there was a revelation to John.  But a voice from heaven said to John not to write that revelation which came from thunders (4).  The angel again announced about the seventh angel (Seventh Trumpet).
There will be no delay (Delay to no longer refers to the immediate  fulfillment of God’s purpose).  This indicates the seventh trumpet will be at the end of tribulation period.  When the seventh angel blows trumpet, the mystery of God (God’s eternal plan) would be finished (v:7 ; Dan. 9 : 24, 26 ; Amos 3 : 7).  The mystery here refers to the promises of God about the Messianic Kingdom given through the prophets.
The voice from heaven told John to eat the scroll.  This scroll probably contained the message which the two witnesses are going to preach in chapter – Eleven.  Its sweetness refers this message is blessing for believers but its bitternes refers this message will bring judgement on unbelievers.
  1. Two witnesses and The Seventh Trumpet – 11 : 1-19
          Introduction Note to Chapter II
This Chapter is also an interlude between sixth and the seventh trumpets.  This chapter gives the interlude about the two witnesses.  The events mentioned in this chapter probably happen at second half of tribulation period. (42 months = 3 ½ years).
          The Temple (11 : 1-2)
John was asked to measure the Temple.  This Temple will be rebuilt in the first half of Tribulation.  The Jews will worship there (1).  But this temple will be again under the control of the gentiles in the second half of tribulation i.e. 42 months  (v : 2 ; Dan. 9 : 24, 26 ; 11 : 2,3 ;  12 : 6 ; 14).  Antichrist will control the temple affairs.
          The Two witnesses (11 : 3-14)
These are the two witnesses whom God will use as His prophets to preach the gospel of Kingdom for 1260 days (first 3 ½ years).  The context of their message would be taken from the scroll (book) which is mentioned in Ch. 10 : 8-11.  By their message, many will repent.  They will do many miracles.  Antichrist will kill them in the middle of the tribulation, when he enters into the temple of Jerusalem (vv : 7-8). As soon as they were killed unbelievers (friends of Antichrist) would rejoice and send gifts to each other (10).  However, God will give them life after three and a half days.  They will be taken to heaven.
Note :  The name of these two witnesses (Two Olive trees / Two lampstands) are not revealed.  However some assume these could be Elijah and Moses (Mt. 17 : 3 ; others think they could be Elijah and Enoch.  But the Bible does not reveal anything about their names.
The Seventh Trumpet (11 : 15-19) – Although the Seventh Trumpet is sounded, we do not see judgements here.  But there is an announcement concerning the kingdom of Jesus Christ.  Hence we understand the scene of the seventh trumpet is the same scene as the seven bowls of wrath (Compare 11 : 19 with 15 : 5 and 16 : 18,21).
After the completion of these judgements related with the seven bowls at the period of the seventh trumpet, the kingdom of Christ will be established in the earth.  Hence the elders worshiped God and anticipated the coming Kingdom of Christ.  Before establishing the kingdom of Christ, there will be some natural calamities like earthquake to indicate Gods’s judgement on the followers of Antichrist and sinners.
  1. Satan’s Attack on Nation Israel. 12 : 1-17
This chapter explains the hatred of Satan against Israel in which Jesus Christ was born.  Satan attacks Israel because God has used Israel for the birth of the Saviour Jesus Christ (Rom. 1 : 3 ; 9 : 4-5 ; Jn. 4 : 22).  In history past, Satan attempted many times to destroy the nation Israel (12 : 4).  Likewise, in the future at the beginning of the tribulation, Satan will draw Israel into a seven-year covenant with Antichrist to lure it (Nation Israel) away from God.  In the middle of the tribulation, satan and his evil angels will try to attack God, but satan will be defeated by Michael and expelled from heaven to the earth (12 : 7-12; Dan. 12 : 1).  Since he was defeated, he with great anger will empower Antichrist and the false prophets to attack Israel.  So Antichrist will break the covenant (Peace treaty) that he made with Israel (Rev. 6 : 1-2), and start persecuting them.  This will begin at the second part of tribulation, known as the Geat tribulation.  During this great tribulation, many Jews will flee to wilderness to escape from Antichrist and satan’s attack (Dan. 12 : 13-17).  However, God  will protect Israel during the tribulation (3 ½ years = a time, and times, and half a time – v:14). 
Note :  This chapter gives the summary of satan’s attack on Israel and how God protects Israel in history.
The woman (12 : 1-2) : The woman mentioned here is the symbol for Nation Israel.  “The sun, the moon under her feet” explains Israel (Gen. 37 : 9-10).  “The twelve stars” represent the twelve tribes of Israel.
Views concerning Woman
View 1 : Some identify her as Mary, the mother of Jesus.  But the passage of text does not fit to Mary for various reasons.
  • Mary never had the sun, and the moon under her feet and the stars in garland.
  • Mary did not flee to the wilderness, but to Egypt (Mt. 2 : 13-15).
  • Mary had nothing to do with 1260 days of Tribulation Period.
  • Mary had no wings (14).
So this view does not fit with many other texts.
View – 2 : Some identify her with the church.  But the church is never identified as woman.  The church is always identified as a virgin and bride (2 Cor. 11 : 2).  Moreover, the church did not give birth to a child (12 : 2).  Hence, this view is rejected by many scholars.
View – 3 : According this view, the woman is identified as Israel.  The Bible uses woman to symbol religion, nation. (Ex) Jazebel represents wicked religion (Rev. 2 : 20 ; 1 Kings 16 : 31).  Hence the woman (Rev. 12 : 1-2) represents the Jewish religion and nation Israel.   This view presents the following arguments for its support.
  • This passage is dealing with the tribulation of Israel (11 : 1-2; 12 : 13-17).
  • Israel is identified as woman in the Old Testament (Is. 54 : 5-6 ; 66 : 7-8; Jer. 4 : 31 ; Micah 4 : 9-10 ; 5 : 3).
  • The duration of persecution (1260 days parallels other prophecies concerning Israel and the great tribulation (12 : 6, 14 ; Dan. 9 : 24-27).
  • The Bible indicates that Christ is born of Israel’s flesh (through Israel) (12 : 5 ; Rom. 9 : 5).
  • Israel is the own nation of Christ (Jn. 1 : 11), because Israel gave birth to Jesus.
  • The sun, the moon, and the stars are associated Joseph’s dream of his father Jacob and mother (Gen. 37 : 9-10).
For these reasons, many scholars of the Bible believe that this woman is Israel in which Christ was born.  This third view could be accepted without hesitation.
          The Child (12 : 2,5,6)
                   “The Child” represents Jesus Christ who was born in the nation Israel (woman compare v:5 with Ps. 2 : 9 ; Rev. 2 : 27 ; 19 : 15).  The woman who bore the child represents Israel.  He will rule the nation during the millennial  rule.
          The Dragon (12 : 3-4)
                             The dragon represents here satan. The seven heads probably represent the seven major nations which were used by satan to oppress Israel.  Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome had oppressed Israel in the past.  In future, the final empire led by Antichrist will oppress nation Israel for 1260 days (6,14).  Egypt oppressed Israel for 430 years (Ex. 1-12:41).  During the period of Esther, the entire Jewish population was threatened with extinction (Esther 3 : 13).  Then he attempted to destroy Christ at His birth through Herod (Mt. 2 : 16-18).  However, God protected Israel (woman) in the history.
          The war in Heaven (12 : 7-9)
                   This war probably begins at the first part of the tribulation and ends at the middle part of the tribulation.  The reason for war is not mentioned in scripture.  Michael will fight against satan and defeat him (Dan. 12 : 1 ; 10 : 12-13).  Satan will cast out on the earth.  Due to this defeat, he will make war against the believing Israelite in the world.
          The Voice in Heaven (12 : 10-12)
                   As soon as, satan was cast out of air (heaven / sky), there will be a voice in heaven to announce the victory and salvation.  This salvation indicates that many Jews will be saved by believing Jesus Christ during tribulation.
          Satan’s Attack Against Israel on Earth and God’s Care (12 : 13-17)
                   After satan is cast out of heaven, he will attack Israel.  He will empower and use Antichrist for this purpose.  So Antichrist will break his peace treaty with Israel (6 : 1-2) and persecute Israel for 1260 days(time, times, half a time – v.14, Dan. 7 : 25 ; 12 : 7 ; Rev. 11 : 2 ; 12 : 6 ; 13 : 5).  Many Israelite believers will be martyred (Zech. 13 : 8,9; 14 : 1-4).  The flood (v.15) represents the severe  persecution of Antichrist.  However God will protect Israel probably in the caves.  (“Earth opened its mouth” – v: 16 probably refers to caves where God protects believing Israel during persecution period of 1260 days – v: 14).
  1. United Activities of Satan – Antichrist – False Prophet – 13 : 1-18
          The First beast (13 : 1-10)
                   The beast represents Antichrist.  “Rising out of the sea” means that Antichrist will rise with the support of majority of world population, because “the sea” in prophetic word represents the masses of sinful people (Rev. 17:5 ; Is. 17 : 12 ; 57 : 20 ; Lk. 21 : 25,26).  “The seven heads” are identified as the seven great world Empires (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome and Future Kingdom of Antichrist – 17 : 8-10).  The ten horns are the ten kings, mentioned as the ten toes in the dream of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 2 : 40-42).  “The ten crowns” represent the authority that these ten kings give to Antichrist.  Moreover, the beast (Antichrist) is described as a Leopard, a bear, and a lion.  Leopard, bear, and lion, represent the empires of Greece, Medo-Persia, and Babylon respectively (v : 2 ; Dan. 7).  All these empires, and kingdoms will come under his rule.  So he will be a great political leader in the future.  Satan will give more power to Antichrist (Dan. 7 : 7).
                   The phrase “one of his heads wounded to death”  probably indicates that he had a defeat or a death blow through a war.  (Probably a war with the North King – Dan. 11 : 40-45 ;; Ezk. 38 ; Joel 2 : 20).  However he gets life in a narrow escape.  Since he escaped from the death blow, the people of world marveled.  They began worshiping satan and Antichrist (Rev. 13 : 3-4).  So he is proud and he speaks blasphemies (Dan. 7 : 8,11,20,25).  He will be allowed to do it for 42 months (3 ½ years = Hence, we understand this event will happen at the second half of tribulation).  In 42 months (3 ½ Years) he will severely persecute the people of God, specially the believing Jews (13 : 5-7).  Sinners will worship him, but the people whose names are in the Book of Life will not
worship him.
Note : Some think that Antichrist would be a Jew.  Since he is a Jew, the nation Israel will make a peace treaty with him (Rev. 6 : 1-2 ; Dan. 9 : 27 ; 11 : 37a ; Compare Jn. 5 : 43b).  Others think that Antichrist would be a gentile.  However the Bible is silent on his religious background.
          The Second Beast (13 : 11-18)
                   This second beast represents the false prophet, “Coming out of the earth” probably suggests that he comes from the Jewish nation from the tribe of Levi (Levi was the tribe of Moses the first law giver and Aaron, the first high Priest).  So the false prophet will imitate both a prophet and a high priest and do their function.  “The two horns” represent the two functions of   False Prophet as a prophet and priest.  So he will  be the religious leader during tribulation period, while Antichrist is the political leader.
                    He exercises all the authority of Antichrist.  He will ask the people to worship Antichrist and do many miracles (12 – 14).  In the climax of his power, he will do a miracle, and make the image of Antichrist to speak.  He will force the people to worship Antichrist and his image.  He will put a mark on people who obey him.  The mark is “666”.  None can buy or sell without that mark during tribulation period (16-18).
          View concerning “666”
                   Some think that number 666 represents Antichrist’s code.  Others suggest that the First digit 6 represents Satan, the second digit “6” represents Antichrist and the third digit “6” represents the False prophet.  These three evil personalities are represented by “666”.  However the Bible is silent about the details of 666(13 : 18), except it is the number of a man. (Who is that man? – Antichrist or any other?  Probably it denotes Antichrist and his union with satan and the false prophet.)
  1. Victory of Christ Anticipated – 14 : 1-20
          (Rev.  14 : 1-5) The Lamb with the 1,44,000
                   The lamb represents Jesus Christ (Jn. 1 : 29).  The 1,44,000 martyred saints sealed in Chapter 7 are now with Jesus Christ in Sion (Zion).  They lived a holy life (4,5).  They sing a new song which others could not sing. (This song could be similar to the song which was sung by Israelite after they were saved from Pharaoh – Ex. 15 : 1-21).
Note : Some identify Sion is earthly Sion i.e. Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5 : 7 ; Ps. 2 : 6-9 ; Is 2 : 3).  Others identify this Sion could be heavenly Sion i.e. heavenly Jerusalem (Heb. 12 : 22).
          The Announcements (14 : 6-20)
          In this passage there are six announcements, five from angels and one from a heavenly voice.
vv : 6-7 – First Angel’s Announcement was about the everlasting gospel.  The message of the everlasting gospel has three aspects – First, Fear God; Second, Give glory to Him, and Third, Worship Him.
v : 8 – Second angel announced about the fall of Babylon, which would happen very shortly.  The actual fall as announced by angel happens in chapter 16.  Babylon mentioned here probably represents evil system of Antichrist (Ch. 16 –17).
vv : 9-12 – The third angel announces a warning to the unbelievers who worship Antichrist and satan.  All those who have the mark Antichrist will be punished by God (9-11).  On the other hand, God will bless the believers by granting perseverance (12), so that they can face Antichrist boldly.
v : 13 – A voice from heaven announces the future blessing of all believers.  They will be given rest (peace) permanently in heaven.
vv : 14-16 – The fourth angel came to the Son of Man (Jesus Christ – 14) and asked Him to harvest the earth with sickle.  Using the sickle here indicates the coming judgement on the earth.  The Lord will do it. (Mt. 13 : 39 ; 21 : 17-20 ; Mk. 3 : 1,3 ; Jn. 15 : 6 ; Rev. 16 : 12).
vv : 17-20 –  The fifth angel announced about the judgement.  Here an angel used the sickle to harvest the vine of the earth. (Ps. 80 : 8 ; Jn. 15 : 1).  Jesus is the true vine.  All others who are not the branch of true vine will be judged (19, 20).  This judgement probably indicate the battle at Armageddon (cf 19 : 17-19).
  1. Seven Angels with the Bowls of God’s Wrath – 15 :1-8
                   John saw another great sign in heaven when seven angels are getting ready with bowls to bring God’s judgement on unbelievers.  When they get ready, the saints who do not follow Antichrist sing the victorious song (3-4).  ‘The song of Moses’ denotes the victory which Israelite got over Phrash (Ex. 15 ; Deut. 32).  ‘The song of the Lamb’ denotes probably the victory of Christ (Jn. 16 : 33 ; Ps. 2 : 8-12; Zech. 14 : 9).
                   Then John saw the vision of ‘the temple of the Tabernacle of the Testimony’;  After whose pattern the tabernacle was made (Ex. 40 : 34,35).  From this temple seven angels came out.  When they came, one of the four living creatures gave the seven golden bowls to them.  The seven bowls were filled with the wrath of God.  When he came out, smoke filled the temple.  None could enter in.  These bowls judgement would happen at the closing part of tribulation.
  1. Seven Bowls of Wrath Poured Out on Earth – 16 : 1-21
                   As soon as the seven angels got ready with the bowls, the command was given by God “go and pour out the bowls: (16 : 1).
  • 16 : 2 – The First Bowl – When the angel poured the bowl on earth, the followers of Antichrist got affected by sores. Satan or Antichrist could not heal them (Ex. 9 : 8-12 cf Deut 28, 27, 35).  As God judged Egyptians, He  here  judges the followers of Antichrist.
  • 16 : 3 – The Second Bowl – This bowl would be poured out on the sea. So it became like blood, as it was done in Nile by Moses (Ex. 7 : 20-25). Many sea living creatures died. 
  • 16 : 4-7 – The Third Bowl – This bowl would be poured out on rivers and streams. So the drinking water will be affected.  This judgement is due to sheding of blood of saints and prophets (6).
16 : 8-9 – The Fourth Bowl :  The bowl would be poured on the sun.  So there will be climatic changes which might increase the ultra – violet rays or perhaps a severe heat wave.  The followers of Antichrist will be affected much, but they will not repent.
16 : 10-11 – The Fifth Bowl – The fifth bowl would be directly poured on the throne of the beast (Antichrist) and his kingdom. There would be darkness everywhere, as it was in Egypt (Ex. 10 : 21-23).   The sinners will not repent but blasphemed God.
16 : 12-16 – The Sixth Bowl – This bowl would be poured out on the great river Euphrates.  So it would be dried out.  Since it is dried, the armies of the East may gather at Megiddo for the battle of Armageddon.  Three unclean spirits went to the kings of the earth and probably told lies so that they join with the Antichrist to make war against Israel.  These evil spirits did some false miracles to deceive the kings.  When all these kings gathered against Israel and God, Christ would come suddenly as a thief on Mt. Olivet (v : 15).
Armageddon :  This has been a place of many wars in the past of Israel’s history (Jud. 4 – 5 ; 6-7; 1 Sam. 31 : 8 ; 2 Kings 9 : 20-37 ; 23 : 29-30 ; 2 Chr. 35 : 22).  The future battle of Antichrist against Jesus Christ will happen at the same place (v : 16).  Armagaddon is near the Mount of Megiddo at the plains of Esdraelon.
16 : 17-21 – The Seventh Bowl –  When all the armies are against Israel, there will be a great earthquake.  This earthquake will affect Jerusalem and many other cities.  The great city (Jerusalem) will be divided into three part due to earthquake.  Perhaps this is the time Jesus comes on Mt. Olivet which will be divided into two (Zech. 14 : 4).  There will be hailstones.  Moreover due to earthquake, islands would be fled away (perhaps due to Tsunami).
  1. Religious Babylon Destroyed – 17 : 1-18
Note :  Babylon is the birth place of idolatry.  Nimrod built it (Gen. 10 : 7-10).  Tower of Babel was built there (Gen. 11 : 1-9).  God hates this city for its idolatry.  So the term Babylon in Chapter 17 probably refers to the false religious systems of the world.
                   One of the seven angels called John to see the fall of Babylon.  The term Babylon in chapter 17 is a “Mystery Babylon” (17 : 5).  Mystery Babylon is also called harlot (17 : 1).  Some think this “Mystery Babylon” refers to Apostate Church / Faithless Cultic Church.  So this could be a religious system during tribulation period.  The same woman is also said as a great city (17 : 18).  Hence this False religious system is centered in a city.  This Religious city and system is mentioned as “Mystery Babylon”.
                   This harlot woman will be supported by many people.  (Many water refers to people – 17 : 15).  Not only peoples support her but Antichrist (beast) and world kings (Seven heads and ten horns) will support her at the first part of tribulation period (17 : 3,7).  The false religious system with the support of Antichrist would kill many believing Jews (Martyrs of Jesus – 17 : 5-6).
          v : 8 describes the beast (Antichrist).  The phrases “The beast that you (John) saw was” describes that Antichrist was in the first part of tribulation; “and is not” describes that he would be given a death blow    by Northern King at the middle of tribulation (v : 11, 11 : 7 ; 13 : 3,14 ; Dan. 11 : 40 – 45); “and will ascend out of the bottomless pit” describes that he will come to full strength as if resurrected from the death blow at the second part of tribulation.  Even though Antichrist has been brought back to full strength and life, it will be for 3 ½ years only.  Since he got back life from his death blow, people (unbelievers) will wonder and worship him (v:8).  The seven kings (Seven mountains and seven king refer to seven great empires – 9,10) are the seven empires.  “Five have fallen” refers to the five empires which were before John’s day (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, and Greece – “One is” refers to Roman Empire of John’s day; “and the other has not yet come” refers the future Empire of Antichrist (10-12).
                   Since Antichrist got back to life from his death blow, the ten kings will give their authority to him and work with him in one mind (12,13 ; Deut. 7 : 23,24).  Antichrist will rise to the supreme power over the world without having any opposition, since northern king was destroyed (Rev. 13 : 4 ff ; Dan. 11 : 36-39).  So he will demand worship him like God.  Although he had supported the harlot woman (Religious system of Mystery Babylon) at first he and his supporting kings will hate her at the second part of tribulation.  So they would destroy her (Religious system / Religious Babylon).  Antichrist will make himself god (Isa. 14 : 12-14, Rev. 13 : 4 ; 2 Thes. 2 : 3-4).
Note : Chapter 17-18 should be studied in connection with Old Testament prophecy (Isa. 13 : 19-20 ; 21 : 9 ; Jer. 50-51).
  1. Political Babylon Destroyed – 18 : 1-24
                   After falling of religious Babylon (18 : 1), Antichrist will be the sole Political leader.  His capital will be Babylon. So this city is also known as political Babylon.  Not only in politics, but in commerce also, Babylone will be the leading city.  Hence Babylon is the capital for both politicis and trade.  It will flourish in commercial activities.  It will be a wealthy city (vv : 18-14).  Because of its political power and wealth, Antichrist will be proud.  He will kill many saints and prophets (24).
                   Due to his pride and wickedness against God’s people, God will judge him.  So the angel announces its coming fall (2-3).  However God gives a last chance for people to repent.  So another angel calls people “to come out” from following Antichrist (4-8).  After this, God will destroy Babylon and its wealth.  This is the final destruction of Babylon.  It will be no more (17-24).  By seeing Babylon’s destruction, the kings and the merchants of the world will mourn and weep for it (9-16).  Because they all lost their business.
Note :  Babylon is a future city of Antichrist.  It will be the capital for religion, politics and commerce (Ch. 17-18).  Religious system of Babylon will be destroyed by Antichrist himself (Chap. 17).  But political and commercial system of Babylon will be destroyed by God (Chap. 18).  This God’s punishment is Babylon’s final destruction.
  1. Second Coming of Christ – 19 : 1-21
vv : 1-6 :  By seeing the destruction of Babylon, there will be a great joy in heaven.  The martyrs of tribulation period, twenty four elders, and four living creatures also rejoiced and worshiped God (1,4,6).  They praised God for their salvation by saying “Alleluia”.
(19 : 7-8) “Marriage of the Lamb” is the term used to denote the permanent union of church (bride) with bridegroom (Christ – Eph. 5 : 26,27 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 2).  This marriage (union) will happen in heaven.
(19 : 9-10) – Marriage Supper : After the marriage (union) of Christ  with the church, there will be a marriage supper arranged for the friends of bridegroom. (Jn. 3 : 29).  “The friends of bridegroom” refers to the Old Testament and Tribulation saints.  They will be participating in the marriage supper of the Lamb.  The supper will take place in earth after marriage which happened in heaven (Lk. 12 : 35-40; Mt. 22 : 1-14, 25 : 1-13; Dan. 12 : 1-3).  It may happen after the defeat of Antichrist, probably.  “Jesus is the Spirit of Prophecy” means that every prophecy is directly connected with Jesus Christ, His kingdom and Jerusalem, His capital (10).
Second Coming (11-16) :  Jesus will come on the white horse here as the faithful.  He has many crowns because He is “King of Kings and Lord of Lords”. “None can read the name written on Him” denotes that none can understand His Divinity fully.  Because He is the word of God (12,13).  The armies of heaven (Probably angels) also followed Him (14 ; 2 Thes. 1 :7-10).  Jesus and His armies will come down to earth to fight against Antichrist (v : 15 ; 14 : 20 ; Is. 63 : 2-3 ; Zech. 14 : 3-4 ; Mt. 24 : 27-31 ; Is. 64 : 1-2).  Jesus  will come on the Mt. Olivet, near Jerusalem to make war with Antichrist (Zech. 14 : 3-4).
          Christ will defeat Antichrist (17  – 21)
                   This battle will happen when Antichrist attempts to destroy the remnant Jews in Jerusalem (12 : 17 ; Zech. 14 : 1-2).  So the remnant Jews will look for their Messiah.  At this moment, the true Messiah Jesus Christ will descend from heaven on Mt. Olivet.  He will destroy the Armies of Antichrist.  Jesus will come and defeat Antichrist, and his armies.  In this war a great multitude of the followers of Antichrist will be killed.  The dead bodies will be everywhere.  So their bodies will be eaten by birds (17,18 ; Joel 3 : 1 ff) at the valley of Jehoshaphat (Kidron valley) east of Jerusalem.  Jesus will send Antichrist and false prophet into the lake of fire directly at the end of this war at Armageddon. (v : 20).
Note :  With the destruction of Antichrist, the total seven years of Tribulation period came to the end.  Antichrist who came on white horse as a false Messiah in 6 : 1-2 is defeated by the true Messiah Jesus Christ who comes on the white horse in chapter 19 : 17-21.
  1. Millennial Kingdom and Great White Throne Judgement – 20 : 1-15
1-3 – Binding of Satan : Antichrist and the false prophet were directly sent into the Lake of fire.  But satan will be bound in bottomless pit for 1000 years (9 : 1-2 ; 11 ; Lk. 8 : 31).
4 – Millennial Kingdom :  Millenniam means 1000 years.  After binding satan, there will be a gap of 75 days.  (1335-1260 = 75 days – Dan. 12 : 11-12; Rev. 12 : 6)  During the gap of 75 days the preparation for the kingdom will be done. Then Jesus will establish His kingdom in the earth.  Jerusalem will be its capital (Zech. 8 : 3 ; Is. 60 : 14, 18).  Jesus will be the king of kings (Zech. 6 : 12-13).
          The people who did not follow Antichrist and who did not bear his mark will escape without being killed in the war between Jesus and Antichrist.  Because they believed the true Messiah.  They will enter into the Kingdom with their Physical body.  They are the citizens of the Kingdom.
5-6 : The First Resurrection : All Old Testament saints and martyred saints will resurrect before the establishment of kingdom.  They will enter into kingdom with glorified body  (Dan. 12 : 12).  They will be the priest of God in Millenniam (6).  The New Testament saints who got rapture before the beginning of Tribulation will also come with Jesus and enter in the millennium (1 Thes. 4 : 13-18 ; Rom. 8 : 17).  They will rule with Jesus Christ.  The resurrection of all believers of both Old Testament and New Testament is generally known as the first Resurrection.
          The Special Features of Millennial Kingdom
  • Only the saved people will enter in it (Is. 12 : 1-6 ; 32 : 1-4, 15-20, 55 : 4-7, Zech. 12 : 10 – 13 : 1).
  • It will be a reighteous kingdom (Isa. 5 : 20; 32 : 5 ; 40 : 4 ; 42 : 3).
  • It will have universal peace and prosperity (Hos. 2 : 18 ; Mic. 4 : 4 ; Is. 9 : 6-7).
  • There will be no war among nations for 1000 years (Is. 2 : 2-4 ; 62 : 6-7 ;Ps. 110 : 1-2; Mich. 4 : 3)
  • It will be fruitful (Joel 2 : 21-24 ; Ezk. 34 : 26 ; Is. 4 : 5-6 ; 11 : 6-9 ; 32 : 15 ; 60 : 22)
  • All prophecies will be fulfilled here in the Millennium.
Satan’s Final Defeat :  Satan was bound for 1000 years.  Then he will be released for a while (20 : 3,7).  As soon as he is released, he will again begin to deceive the people and kings.  These people and kings were the children of those who entered as citizens of kingdom at the beginning of Millennial kingdom.  Some children of those people will not submit to Christ at the end of 1000 years but they will join with satan, especially with the prince Gog (Gog  is the prince of the land of Magog – Ezek. 38, 39).  They will join to fight against Jesus Christ, the king, at Jerusalem.  But suddenly fire come down from heaven and destroy the rebellious people. This will be the last rebellion of satan and unbelievers against God in the history of the world.  All rebellious will die and satan will be sent to the lake of fire (9-10).
The Great White Throne Judgement (11-15)
                   All unbelievers from Cain to the last one will come before God for this final judgement (12).  All unbelievers who died in sea, or earth, or any where will come to this judgement.  This is called the resurrection of unbelievers.  The resurrection of unbelievers is known as the second resurrection.  All people whose names are not written in the book of Life will be judged in eternal hell.  Old earth and heaven will pass away (11).  All who come to this judgement will be sent into the lake of fire (15), because this judgement is for unbelievers.  All unbelievers going into hell are referred by  the term  second death (20 : 14 ; 21 : 8).
Note :  Some deny the millennial kingdom.  But the Bible clearly says about millennial kingdom (20 : 4-5).  There is no single verse or statement in the scripture to support their denial.
  1. New Heaven, New Earth and New Jerusalem- 21 : 1-27
                   After judging satan and all unbeliever into the lake of fire, Christ will submit His Millennial kingdom to the father (2 Cor. 15 : 24).  With this submission all old things will pass away.  God will create everything new, namely New Heaven, New Earth and New Jerusalem.  This new creating act marks the beginning of the Eternal Kingdom. (Refer Chart – 2).
v : 1 – In the new earth, there will be no sea.  This indicates there will be no more destruction to the new earth.
v : 2 –8 – The city which Christ promised in Jn. 14 : 2 is the New Jerusalem.  It is decorated.  God will have constant communion here with men (saved people).  There will be no more sorrow.  Alpha (First Greek Letter) and Omega (the Last Greek Letter in Alphabet) refer to Jesus Christ, who is the beginning and the end (6).  No unbeliever will enter into this new universe (8).
New Jerusalem (9 – 27)
          John had the vision of the New Jerusalem (9,10).  It was adorned as a bride to bridegroom (2).  This indicates the church believers will dwell permanently here with Jesus Christ.  This is probably the heavenly, Zion (Heb. 12 : 22).  All the believers will come here to dwell with God and God will be with them (3).  This city is so big and adorned with precious stones (17-21).  This city comes out of heaven (10).  The measurement (breadth, length and height) is equal in all dimensions (2220 Km.)  The cubit measurement of this dimension (2220 Km.) indicates that it will be a great city where all believers can dwell (24).  It will have 12 gates (12).  There will be no temple in this New Jerusalam, because God dwells there (22). Since Jesus shines there, the sun and the moon are not necessary (23).
  1. The River of Life and Final Warning 22 : 1-21
          The River of Life (1-5)
                   The river will come from the throne of God.  This river will satisfy man’s spiritual thirst eternally.  The tree of life will sustain the spiritual life of saints eternally (Gen. 2 : 9 ; 3 : 22, 24 ; Ezk. 47 : 12 ; Rev. 2 : 7).  There will be no more curse but   blessings only to saints and praising unto God forever and ever (3).  Alleluia.
          John’s attitude (6-10)
                   Having got the revelation of God about future things, John fell down before the feet of angel.  Immediately, the angel warned him not to worship him.  This warning teaches that man must never worship any angels or saints except God (8-9).  All must worship God who revealed Himself in Jesus Christ.
          Testimony of Jesus (11-17)
                   Jesus again informs us about His sudden coming.  He may come at any time.  Are you ready to meet the Lord Jesus Christ?
          Warning (18-19)
                   None should be added   with this prophecy, as well as should be deleted from this prophecy.  Adding or deleting with this prophecy will result in danger.
          Final Prophecy of Jesus and John’s Prayer (22 : 20-21)
                   After revealing and testifying these things, Jesus announced His final prophecy about His coming “Surely, I am coming quickly”.  Based on this prophecy, John prayed “Come, Lord Jesus”!  This must be the prayer of every believer “Come Lord Jesus” as John prayed.  We have to wait and to be prepared for His coming.
                   COME LORD JESUS CHRIST!
Students Assignment
  1. What is Futurist view?
  2. What are the key terms to know in Revelation?
  3. Write the simple outline of Revelation based on Rev. 1 : 19?
  4. Write about Two witnesses.
  5. Write a note about the first beast in Rev. 13.
  6. Write a note about the second beast in Rev. 13
  7. Write a note about the number 666.
  8. Write a short note about Armageddon.
  9. Write about the destruction of Political Babylon.
  10. What are the special features of Millennial Kingdom.
Note : Write the answers for these questions and send your answer sheet to CALS.  Please mention your name and Register Number in your answer sheet.

Chart – 1 (Focus on Tribulation Period)


Chart – 2 (General View of Revelation)

revelation chart