BL - 38 Daniel

 The Place of Daniel in  History (Historical Background of the book)
  Daniel lived during the time when God judged Judah for its unfaithfulness.  God used Babylon to judge Judah.  Babylon first attacked Jerusalem in 605 B.C.  and captured Daniel and other young men as captive.  Babylon again attacked in 597 B.C. when more than 10,000 leaders including Ezekiel were deported to Babylon.  Finally Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B.C.  Many were killed but a small group of poor people was allowed to remain in Jerusalem.  Jeremiah who had prophesied of captivity (Jer. 25 : 11-12) survived all three deportations.  Daniel lived in Babylon from 605 B.C. until 536 B.C.
The Authorship of Daniel
                   Although some deny the authorship of Daniel, Jesus Christ said that Daniel was the prophet and author of Daniel (Mt. 24:15 compare 9:27 ; 11 : 31 ; 12 : 11).  Daniel, himself claims he is the author (8:1 ; 9 : 2; 10 : 2).  The book proves the author had a perfect knowledge of Babylonian and early Persian history which agrees with Deniel’s claim (4 : 1 ff ; 5 : 16,31 ; 6 : 1,8-15).
The Date of Daniel
                   The narrative of Daniel begins in 605 BC when Nebuchadnezzar took Daniel and his friends captive to Babylon.  This book covers a period of seventy years.  He received last revelation (10 : 1) in the third year of Emperor Cyrus (536 BC).  Daniel wrote the book in its final form between 535 – 530 BC.
Five Revelations of Daniel
First revelation (2 : 19) in 603 BC
Second revelation ( ch. 7) in 553 BC (50 years after first)
Third revelation (ch. 8) in 551 BC (2 years after second)
Fourth revelation (ch. 9) in 538 BC (13 years after third)
Fifth revelation (ch. 10-12) in 536 BC (2 years after fourth)
Daniel lived about 90 years.  During his entire life time, he received only five revelations.
  1. Daniel’s Deportation from Jerusalem to Babylon 1 : 1-21.
  1. Daniel’s Deportation – 1 : 1-7
Nebuchadnezzar invaded  Jerusalem in 605 BC and took some vessals of Jerusalem temple to Babylon.  He also took some good Jewish young men to his country to train and to make them as his servants.  Daniel was one among them.  Their training period was for three years.  King changed their Jewish names after Babylonian gods.  He changed their names so that they might forget their Jewish way of life.
Jewish Name (meaning)
Babylonian Name (meaning)
Daniel (God is my Judge)
Belteshazzar (Bel protect his life)
Hananiah (Jehovah is gracious)
Shadrach (command of Aku)
Mishael (who is what God is)
Meshach (who is what Aku is)
Azariah (Jehovah helps)
Abednego (servant of Nebo)
  1. Daniel’s Determination and God’s blessings – 1 : 8-21
              The Babylonian King ordered to give King’s food to these Jewish youngmen (5).  Daniel determined not to eat King’s food because Babylonian food was not prepared according to Jewish preparations.  Jewish food preparation was different from Babylonians (Lev. 11 ; 17 : 10-16 ; Ex. 20 : 3 ; 23 : 19 ; 34 : 26 ; Dt. 14 : 3-20).  Moreover king’s food was first offered to Babylonian gods before serving.  So they decided to eat vegetarian food instead of king’s food.  God honored their decision.  They were healthier than others.  After three years, when king tested their knowledge, they excelled others.  King appointed them in his court.
  1. Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of the Great Image – 2 : 1-49
  1. Nebuchadnezzar’s demand – 2 : 1-28
The King Nebuchadnezzar dreamt a dream in his Second year of reign (603 or 602 BC).  God revealed to Nebuchadnezzar through dreams because of two reasons – one, he was an unbeliever; second, the Old Testament was not fully written then.  He was troubled.  He called his experts and demanded that they should both tell and interpret the dream.  The experts were in dilemma.  They requested the King to tell the dream so that they could interpret it.  The King understood that they try to escape from his demand.  He was furious and gave ultimatum that   all wise men would be killed unless they both tell and interpret the dreams.  Nobody was able to tell.  So King ordered his servant Arioch to kill all wisemen.  When Daniel heared this command of King, he requested Arioch not to kill wise men but to take him to the king so that he could both tell and interpret the dream.  So Arioch took Daniel to the King.
  1. Daniel told and interpreted the dream – 2 : 29-45
Daniel told not only the dream but also the reason why king dreamed.  Then he explained the meaning of dream.  The dream was that King saw a great image which was made of gold, silver, brass and iron.  The metal segments of the image represented kings and  kingdoms of world history (21a).
Image segment
Kingdom represented
Fulfilled in History
605-539 BC
Breast & Arms
539-331 BC
Bronze (Brass)
Belly & Thighs
331-63 BC
Two legs
63BC-AD 476
GOLD – It represents Babylon Empire (605 – 539 BC) and its Emperor Nebuchadnezzar.  He was so powerful over other Kings. (2 : 37a)
SILVER – It represents Medo – Perisan Empire. (539 – 331 BC).  This Empire was a union of the Medes and the Persians (Symbolized by the two arms) King Cyrus defeated Babylon in 539 BC and established this Empire.
BRONZE – The bronze belly and thighs represented Greco – Macedonia, the third powerful empire (331 – 63 BC).  Alexander, the Great established Grecian Empire.  After his death, this kingdom was divided into four parts.  The events of only two of those four divisions are recorded in Daniel Chapter II (Eleven).  In those two, the Seleucid kingdom was to the north of Israel and the Ptolmey Kingdom was to the South of Israel, and one or the other had control over Israel.
IRON – It represents Roman Empire (63 BC – 476 AD).  The two iron legs and feet may represent the East Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire.  Rome invaded Jerusalem in 63 BC under general Pompey.  The beginning of this empire was as strong as iron.  The final phase of Roman empire represented by the feet of iron mixed with brittle clay.  This mixure of Iron and clay symbolizes the weakness of Roman empire at its final stage.  The ten toes show the division of Kingdom into ten parts (kingdoms).  Some kingdoms would be strong as iron but other would be weak as clay.
THE STONE – It represents Christ / Christ’s Kingdom.  This kingdom will begin in the time of the ten kings of the revived Roman Empire (the days of these kings).  It will overcome all enemies.  This kingdom will not be defeated or replaced by anyother kingdom.  It shall be eternal.  After Millennium (1000 years), Christ will deliver kingdom to the Father (1 Cor. 15 : 24 – 25).  Jesus Christ is the Great Stone (Gen. 49 : 24 ; Ps. 118 : 22 ; Is. 28 : 16).
  1. Daniel’s Promotion – 2 : 46 – 49
Nebuchadnezzar understood that Daniel was a man of God because he could tell both dream and its interpretation.  Daniel was about probably 17 years old, but he was made a Chief ruler.
  1. God’s Deliverance from Fiery Furnace – 3 : 1-30
King Nebuchadnezzar wanted to test the loyalty of his officers and servants.  He made an image and asked them to workship it.  All worshipped it except the three Jewish Officers.  Worshiping any image is against the Ten Commandments (Ex. 20 : 3-5).  King gave another chance to the Jewish men.  But they again refused to worship the image.  King ordered to put them in fiery furnace.  When they put Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego into the burning fiery furnace, the fire did not do any harm to them (Is. 43 : 2).  The king could see the fourth one who was like the Son of God.  This fourth one was a preincarnate appearance of Christ (Christrophany).  Through this miracle, God delivered His people.  The king praised  God and promoted these Jewish men.
Note :  Since Daniel was not mentioned with this event, he probably was not in the city for this occasion.
Archaeologists have found the evidence of fiery furnace in which these young men were thrown.
  1. Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of the Great Tree – 4 : 1-37
He saw this second dream in 572 BC after 30 years of his first dream.  He saw a great tree.  This tree represented Nebuchadnezzar.  He was very proud of his success and kingdom.  When he saw the dream, he was troubled in his heart.  He told the dream to Daniel.  Daniel interpreted the dream and requested the king to repent so that God might forgive him.  God gave him one year period so that he might repent.  But the king did not repent.  So God punished him with Boanthropy.  [Bovine (cow) + Anthrophy (man) = Boanthrophy].  This desease causes a person to act and live like a cow or an ox.  Nebuchadnezzar was affected with this disease for seven years (seven times – v.25).  After seven years, in 564 BC, he was healed when he repented.  The king praised God who rules the world.  Then he ruled Babylon till 562 BC.
  1. God’s Judgement Written on the Wall – 5 : 1-31
Historical Background
This judgement in chapter five was more than thirty years after the events of chapter four.  After the death of Nebuchadnezzar, his son Amel Marduk (Evil Merodach) became king in 562 BC.  He was murdered by his brother-in-law Neriglissar in 560 BC.  Neriglissar ruled for four years till 556 BC.  After his death, his son Labashi Marduk became king.  But he was assassinated in 556.  Nabonidus became king.  Nebonidus gave the incharge of kingdom to Belshazzar, his son.  Nebonidus lived away from the capital city.  Belshazzar as a co-ruler ruled the kingdom from Babylon.  Belshazzar means “Bel Protect the King”.  Bel was a name of Babylonian god.  Daniel was about eighty years old in 539 BC.
5 : 1-31 – Belshazzar had a great feast in 539 BC.  In this feast, he drank wine.  In order to drink wine, he used the holy vessels which were taken by Nebuchadnezzar from the Temple of Jerusalem in 605 BC.  This vessels of Jerusalem Temple were holy.  They should not be used for any other purpose other than temple.  Not only he drank in holy vessels of Jerusalem Temple, but he praised the idol gods.  By this act, Belzhazzar showed disrespect to the Holy God.  So God sentenced this judgement on him by writing on the wall.  “Mene, Mene, Tekel Upharsin”.
This was written in Aramaic, probably using Hebrew Script.  So the king could not read.  Daniel read and interpreted it to the king.  This means “Nembered (Mene), and Weighed (Tekel) but lacking (wanting) and Divided (Upharsin)”.  Belshazzar was wanting in the sight of God.  God wrote the Babylonian kingdom would be divided.  As God wrote, it happened on the same night.  Cyrus, the king of Persia invaded into Babylon through the Euphrates River and killed Belshazzar.  Babylon Kingdom fell in the hands of Medo-Persians on 12 October 539 B.C. Cyrus appointed Darius, the Mede as a ruler over Babylon.
  1. Daniel in the Lion’s Den. 6 : 1-28
Darius respected Daniel and elevated him to a prominent position in the New Government of the Medes and Persians.  He was one of three Presidents who ruled over 120 princes.  Daniel lived a holy life before the King, people and God.  He had extraordinary character (Excellent Spirit).  The two presidents and some officials (satraps) were against the promotion of Daniel.  They ploted against Daniel.  They forced the King to make a law that “None should pray to any God but to King”.  Violation of this law would be punished severely by casting into the den of lions.  Knowing this law was signed by king, Daniel prayed as usual.  So he was cast into the lions den.  But God miraculously saved Daniel’s life.  Daniel was about eighty one  or eighty two years of old at this time.
  1. Daniel’s First Vision – 7 : 1-28
          Historical Background
This version was dreamt by Daniel before the events mentioned in chapter Five and Six.  However this vision is recorded in Chapter Seven.  The year of the first vision was 553 BC which was the first year of Belshazzar.
7 : 1-3 – The four beasts represent the four rulers as described in Nebuchadnezzar’s first dream (ch. 2).  “Came up from the sea” means they were earthly kingdoms. (Sea refers here to people group)
The Lion (7:4)  :  It represents Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon Kingdom. (605 – 539 BC).  Lion was the symbol of Babylonian Kingdom (Jer. 4 : 7 ; 49 : 19).  He was also refered as eagles (Jer. 49 : 22).  Babylonian kingdom and king is represented by gold (the king of Metals) by a lion (King of animals) and by the wings of an eagle (the king of birds).
The Bear (7 : 5) :  It represents the Medo – Persian Empire (539 – 331 BC) that corresponds to the breast and arms of silver in Nebuchadnezzar’s image (2 : 32).  The three ribs probably refer to the three major kingdoms, defeated by Medo-Persians.  They defeated Lydia (546 BC), Babylon (539 BC) and Egypt (525 BC).
The Leopard (7 : 6) :  It represents Grecian Empire (331 – 63 BC).  It corresponds to the belly and thighs of brass in Nebuchadnezzar’s image (2 : 32).  Leopard is a stealthy and agile beast.  As Leopard, Alexander, the Great defeated many kingdoms in a short period.  The four wings represented the swiftness of Alexander.  “The four heads” represent the four military generals who divided the kingdom into four after the death of Alexander.  General Ptolemy – Egypt, Seleusus-Babylon, Lysimachus – Bithynia and Cassander – Greece.
The Diverse Beast (7 : 7-8) :   It represents the Roman Empire (63 BC – AD 476 / 1453).  It corresponds to the legs of iron and feet of iron and clay in Nebuchadnezzar’s image.  (2 : 33- 34).  The Romans defeated the Grecian empire and became powerful empire for many centuries.
The ten horns refer to the ten kings who will rule Roman kingdom in future.  The little horn is Antichrist who will rise to the power during the first half of the tribulation period.  This little horn (Anti Christ) will make war against the Saints (2).  Anti Christ will try to change the Laws of God (25).  This little horn is known as Roman little horn (Anti Christ).
God’s Kingdom 7 : 9-14 :  After these four kingdoms, God’s kingdom will be established by destroying Antichrist (11).  God’s Kingdom corresponds to the stone in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream.  The books were opened (10).  The books probably record the wickedness of Antichrist and of the four beasts (Four kingdoms).  So Antichrist will be judged for his wickedness (11,26).
“One like the Son of Man” refers to Jesus Christ.  “He came with the clouds of heaven to the Ancient of Days (13).  This verse speaks that Christ will receive the Kingdom from the Father (God the Father is mentioned here as The Ancient of Days” (9,13).
More Details : 7 : 15-28 give additional information about four kingdoms, Antichrist and his activities and Eternal kingdom.
  1. Daniel’s Second Vision – 8 : 1-27
          Historical Background
Daniel saw this second vision in the third year of the rule of Belshazzar, (551 BC) (Two years after his first vision).  In this vision, he was mentally transported  to Shushan (Susa) in Elam province.  At this time (551 BC), Susa was an insignificant city (Later this city became the capital of Medo – Perisan empire). 
8 : 1-14 :  Daniel Saw a vision of a Ram and a Goat.  Daniel could not understand the full meaning of the vision (15).  God sent Gabriel to explain the message of vision.  Gabrial is an angel who often brought messages from God to the people of God.
Explanation of the vision
The Ram :  The Ram represented the dual Medo – Persian Empire.  Because the Persian king wore the head of a ram on his head when he stood before army.  This was not an Empire when Daniel saw the vision.  However, God prophetically revealed this to Daniel.  “Two horns” (8:3) reflect the union of two kingdoms in the Medo-Persian Empire. (The Median Kingdom and the Persian Kingdoms were united to become one Empire.  So two horns represent these two kingdoms).  “One horn was higher” means that this Medo – Persian Empire was mostly lead by Persians by having higher authority.  So the higher horn was Persians.  This empire rapidly expanded in many directions (4) by conquering Lydia (546 BC), Babylon (539 BC) and Egypt (525 BC).
The Goat :  The Goat represented the Grecian Empire.  The “notable horn” was Alexander the Great.  This notable horn (Alexander) defeated the two horns (Medo – Persian Empire) in 331 BC.  This great horn (Alexander) died when he was strong and young (8 : 4 – the great horn was broken) at the age of 32 years.  After Alexander’s death, his Empire was divided into four among his four generals. (Four notable ones – 8).  The four generals were Ptolemy,  Seleucus, Cassander and Lysimachus (See notes on 7 : 6).
Out of these kingdoms, one little horn (king) would come (8 : 9).  This little horn is known as Grecian little horn, referring to Antiochus Epiphanes.  He became a powerful leader in the line of Seleucids and ruled Syria (175 – 164 BC).  He advanced against Egypt (South), Armenia (East) and Jerusalem (Pleasant land – 8 : 9).  He acted cruelly against the Jews and the Jerusalem Temple (8 : 10-14).  Antiochus stopped all Jewish worship (13).  He desecrated their place of worship (Sanctury was cast down – 11).  This continued for 2300 days.  “2300 days” began in 171 / 170 BC, when Antiochus started persecuting the Jews and completed on 25 December 165/ 164 BC (when Judas Maccabeus restored the Temple for worship).
8 : 15 – 22  : Gabriel interpreted the vision to Daniel, As we have studied above (Ram = Medo – Persia ; Goat = Grece – 8 : 20, 21).  Gabriel historically foretold these events.
8 : 23-27 :  This passage also explains about the cruel acts of Antiochus Epiphanes.  However, it contains a prophetical foretelling about Antichrist in the future (Latter Time – 23).  “King of fierce countenance” is Antiochus Epiphanes who becomes proto-type of Antichrist.  Both Antiochus Epiphanes and Antichrist work against God (Prince of Princes – 25).  Finally God would destroy both of them.
  1. God’s Revelation to Daniel about Seventy Weeks (9 : 1-27)
Daniel got this revelation after thirteen years of the revelation in Chapter Eight.  The year of this revelation was 538 BC.  Daniel got this revelation when he prayed to understand the prophecy of Jeremiah. (Jer. 25 : 11-12 ; 29 : 10).
9 : 1-23 : Daniel read the prophecy of Jeremiah about 70 years of captivity in Babylon (Jer. 25 : 11-12 ; 29 : 10).  He understood this captivity was due to the sin of Judah.  So he confessed the sins of Judah before God and pled for forgiveness.  When He was praying, God sent angel Gabriel to reveal about God’s plan after seventy years of captivity.
Prophecy of Seventy Weeks (v: 24)
This seventy weeks are not ordinary calender weeks, but prophetical weeks (A unit of seven).  This seventy weeks are related with the history of Israel after the end of Babylonian captivity.  The Jews were very familiar with the concept of a week of seven years.  That means a week is equal to seven year period according to prophetical week.
Other Examples for Jewish Prophetical Calculations
Man’s day   Þ 1 day = 24 hours
Prophetical Day Þ 1 day = 1 year (Num. 14 : 33, 34 ; Eze. 4 : 1-8)
Prophetical year Þ 1 year = 1000 years to God (Ps. 90 : 4 ; 2 Pet. 3 : 8).
So we understand one prophetical week is equal to seven years.  So also, a prophetical month contains only 30 days (According to Jewish calender).  Hence, a year is 360 days in Jewish calender.  It will take 70 weeks (7 years x 70) for the fulfillment to “Anoint the most Holy” (24).
The first question, about this weeks in Daniel’s mind is this : when the seventy weeks will begin?  The answer is given in verse 25 – “the going forth of the command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem”.
Note : The temple and the wall of Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 BC.  The seventy weeks would begin when the decree is given to rebuilt Jerusalem.
From the decree. . . .  unto Messiah the prince” (25).  This period covers 69 weeks (7 + 62 weeks).  King Artaxerxes decreed to rebuild Jerusalem in 445 BC.  So this 69 weeks begin in 445 BC (70th week is not the next thing mentioned here – but 69 weeks are only in this period).  Beginning from 445 BC, 69 weeks (7 years x 69 weeks = 483 years) would arrive at 32 AD.  Jesus entered into Jerusalem on donkey (Triumphal Entry – Lk. 19 : 28-40) at 32 AD.
445 BC                                                                          AD 32
                                                7 weeks + 62 weeks = 69 Prophetical weeks                         
                             (69 prophetical weeks = 483 years of 360 days)
Decree of                                                                  Triumphal
          Artaxerxes                                                                Entry
(Neh. 1 : 3 : 2 : 5-8)                                          (Lk. 19 : 28-40)
Note : 69th  week completed in 32 AD.
9 : 26 :  After 62 weeks, the Messiah would be slain.  (Jesus was crucified on the cross at 32 AD).  This happened after Jesus entered Jerusalem through His triumphal entry (Lk. 19 : 28-40).
           7 weeks                      62 weeks                           events of 9 : 26         70th week
                                                                                      Church Period           Tribulation
                              396 / 397 BC
        Decree of                              Triumphal                          
       Artaxerxes                              Entry      &               
       (445 BC)                               Crucifixion     
                                                     (AD – 32)                
Note : The events mentioned 9 : 26 occur between 69th and 70th week.  When we study carefully the history and events in Daniel 9 : 26, we can understand there is a gap in history.  This gap period is known as church period.
          (Again read 9 : 26) – Messiah refers to Jesus Christ.  But “the prince that shall come” refers to Antichrist.  “The people of the prince” refer to the Romans.  They would destroy the Temple.  This destruction of Temple fulfilled in AD 70.  Based on this verse and on prophetical fulfillment, scholars think Antichrist will be a Roman prince. 
Hence we understand 9 : 26 is fulfilled during church period.  This church period is not yet completed.  It will be completed before the events mentioned in 70th week (9 : 27).
9 : 27 : (Read the verse).  This one week is 70th week.  It will begin after the completion of church period(After the believers caught up in heaven to be with God).  In this 70th week, Antichrist (He) will make a peace treaty (covenant) with the Jews at the beginning of tribulation period (70th week  is known as tribulation period in the book of Revelation (Rev. 6 : 15-17).  He will allow the Jews to sacrifice at the beginning of peace treaty.
But, he will brake the peace treaty in the middle of 70th week (After 3½  years of peace treaty).  Then he will not allow them to sacrifice (sacrifice and the oblation to cease – 27 – Rev. 11 : 1 – 2 ; 13 : 14,15).  The desolate (desolater) is Antichrist.  He will persecute the Jews till the end of seventieth week (Study with the second chart). 
Note :  At the end of 70th week, Jesus will come on Mt. Olivet and destroy Antichrist and his army to rescue Israel.  Antichrist and the false prophet will be cast into the Lake of fire.  Then, Jesus Christ will establish His Millennial Kingdom. (9 : 24 – Anoint the most Holy)
  1. The Final Revelation to Daniel (Chapters 10-12)
The final revelation to Daniel is recorded in the last three chapters (10-12).  This revelation gives additional information about revelation in ch. 8.
Historical Background
This vision was two years after Daniel had received his last vision that was recorded in Chapter 9.  Daniel was in Babylon, in a responsible position under King Darius.  He was more than 80 years of age.
10 : 1-3 : Daniel saw this vision in the third year of Cyrus (536 BC).  This prophecy deals about the great conflict between the Kings.  Daniel was mourning and praying, because Gabriel had informed Daniel about one more destruction of Jerusalem which would happen in the future.  He prayed so that he might understand meaning of the vision well.
10 : 4-13 :  Daniel saw this vision when he was standing near the river Hiddakel (Tigris River) – located about 50 Km. east of Babylon.  It is not clear from the text who  is that “certain man”.  Probably, it could be the Son of Man (Rev. 1 : 13-15).  When Daniel saw this vision, he fell down;  so an angel came and strengthened him.
Note :  When God sent good angel to help Daniel, an evil angel fought against him to hinder his mission (13).  The word “prince” (13) here refers to evil angel.  To rescue the good angel, Michael came and faught against the evil angel.  From this we understand, there is a constant fight between good angels and evil angels till the end of the world.
V : 14 The angel came to reveal what will happen to Israel (thy people) in the latter days.  “The latter days” refers to the future events that would happen at the time of Second Coming of Christ (2 : 28 ; Gen. 49 : 1).
10 :15-21 :  Daniel fainted again, but angel strengthened him.  Then the angel explained there would be a future conflict with the prince of Persia (here – evil angel).  In this conflict, Michael will help to this good angel (20-21).
Chapter 11, gives more details of prophecy about war between great nations.
Historical Events Preceding Christ’s First Coming 11 : 1-35
11 : 1-2       :  Daniel revealed about the four future Persian Kings who would come.  “Yet three kings” would come.  Those three Kings were as follows.  Cambyses, Pseudo – Smerdis, and Derius – I.  Then the Fourth was.
  1. Cambyses (530 – 522 BC)
  2. Pseudo – Smerdis (522-521 BC)
  3. Darius I Hystaspes (Darius, the Great – 521 – 486 BC) Ezra 5-6.
  4. Xerxes (Ahasuerus – 486 – 465 BC) – Esther 1 : 1
The wars of Xerxes against Grecia provoked the Greeks.  (This prophecy was made over 200 years before their fulfillment.)
11 : 3-4 :  The “mighty king” was Alexander, the Great.  After his death, his kingdom was divided into four (four winds) by his four generals (7 : 6-7).
11 : 5-35 :  Among the four kingdoms, two kingdoms faught each other for many years.  The Seleucids (Kings of the North ruled Syria and Mesopotamia) and the Ptolemies (Kings of South Ruled Egypt) faught for prosperity.  Israel was between these two kingdoms.  So Israel was affected much because of wars between the kings of the South and the North.  They made war for centuries.  The king of South (Ptolemy II 285-246 BC) attempted for peace by giving his daughter in marriage to Antiochus I.  But Antiochus killed her latter.  So the struggle continued.  In 174 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes became the King of Seleucids.  He was the worst of all Kings.  His activities are prophecied in 11 : 21-35.
Antichus got the throne by cunning plans.  He killed Onias – III (the High Priest of Jews = Prince of the covenant – 11 : 22).  He made peace with Egypt, then he broke the peace treaty by making war against Egypt.  (11 : 23-27) 170 BC.  He defeated Ptolemy.  He returned from Egypt with much wealth.  On his way to Syria, he attacked the Jews (28).  After a few years (Probably 2 years), he again came against Egypt for third time (29 – 30).  In this time, Egyptian Kings (Ptolemy) got the help of the Roman.  The Roman fleet met Antiochus in Alexandria (11 : 30a).  Antiochus was forced to leave Egypt or face war, So Antiochus left Egypt humiliated.
Since he was humiliated, he showed his anger against the Jews.  On his return from Egypt, he again attacked the Jews and erected a status of  Greek God Zeus (31) in the Holy place.  He declared the Mosaic Law was illegal.  So the Jews opposed him (31 – 35).  This all fulfilled before the first coming of Jesus Christ (Before the birth of Christ).
Note :  The Jews opposed and made war against Antiochus Epiphanes under the leadership of Maccabeus.  On 25 December 165 BC, Judas Maccabeus defeated Antiochus Epiphanes and restored the Temple of Jerusalem for proper worship.
Activities of Antichrist (11 : 36 – 45)
This passage describe Antichrist’s activities which are more similar to the activities of Antiochus Epiphanes.  Since it describes the  activities of Antichrist, it will be fulfilled before the visible coming of Jesus on Mt. Olivet at the Second Coming.
Future Events Before Jesus’ Second Coming On Mt. Olivet
First the church believers will be caught up in heaven (on the clouds – 1 Thes. 4 : 13-18 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 51-52).  This is known as rapture of the church.  After the rapture of the church, the prophecy in Daniel 11 : 36-45 and Daniel 12 : 1 will be fulfilled.  This entire period covers        7 years (The Seventieth week – Dan. 9 : 27). 
11 : 36-39 :  Antichrist (Revived Roman Emperor) will not respect God, God’s people (Israel), and Holy Temple of Jerusalem (11 : 36, 37, 39).  But he will make a peace treaty with Israel cunningly.
11 : 40-45 : At the end of the time (40), both the King of South (Probably Ethiopia and Libya – Ezk 38 : 5 ; Dan. 11 : 43) and the king of North (End Time Assyria- Is. 10 : 5 ff ; 30 : 31 ; 31 : 8-9) will oppose him (40).  They will defeat Egypt (42, 43) an ally of Revived Roman Empire and Antichrist.
The Northern King will defeat many countries while defeating Egypt (41-42).  When he (North King) is in Egypt, he would get a terrible news from North and East (North East-44) that Antichrist is again amassing Revived Roman Army against him.  So he will soon return to Palestine (Israel).  There, he will gather his troops and weapons to make war with Antichrist between Jerusalem (Holy Mountain) and Seas (Probably Dead Sea and Mediterranian Sea).  But he will not begin war.  While preparing for war, suddenly he (North King) would die (he will come to his end – 45).  This would happen at the first part (3½  years) of seventieth week.   (Ezk. 38 : 21 ; 39 : 4,6,11 ; Isa. 31 : 8 : Joel 2 : 20).
Note :  Since the North King died suddenly, the Antichrist will not have any opponent to oppose him.  So he will break the covenant with Israel in the middle of seventieth week.  He will start persecuting Israel.  This persecution is known as the Great Tribulation (a time of Trouble – 12 : 1).  During this tribulation period; Michael will help Israel.  But he (Antichrist) will intensify the tribulation.  So Israel will look for the Messiah.  At the end of Seventieth week (End period of Tribulation), Jesus Christ will come on Mt. Olivet and defeat Antichrist.  This coming is called “visible second coming of Christ”.  Then, Israel will accept the Lord.  Israel shall be delivered (12 : 1).
Events following Christ’s Visible Second Coming (12 : 2-3)
When Jesus visibly come at His second coming on Mt. Olivet, He will defeat Antichrist and sent him into the lake of fire.  After that, Daniel 12 : 2-3 will be fulfilled in part.  Two kinds of Resurrection are mentioned here.  First part of resurrection is the resurrection of Old Testaments saints and the Tribulation saints.  (some to everlasting life – 12 : 2a)  This first part of resurrection will happen after Tribulation but before the commencement of Millennium.  (Remember the New Testament church believers would resurrect before the beginning of Tribulation I Thes. 4 : 13-18).  This New Testament resurrected church believers will come with Jesus and witness the resurrection of Old Testament and Tribulation saints.  They will shine like stars (3).
Then Jesus will inaugurate His Millennial Kingdom. (1000 years rule)
Note :  At the end of Millennium, the unbelievers will be resurrected (12 : 2b).
Certainity of Judgement (12 : 4-10)
Daniel was told to seal the book so that it will be protected from alteration (Deut. 4 : 2 ; Rev. 22 : 18-19).  This all (12 : 2a) will happen at the end of Tribulation (3½ years = time (1 year) + time (2 years) + half time (½ year) – 12 : 7) Tribulation is  called judgement upon Israel to scatter the power of the holy people – 12 : 7b.
Promise of Eternal Blessing (12 : 11-13)
“From the time . . . the abomination that maketh” (12 : 11) refers to the Mid – point of tribulation.  On that day Jewish sacrifies will be taken away by Antichrist.  From that day, it will be 1290 days (3½ years + 30 days = 1260 + 30 days).  At the end of 1260 days (3½ years) Antichrist will be judged.  The extra 30 days will be probably for judging Israel (Ezk. 20 : 34-35 ; Mt. 25 : 1-30) for resurrection of Old Testament and Tribulation Saints (Dan. 12 : 2) and judgement for gentile tribulation Survivers (Joel 3 : 2 ; Mt. 25 : 31-46). 
Then there is another 45 days (1335 days – 12 : 12).  This 45 days will be for the preparation for establishing Millennial Kingdom.  Those who wait and come (by first part of resurrection – 12 : 2a) to these 1335 days are blessed, because they will enter into Millennium.
                                  1335 days (12 : 12)
Church believers to heaven
                                1290 days (12 : 11)
                   70th Week (9:27)
                                                                        Millennial        Eternal
                    3½ years     3½ years                                  Kingdom         Kingdom
                                        1260 days    + 30    45 days    1000 years
                                                Extra 75 days
12 : 13 : Daniel would die (thou shalt rest) and stand in thy lot (he will be resurrected) at the end of the days (the end of 1335 days).  This text means Daniel will resurrect and enter into the millennial kingdom (1000 year Kingdom) at the end of 1335 days. With Daniel, all Old Testament saints and tribulation saints will enter into Millennial kingdom.
Key Resource Material
          The Book of Daniel – Roy Beacham and Roger Peterson.
Assignment for students
  1. Write about the authorship of Daniel
  2. Explain Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the great image.
  3. Explain Daniel’s first vision.
  4. Explain Daniel 9 : 27
  5. Explain Daniel 12 : 11-13
Note : Write the answers for the above questions and send them to CALS.  Please mention your Register Number on Your assignment paper.