BL - 35 Major Prophets

(Isaiah – Ezekiel)
 Objectives of the Course
  1. This course helps us to gain a overview of the prophetical books (Isaiah – Ezekiel).
  2. It also helps to apply the biblical principles in the ministry.
  3. It helps us to understand the theological value of these prophetical books.
  Isaiah was the author of this book. (1 : 1).  He married to a prophetess (8:3).  He had two sons.  He prophesied in Judah (Southern Kingdom of two tribes).  He was sawn to death by king Manaseh (Heb. 11 : 37).  The name “Isaiah” means “Jehovah is Salvation”.
Critical View about Authorship
A few scholars deny the authorship of Isaiah.  They attempt to say that the book of Isaiah was written by three different Isaiahs.  According to them, the first Isaiah (Proto Isaiah) wrote chapters 1-39, the second Isaiah (Deutero Isaiah) wrote the chapters 40-55 and the third Isaiah (Trito – Isaiah) wrote the chapters 56 – 66.  They say that the predictions about future specifically about Cyrus (44 : 28 ; 45 : 1) are impossible.  So this portion (44, 45) must have been written by author Isaiah (Deutero Isaiah).  But some scholars think there are only two Isaiahs instead of one.
Answering to Critical View
There are many biblical scholars argue in support of the authorship of single Isaiah.  They say that the entire book of Isaiah was written by one Isaiah.  They give the following arguments to support the single authorship of Isaiah.
  1. The predictions about future is possible by true prophets. A prophet would commonly ask one generation in the future generation events (Deut. 1 : 35 – 38 – Moses at Moab).
  2. The two major sections of Isaiah (1-39 and 40-66) give two different theological emphasis. The first section (1-39) deals about judgement of God and the second section deals about the Deliverance and comfort to God’s people.  So these two sections do not indicate dual authorship.  But the same Isaiah gives two messages according to the need.
  3. No editorial notes about the change of author is in the book. Since there is no mention of it, the book was written by one author.
  4. Linguistic similarities are found in the entire book (Lord of Hosts / The Holy One of Israel) key words and key phrases are equally distributed through out the book of Isaiah. This also indicates one authorship.
  5. There is no division in the Qumran Scroll of Isaiah. The book was written without a break by the same author.  If there is any other author, there could be divisions.  Since there is no division, it is certainly written by only author.
  6. The New Testament indicates the authorship of Isaiah (Mt. 1 : 22-23 ; 3 : 3).
  7. Jesus Christ, the Greatest teacher of truth, Himself affirmed the authorship of Isaiah.
                   Based on these seven arguments, we understand that the book of Isaiah was written by the only author.
Purpose of the Book
  As God revealed, Isaiah wrote this book with the following purposes,
  • to reveal God’s Holiness and His glory,
  • to explain man’s sinfulness,
  • to reveal God’s judgement for sinfulness,
  • to assure God’s deliverance and blessing on the remnant of Israel.
Historical setting of the book of Isaiah
Uzziah (790-739 BC) was a good king of Judah.  He expanded his territories by huge army.  After him, son Jotham became king.  After Jotham, his son Ahaz became king. He was an evil king (2 Chro. 26-32, 2 King 15-20).
Assyria was then super power.  Both Israel (Northern Kingdom of 10 tribes) and Judah (Southern kingdom of 2 tribes) became vassal nations to Assyria.  In 727 BC, Tiglath – Pileser III, Assyrian king died.  So Hoshea (King of Israel) stopped paying tribute to Assyria.  Hence Shalmanesar V (Assyrian King) besieged Samariah from 725 – 722 BC.  By this, Samariah (Northern kingdom) was defeated by Assyria.  After Shalmanesar V, (727-722 BC)Sargon II (721-705) became king (Is. 20 : 1).  After Sargon, his son Sennacherib (705-681 BC) became king.
Hezekiah, son of Ahaz also stopped paying tribute to Sennacherib in 701 BC.  So Sennacherib put a siege against   Jerusalem in 701 BC.  But God saved the city (Is. 36-37).  Hezekiah reigned Judah until 686 BC.  His son, Manasseh reigned 55 years as co-regency with his father.  He later killed the prophet Isaiah.
Brief Outline of Isaiah
  1. Introduction and condition of Israel Ch 1-5
  2. Isaiah’s vision of God’s throne. Ch. 6
  3. Prophecy of Messiah. Ch. 7-12
  4. God’s sovereignity over the Nations. Ch. 13-35
  5. God’s Deliverance to Judah 36-39
  6. Israel’s calling in the world. Ch. 40-48
  7. God’s plan for salvation. Ch. 49-59
  8. Revelation of Future Glory. Ch. 60-66
  1. Introduction and Condition of Israel – Ch. 1-5
                   Isaiah get these revelations during the reigns of four kings; Uzziah (791-740 BC), Jotham (740-736), Ahaz (736-716) and Hezekiah (716-687 BC).  He began his ministry at the later part of Uzziah’s reign, most probably after his death in 740 BC (6 : 1,8).
  1. Israel’s spiritual condition and God’s call to repentance – Ch.1
              The term Israel here refers to the southern kingdom Judah (v : 1).  The people forgot God and His law, written by Moses.  So God used Isaiah to call them to repentance.  God nourished this nation as children, but it has rebelled against Him.  They have totally forgotten their creator, even the ox and the donkey know their master but Judah has forgotton its creator (2-3).  They are compared to the people of Sodom and Gomorrah.  In such a spiritual condition, their sacrifices are abominable to God (10-13).  God calls them to repent so that He might bless the nation (18-19).  When they refused to repent, God warned them about judgement (20-31).
  1. Chastisement before the future blessing – Ch. 2
              “Cedars of Lebanon” represents kings, ‘Oaks of Bashan’ represent military commanders.  High mountains and hills represent nations and cities, “High Towers’ represent military fortresses in some prophetic utterance (13-15).  People trusted these human leaders, instead of God (22).  God warned them that all these human kingdoms and powers will be brought down (12).  In the last days (v.2), God will finally destroy all human glories and will establish His kingdom (Top of mountains – kingdom in Jerusalem = v.2).  In that kingdom, Jesus shall be the king (v : 3,11) and there shall be no war (4).  This prophecy is similar to Micah 4 : 1-5 and Obediah 15.
  1. God’s Judgement on Judah for Trusting People – Ch. 3
              The leadership of Judah has totally failed to rule the people according to God’s word.  Their rulers were women and children (immature leaders – 4,12).  There was chaos in Judah.  The people were proud and they lived in luxury (14-16).  So God warned them about coming judgement on Judah.  This prophecy fulfilled in 586 BC.  Due to God’s judgement and wars, many women will lose their husbands.  None will marry them (4 : 1).
  1. Promised Blessing to Zion (Jerusalem) Ch. 4
              Although God judges them to the extent of not having many men, God will again bless them in the last days.  God will protect Jerusalem as He protected Israel during wilderness journey (4 : 5,6 ; Ex. 40 : 34-38).  In that day of blessing, the “Branch of the Lord” shall be the king in Jerusalem.  “Branch of the Lord” refers to the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ. (11 : 1 ; 53 : 2 ; Jer. 23 : 5 ; 33 : 15 ; Zech. 3 : 8).
  1. Analogy of the Wild Grapes and Israel – Ch. 5
              This is a prophetic poem.  It starts out as a “wedding song” and ends as a “funeral dirge”  for  Israel’s death / judgement.  In this poem, God through prophet graphically explained the spiritual failure of Israel.  God planted Israel as Good grapes and protected it from enemies.  But it drastically failed and gave bitter grapes (1-7).  Therefore God was against Israel (25) and pronounced His judgement on Israel (8-30).    Israel has totally failed in the sight of God, because it did not observe God’s word.
  1. Isaiah’s Vision of God’s Throne – Ch. 6
                   King Uzziah was considered as good king.  He died in 740 BC.  When he died, Isaiah worried about the future of the nation.  In order to remove his worry, and  to comfort him, the Lord appeared to him as seated on His Royal Throne as the real and eternal ruler of Israel.  When Isaiah saw the vision of the Lord, he understood about the Holiness of God and about his own sinfulness before the Holy God (5).  So he confessed his uncleaness.  As soon as he confessed his unclean lips (sinfulness), an angel cleansed him (5-6).  This shows that when we confess our sins, then God cleanses us through the blood of Jesus (1 Jn. 1 : 7-9).  After cleansing him, God gave the call for His mission.  Isaiah was willing to go God’s mission. (8-9).  Isaiah’s motivation to ministrty was not success but God’s calling.  As well, motivation to our ministry is not success but God’s calling and our commitment to God’s word.  His mission was to warning the people about coming God’s judgement (11, 12) and to comfort the remnant (13).
  1. Prophecy concerning the Messiah – Ch. 7-12
                   These chapters mainly deal with the prophecies concerning Messiah and His kingdom although they have some historical background .
  1. Prophecy concerning the Virgin Birth of Immanuel – Ch. 7
              A siege was planned by Syria against Jerusalem (734 BC).  At this time, God sent Isaiah with his tiny son (Shear – Jashub) to Ahaz to prophecy about this war.  Isaiah said that these nations will be defeated.  This prophecy fulfilled in 732 BC (2 Kg. 16 :9).  When Tiglath Pilesar, the  Assyrian emperor killed Damascus King Rezin.    He also prophesied that (734-65=669), the Northern kingdom (Ephraim) will be destroyed (8) within 65 years.  Ahaz was 27 years old.  He believed Assyria’s help instead of God’s help.  So Isaiah warned about his unbelief (9b).  In order to remove his unbelief Isaiah offered him to ask for a sign.  But Ahaz tactically refused to ask (10-12).  So Isaiah first gave a sign to the Nation of Jews (O House of David) about the virgin birth. (7 : 14).
              He gave the second sign to Ahaz (You – 17).  According to this prophecy, Assyria would attack Jerusalem.  This would happen before the growth of the child mentioned in 7 : 15-17.  The child mentioned in 7 : 16, is probably the tiny son of Isaiah who went with him (7:3).  Isaiah told that before this boy grow to know good and evil (15),   Assyria will attack.  This prophecy fulfilled when Assyria attacked Jerusalem between 714 – 701 BC.
Note :  The phrase “Curd and Honey, He shall eat” refer to the grown up stage of the child.  Eating of curd and honey also indicates hardship of life.
  1. Additional Prophecy about Assyrian Invasion – Ch. 8
              In this chapter (8:2) God gave a “near / immediate sign” to validate His “Far sign” (birth of Immanuel 7 : 14).  This immediate / near sign is about the birth of second son to Isaiah.  The name to be given to him is “Maher – Shalal – Hash – Baz”, which means “you haste to spoil”.  According to this prophetic sign, Assyria would destroy Israel very soon.   When God gave this prophecy, Isaiah called two witnesses.  The two witnesses were to testify the prophetic revelation and its fulfillment.  The two witness were Uriah, the high priest (2 King.16 : 10-16) and Zechariah (2 Kg. 18 : 2).  True prophecy is always testified by two eye witnesses at least (Deut. 17 : 6), in its utterance as well as its fulfillment.  Isaiah got his second son through his wife.  She was called prophetess since she was the  wife of a prophet.  The prophecy was “before the child say father and mother, Damascus and Samariah would be plundered”.  This prophecy was given in the middle of 734 BC.  After 9 months (734+9 month = 733BC), a son was born to Isaiah.  Before he attain one year old (733 + 1 = 732 BC).  This prophecy was fulfilled.  Assyria plundered Samariah in 732 BC.  Finally it destroyed Samaria in 722 BC.
v : 19 – 20 :  False prophets did not prophecy according to God’s word.  True prophet always prophecy in accordance to God’s word (8:16,20 ; Rom. 12 : 6 ; 1 Cor. 14 : 29).
  1. Immanuel’s Deity and Humanity Revealed – Ch. 9
              Immanuel would be a light to the people who are in darkness.  This prophecy is related with the life of Jesus in Galilee, a despised place. (v: 2-5; 2 Kg. 15 : 29 ; Mt. 4 : 14-16).  He would be the greatest ruler on the throne of David.  This part of prophecy will be fulfilled at His second coming (v : 6,7 ; Obed. 15).  Verse 9 : 6 gives various titles to Immanuel.  Among the title terms; “Child is born” refers to Immanuel’s incarnation through virgin birth and Humanity while “son is given” refers to the Deity as the second person of Holy Trinity.  Hence, the “Child is born” denotes Immanuel’s birth (Human birth), “the son is given”  denotes Divine origin of Immanuel (Jesus).  After explaining Immanuel’s supremacy, the prophet prophesied about the judgement on Samariah (9:8-10:4).
  1. Immanuel’s blessing to Remnant Israel – Ch. 10
              God used Assyria to punish disobedient Israel (5-6).  But Assyria was proud for it destroyed Israel.  (7-11).  Assyria thought it destroyed Israel by its own might, in stead of honouring God.  So God said, He would judge Assyria for its pride (12-19).  After punishing Assyria (23-34), God will again bless the remnant (20-22).  This prophecy had fulfilled in part when Assyria was defeated by Babylon.  However, its major fulfillment will be in future at the second coming (20-22).
  1. The Reign of Immanuel – Ch. 11
              “The stem of Jesse” refer to Immanuel / Jesus Christ.  He was born in the line of David, the son of Jesse (Zech. 6 : 12 ; Rev. 5 : 5 ; Is. 9 : 6,7 ; 11 : 10 ; Mt. 1 : 5 ; Act. 13 : 23).  He will be perfectly anointed by the  Holy spirit to be the king of kings (v : 2 ; Lk. 4 : 14 ; Rev. 4 : 5).  The seven fold fullness of Holy Spirit will be expressed in His rule (Holy Spirit Existence, wisdom, understanding, counsel, might, knowledge, Reverential fear).  This will be fulfilled in Millennial Rule of Christ.  This rule will bring back the situation in the Garden of Eden (5-8).  So the child can play with cobra.
  1. Praise to Immanuel – Ch. 12
              “In that day” here refers to the Millennial kingdom when Christ is exalted as the Ruler (2 : 11).  The whole world would praise Immanuel (Jesus Christ).  He would rule the world from Zion (Jerusalem is mentioned as Zion in prophecy – 6).
  1. God’s sovereignity over Nations – Chs. 13-35
                   In these chapters, God reveals His plans for nations, which are politically related with Israel and Jerusalem.
  1. Prophecy against Babylon – Ch. 13
              Babylon was the capital of Babylonian Empire.  God would judge Babylon because it was against the Jews, especially against Jerusalem.  God would judge Babylon by raising Medes against it (17).
  1. Further Prophecies on Israel, Babylon, Assyria, Philistia – Ch. 14
Israel (1-3) :  God would bring back Israel (Jews) from Babylon where they were under captivity (Zeph. 2 : 7,9).  After tolerating many persecutions, Israel would finally rule all of its enemies.
Babylon (4-23) :  The section is a prophetic song against Babylon and its evil kings.  In this passage, Babylon King is compared to Lucifer (12-21).  Lucifer is Satan.   While giving prophecy against Babylonian king, God revealed about the character and fall of Lucifer, so we could understand about Satan’s character and the reason for his fall etc.
Assyria (24 – 27) :  Assyria was a great empire after the period of Egyptian domination.  Assyria was defeated by Babylon.
Philistia (28-32) :  Ahaz died in 716 BC.  Isaiah warned any alliance.  Philistia offered alliance against Assyria.  So God used Assyria (North refers Assyria) to punish Philistia.
  1. Prophecy against Moab – Ch. 15-16
              Moabites were the people who were born to Lot through his daughter (Gen. 19 : 37). They were always against Israel as a thorn.  Moab was proud (16 : 6-8) and they worshiped false gods.  So God said about their destruction.
  1. Prophecy against Syria and Israel – Ch. 17
  • Syria was a neighbouring nation to Israel. Damascus was its capital.  Syria and Israel (Ephraim – v : 3, the 10 tribes of northern kingdon) joined together to attack Judah and Jerusalem.  So God was against Syria.  As Isaiah told, Syria was destroyed by Assyria in 732 BC.
(4-14) –   Israel (Northern kingdom) joined with Syria to attack Jerusalem.  Moreover, Israel (10 tribes) had forgotten their God of Salvation and Rock of stronghold (God’s protection).  So God was against Israel.  Finally As God said Assyria completely destroyed Israel (Northern Kingdom of 10 tribes) in 722 BC.
  1. Prophecy against Ethiopia – Ch. 18
              Ethiopia also offered an alliance with Hezekiah against Assyria in 715 BC.  God warned Hezekiah through Isaiah against alliance with Ethiopia, because Ethiopia was going for a disaster.  As God said, Ethiopia was defeated by Assyrians.
  1. Prophecy over Egypt, Assyria, Israel – Ch. 19
Egypt (1-17) was the first oppressor of God’s people Israel.  It was also a powerful nation. However God decided to judge Egypt.  As God said through Isaiah, Egypt was punished.  God used Ethiopia to judge Egypt.  In 711 BC, Ethiopia, as a powerful nation, tookover Egypt.  It lasted for 60 years.
God’s Blessing (19 : 18-25) –  In future, Egypt will turn to God.  “In that day” (21), probably refers to the kingdom of Messiah.  In that period, Egypt, and Assyria will turn to God (23).  Since they turn to God, God will help them along with Israel (25).
  1. Detailed prophecy against Egypt and Ethiopia – Ch. 20
              Instead of trusting God, Israel trusted Egypt and Ethiopia for protection from Assyria.  So God symbolically revealed the message through Isaiah (1-3).  As Isaiah walked barefoot, the Egyptians and the Ethiopians would be taken to Assyria by Assyrian King.  By seeing the defeat of Egypt, Israel would say “How shall we escape?” (6).
  1. Prophecy against Babylon, Edom and Arabia – Ch. 21
v:1-10 –  “Wilderness of the sea” refers to Babylon.  Babylon was defeated by Sennacherib of Assyria in 703 BC.  This news terrorized Jerusalem (Ch.36, 37 ; 2 Kg. 18-19 ; 2 Chr.32 : 1-23)
v:11-12 –  Dumah refers to Edom.  Edomites were the descendants of Easu, the brother of Jacob (Gen. 32 : 3).
v:13-17 –  Dedanites and Kedar (13,17) were the tribes of Arabia.  Tema was an Arabian Oasis city.  Arabians were against Israel.  So God would judge it.
  1. Prophecy over Jerusalem – Ch. 22
v : 1-14 –  Valley of vision refers to Jerusalem.  This prophecy is related with Sennacherib’s 701 BC invasion (21 : 1-10 ; 7 : 17).  Hezekiah was a godly king but the people of Judah were away from God from the period of Ahaz, the father of Hezekiah.  Since the people were against their maker (11), God would judge them.  So Hezekiah expected Assyria’s invasion.  Thus he protected water system of Jerusalem (9-11; 2 Chr. 32).
v : 15-19 –  Shebna was the chamberlain of King (36 : 3, 37 : 2).  He will be judged for his lack of faith in God (13, 16).  His successor Eliakim was faithful to God, so he would be blessed (20-25).  But the successors of Eliakim would not be faithful as he was.  So they will be removed (25) and judged.
  1. Prophecy against Tyre – Ch.23
                  Tyre and Sidon were neighbouring cities in Phoenicia.  Tyre was a leading maritime power during the period of Isaiah.  However this city had influence of false religion.  Hence God was against it.  It would be destroyed as Babylon was destroyed by Assyria (13).  It was completely destroyed by Alexander in 332 BC.
K.              Prophecy of Judgement over the whole Earth – Ch. 24
              This chapter completely deals with the judgement which will come upon the whole earth.  Hence this judgement period may be at the last part of the tribulation period, when God will judge the earth.  Then Christ will reign from Zion / Jerusalem (v : 23).
L.               Praising God – Ch. 25
              People of God of all generation will praise God.  He removes all their sorrows and wipes away tears from all faces.  All believers will enjoy resurrected life because God will swallow up death for ever (8).
M.             Song of Salvation by God’s people – Ch. 26
              The people of God will praise God and sing a song of salvation unto God from the strong city (Jerusalem).  The saved people will enjoy perfect peace.  The Hebrew word Shalom for peace implies health, protection, happiness, well-being, satisfaction and peace.
N.               Regathering of Israel / God’s people – Ch. 27
              “In that day” probably refers to the period when Israel’s people are regathered not only from Egypt and Assyria (12,13) but also from all nations.  This regathered Israel is compared to good vine (2-6).  During this regathering, all sins of Israel will be purged.
Leviathan : Some think it refers to Dinasurus.  Others think it is a mythological animal which symbolizes all evil powers (27 : 1).
O.              Further Prophecy about Ephraim and Jerusalem – Ch. 28
              The people and leaders of Ephraim were drunkards and had no fear of God (1-8).  When Isaiah prophesied they mocked with stammering lips.  They did not listen God’s word spoken through prophet in their own language.  So Isaiah said that God would speak to them through another language.  (9-13) As he prophesied, the Assyrians who speak another language destroyed Samaria / Ephraim in 722 BC.  As Ephraim did not listen, Judah also did not listen   God (16).  But they made a covenant with Egypt (14-15).  They trusted Egypt would protect them.  But Isaiah pleaded to trust the Lord. (16 – sure foundations).  If they do not trust, they will be punished (17-22).  God is able to counsel leaders as he counsels a plowman (23-29).
Note : These messages recorded in Chs. 28 : 1-33 : 24 probably related with the latter part of Hezekiah’s reign.
P.                Warning to Jerusalem – Ch. 29
              “Ariel” means ‘Lion of God’ referring to Jerusalem.  People of Jerusalem were disobedient (9-16).  They worshiped God with their lips.  Since they did not listen, God would judge them through Assyria (5-8).  It fulfilled in 701 BC.  Although Israel / Jerusalem was judged by God for many times for its disobedience, it will again turn to the Lord.  The last part of this chapter (17-24) will be fulfilled in future (Obed. 15).
  1. Rebelious nature of the people of Jerusalem – Ch.30, 31
              After many pleas, they did not accept God’s counsel to trust Him and His word (1,9,12).  But they consulted with Egypt for protection (2-14, 16, 17 ; 31 : 1-3).  God promised that if they turn and trust Him,  He will protect them (15, 18-33 ; 31:4-9) and bless them.
R.               Prophecy concerning Righteousness and Peace – Ch. 32
              Since the leaders and men rejected God’s counsel, Isaiah spoke to women.  He found that they were also complacent (9,10).  So He said their complacency would be judged (9-14).  However, when the Spirit is poured, the Lord will reign in Jerusalem with righteousness and peace (1-8, 16-20).  When the Lord Jesus reign in future, there will be perfect peace (18).
S.                Prayer in Distress and Protection promised by God – Ch. 33
              The nations which plunder Judah will be plundered, when God’s people (Israel) trust the Lord (1,5,6).  Isaiah prayed in distress of Judah.  God will deliver Judah from all their enemies, who speak obscure speech (19).  There will be no warship to attack Judah.  Because God will rule as the Majestic King (17-24).  This will ultimately fulfilled in Millennial kingdom, probably.
T.               Summary of Judgement on Nations – Ch. 34
              There are many judgements predicted against nations (13 : 1-23 : 18).  In this chapter, Isaiah reiterates those judgements on nations.  Edom was a nation, which was always against Israel.  Edomites were the descendants of Esau. (Obed. 10, 11).  Here Edom represents evil nations.
U.               Promise of Future Glory of Zion / Jerusalem – Ch. 35
              After all the judgements on nations are consummated, the Lord will reign in righteousness and peace.  Although some facts of this prophecy fulfilled during the ministry of Jesus, (3-6), many of its aspects will be fulfilled in future when Christ rule from Zion (1,6-10).
  1. God’s Deliverance to Judah – Ch. 36-39
                   These chapters are a historical interlude between the prophecies concerning judgement for failure (Chs. 1-35) and concerning comfort to God’s people in the future (Ch. 40-66).  This historical setting is recorded in 2 Kings. 18-20.
A.               Deliverance of Jerusalem from Sennacherib – Ch. 36,37
              Sennacherib was king of Assyria.  He captured and destroyed many ancient cities and he plundered Lachish.  Then he put a siege against Jerusalem under the leadership of his army Chief (Rabshakeh – a title given to Chief / Chief of staff or Field Marshal).  He threatened the people and the soldiers of Judah by speaking in Hebrew (11-20).  He boasted about Assyrian victory (4-6).  He intended to attack Jerusalem because Hezekiah did not pay tribute as his father Ahaz did to Assyria.  Instead, Hezekiah made an alliance with Egypt to oppose Assyria (5,6).  So Assyria came against Hezekiah.
              However, Hezekiah did not fear to his threat.  But He trusted God (36 : 7,15,18).  He asked the advice of Isaiah.  Isaiah prophesied that Jerusalem would be protected from the  Assyrian siege (37 : 21-35).  Hezekiah also prayed unto God (37 : 8-20).  As Isaiah prophesied it happened.  Sennacherib heared a rumour and returned to Nineveh.  He was killed there.  By this way, Jerusalem was protected.
B.               Deliverance to Hezekiah from sickness – Ch. 38-39
              Hezekiah was sick unto death.  However, He prayed to God (2,3).  Since he prayed, God answered his prayer and extended his life for 15 years.  For this miraculous healing, God also gave a miraculous sign from nature by turning back the sundial.  After   healing He praised God.
              By hearing the news about Hezekiah’s recovery Babylonian King sent his leaders to great Hezekiah.  When they came, Hezekiah showed them the temple treasury (2).  This was a political blunder of Hezekiah.  He should not have showed the treasures of God’s temple.  So Isaiah warned and prophesied that these treasures would be taken to Babylon.  As Isaiah prophesied, King Nebuchadnezzer of Babylon plundered the treasures of Jerusalem Temple.  Isaiah’s prophecy fulfilled after 100 years.
Note :  Isaiah pointed out the sins of Israel and predicted God’s judgement for sin from Chapter 1 to Chapter 39 (40 : 2).  However, He comforts (40 : 1,2) and encourages (60 : 1),  God’s people in his messages beginning from chapter 40 upto 66.  Hence this portion of Isaiah (40-60) is known as “Message of comfort”.
  1. Israels calling in the world – Chs. 40-48
                   In this portion of scripture, God is pictured as creator and master of the world, specially in relation with Israel.  Nation Israel is pictured as God’s servant.
A.               Purpose of God’s Call – Ch. 40-44 : 22
              God is pictured here as creator (40 : 28 ; 41 : 20 ; 43 : 1,7,15), Wise one (40 : 12-14), Holy  one (40 : 25 ; 43 : 3) Eternal one (41 : 4 ; 44 : 6), Redeemer (41 : 14), Saviour (43 : 3 ) and King (43 : 15).  Israel is pictured  as servant (41 : 8 ; 44 : 1,21).  Israel is called with the specific purpose so that it can be a witness for God in the world (41 : 9 ; 42 : 6 ; 43 : 1,10), a light to the Gentiles (42 : 6).  Moreover Israel must declare God’s praise to nations (43 : 21).
God’s Special Servant :  “The servant” mentioned in 42 : 1-4 is a Messianic prophecy.  This servant refers to Jesus Christ (Messiah) and to His earthly ministry.
44 : 2 = Jeshurun is a term of endearment to Israel (Deut. 33 : 5).
  1. The Lord’s Redemption of His servant (Israel) – Ch. 44 : 23-47 : 15
              God called Israel to be the light to the gentiles (42 : 6).  But it had failed to be so.  Hence God judged it (Ch. 1-39). However God would redeem Israel from all its sins and failure (40 : 2).  He would restore the nation Israel again for His glory (44 : 21-23).  Due to Israel’s sin, it went into captivity in Babylon from 605 BC.  However, God promised that He would redeem this nation from its captivity.  God used Cyrus, the king of Persia to redeem Israel from its captivity (44 : 28 ; 45: 1-5).  Through Cyrus,  God redeemed Israel, His servant nation.
Note :  Isaiah prophesied about Cyrus by name.  100 Years before the actual birth of Cyrus.  As Isaiah Prophesied in chapter 45, Cyrus became king of Persia and released Israel from captivity.  The famous Jewish historian Josephus has recorded this historical fulfillment of Isaiah 45.  Cyrus is also called anointed (45 : 1) because God used him especially (45 : 14-25).
In chapter 46, Isaiah Contrast True God with false gods (Bel and Nebo were Babylonian idol gods).  He also prophesied that Babylon will be destroyed and humiliated (47).  As Isaiah predicted, Babylon was defeated by Cyrus in 539 BC.
C.               God’s call to Israel to Rejoice – Ch. 48
              God, Almighty (48 : 1-13) used Cyrus (48 : 14-16) to redeem Israel from captivity.  Now God calls the redeemed people rejoice over their deliverance (20).  God promises peace (18,19), if they obey.  But there will be no peace, for the wicked who do not repent (22).
  1. God’s Plan of Salvation – Chs. 49-59
                   These chapters contain further of servant songs.  Israel is sometimes presented as God’s servant (49:3). Other times the Messiah is referred as God’s servant representing earthly ministry of Messiah / Jesus Christ (49 : 6 ; Lk. 2 : 32).
A.               The Servant to Gentiles is Israel’s Hope – Ch. 49,50
              As God used Israel as His servant, the Messiah would be His servant to the Gentiles (49 : 6 ; Lk. 2 : 32).  Moreover, the Messiah would be Israel’s Hope; because Israel will rejoice in His salvation and in His teaching (49 : 7-13 ; 50 : 4).  God will show His mercy to Israel through Messiah and He will not forget them (49 : 14-26).  The servant Messiah pictured as one who suffers (50 : 6 ; Mt. 26 : 67 ; 27 : 26,30).
B.               God’s comfort to Zion through salvation – Ch. 51 : 1-52 : 12
              In this passage, God comforts His people by announcing His eternal salvation (51 : 6,8 ; 52 : 7).  All the nation will wonder by seeing the salvation of Zion / Jerusalem, which God gives (52 : 10).  Here Isaiah prophesied about the returning from Babylonian captivity (52 : 3-12)  as well as full salvation during the rule of Messiah.
C.               Salvation through the sin-bearing servant – Ch. 52 : 13-53 : 12
              This portion of prophecy mainly deals with the features of Jesus Christ’s redemptive works.  It predicts about vicarious suffering and death (53 : 4,5), and about His resurrection (53 : 10).  Christ brings salvation not only to Israel but also to  the whole world (52 : 15 ; 53 : 11,12 ; Rom. 5 : 1).
D.               God’s Invitation for salvation – Chs. 54 – 55
              Since God is the only source of true salvation, He invites the people to accept and to rejoice in His salvation (54 : 1-3 ; 55 : 1-3).  He will pardon the people who repent (55 : 6,7).  His plans of salvation is higher than ours (55 : 8,9).
  1. God’s salvation to the Gentiles (Ch. 56 : 1-8).
              The salvation of God will be given to Israel as well as to the Gentiles.  They all will worship God together   in the Holy Mountain (7).  They will jointly worship God in the reign of Messiah.
F.                The Need of Salvation – Chs. 56 : 9-57 : 21
              Watchman and Shepherds refer to the leaders of Israel (56 : 10,11).  They lived sinful life.  The people lived the most wicked life (57 : 5). Due to this sins, they had no peace in life (57 : 21).  In order to receive God’s peace in their life, they need salvation.  They should repent and trust God for their salvation (57 : 13).  God promises peace for saved people (57 : 18,19).
G.              Perfect Salvation through God’s Righteousness – Chs. 58 – 59
              People especially Israel live religious life, by fasting and observing religious practices.  But mere religious practices of a sinner will not bring satisfaction to God (58 : 1-8).  All are sinners in the sight of God (59 : 4,5 ; Rom. 3 : 23).  So salvation is far from us (59 : 11,12).  In this wretched condition, God looks for an intercessor to plead for man’s salvation.  There was none.  So God Himself brings salvation through His righteousness (59 : 16).  That God’s righteousness is available to mankind through  Redeemer (59 : 20).  The promised Redeemer is Jesus Christ.  By trusting Him, every sinner receives perfect salvation.
  1. Revelation of Future Glory – Chs. 60-66
                   Israel was unfaithful to God.  The self righteousness of people and of Israel is like filthy rags before God.  (64 : 6).  God is faithful in spite of Israel’s unfaithfulness (63 : 1-65 : 16).  Since God is faithful, God will bless and save Israel from all its enemies (61-62).  It will be a time of blessing to Israel (61: 1-3).  People of God will enjoy salvation and  righteousness of God (61 : 9-10).  Under Messiah’s reign, Israel will again shine (60 : 1-2).  All the gentile nations will come to the light of Israel (60 : 3) in Jerusalem (Zion – 60 : 14).   This blessing will culminate with the new creation (66 : 17).  In this new system all false worship will be removed (66 : 1-4).  This blessing is permanent (66 : 22-23) but the transgressors will be judged (24).  God’s people will be with God’s blessing (65 : 17 – 66 : 24).  This shall be the future glory of Israel.
A summary of the Prophecies of Isaiah
A.   Prophecies fulfilled during Isaiah’s Life Time
  1. Judah would be protected from Syria and Israelite’s invasion (7 : 4,16).
  2. Syria and Israel (North kingdom of 10 tribes) would be destroyed by Assyria (8 : 4 ; 17 : 1-14 ; 28 : 1-4).
  3. Assyria would invade Judah (8 : 7,8).
  4. Jerusalem would be protected from Assyria’s invation (37 : 33-35).
  5. Moab would be destroyed by Assyria in three years (15 –16)
  6. Egypt and Ethiopia would be defeated by Assyria (18 –20).
  7. Arabia would be judged (21 : 13-17).
  8. Tyre would be destroyed (23 : 1-12)
  9. Hezekiah’s life extended (38 :5)
  10. Assyria would be destroyed by God (10 : 5-34 ; 14 : 24-27 ; 30 : 27-33 ; 37 : 6).
B.    Prophecies Fulfilled after Isaiah’s Life Time
  1. The Babylonian captivity of Judah (3 : 1-8 ; 5 : 26-30 ; 22 : 1-14 ; 39 : 5-7).
  2. Babylon’s defeat by Cyrus (13 : 17-22 ; 14 : 1-23 ; 21 : 2 ; 46 : 11 ; 48 : 14).
  3. Babylon’s desolation (13 : 20-22 ; 47 : 1-15).
  4. The conquests of Cyrus (41 : 2,3 ; 44 : 28 ; 45 : 1-4).
  5. Judah’s return to Jerusalem by the decree of Cyrus (44 : 38 ; 45 : 13) and its joy (48 : 20 compare Ps. 126)
  6. Tyre restored (23 : 13-18)
  7. Permanent desolation of Edom (34 : 5-17)
  8. Birth, life, suffering, death, resurrection, ascension and exaltation of Jesus (7 : 14, 15 ; 9 : 1,2,6 ; 11 : 1,2 ; 35 : 5,6 ; 42 : 1-3; 50 : 4-6 ; 52 : 13-15 ; 53 : 2,10-12, 15 ; 61 : 1,2)
  9. Ministry of John, the Baptist (Is. 40 : 3-5).
  1. Isaiah’s Prophecies yet to be fulfilled (in Future)
  1. The Tribulation of Israel (Is. 2 : 10-22 ; 13 : 6-13 ; 24 : 1-23 ; 26 : 20,21 ; 34 : 1-10 ; 51 : 6)
  2. The battle of Armageddon at the end of tribulation (Is. 34 : 1-10 ; 42 : 13, 14 : 63 ; 1-6 ; 66 : 15,16).
  3. The Millennial Kingdom (Is. 2 : 2-4 ; 4 : 2-6 ; 11 : 6-10, 12 ; 14 : 3,7,8 ; 19 : 18-25 ; 29 : 18 ; 30 : 19, 23 – 26 ; 32 : 18 ; 35 : 1-10 ; 40 : 4,5 ; 42 : 13,14, 16 ; 44 : 23 ; 49 : 10-13 ; 51 : 3,11 ; 52 : 1,6-10 ; 56 : 6-8 ; 59 : 20,21 ; 60 : 1-3, 11-13, 19-22 ; 62 : 1-4 ; 63 : 1-6 ; 65 : 18-25 ; 66 : 10,12,15,16,23).
                  Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah was a prophet and author of this book.  He was of the priestly line.  He lived in Anathoth, 5 Km. north of Jerusalem.  He was called to be a prophet in 627 BC.  Jeremiah prophesied to Judah. (Southern Kingdom)
                  Jeremiah was the last of the pre-exilic prophets.  He prophesied in Judah during the reigns of Josiah, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin and Zedekiah.  He prophesied from 627 BC until 586 BC.  He began his prophetic ministry in 627 BC in the 13th year of Josiah’s reign.
Kings under Whom Jeremiah Ministered
                  Jeremiah ministered under seven kings totally.  Those seven kings and significant events are given below:
Jeremiah was called during Josiah’s reign
A wicked king burned Jeremiah’s scroll
90 days ruled
Judah’s final king
Babylon’s king treated Jeremiah with respect
Governor of Jerusalem appointed by Nebuchadnezzar.
After Gedeliah’s assassination, he took over.  He made Jeremiah to go to Egypt.
Threefold Ministry of Jeremiah
  1. He warned the majority in Judah of coming captivity.
  2. He comforted the minority Jews who were already in Babylon exile during 605 BC – 597 BC. He wrote a letter of encouragement to them (Ch. 29).
  3. He pronounced judgement on Nine gentile nations (Ch. 46-51).
Historical Background
                   Josiah was a good king.  He began a reform by destroying pagan high places.  However this reform had a little lastime effect on the people of Judah.  Ashurbanipal, the last powerful king of Assyria died in 627 BC.  Assyria was weakening politically.  Hence Josiah began enlarging his territory in north.  In 609 BC, Josiah was killed when he attempted to prevent Pharaoh Necho of Egypt from going to help Assyria.  His three sons followed him on the throne (Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah) and a grandson too (Jehoiachin). During their rule, they did many political blunders.  So Jeremiah warned them of God’s plan for Judah.  However they did not heed the warning.  Jeremiah hence prophesied about coming judgement.
Brief Outline of Jeremiah
 I.      Prophet’s Call – Ch. 1
  1. Prophecies about Judah and Jerusalem (Chs. 2-39).
  • Prophecies about the Remnant of Judah (Chs. 40-45).
  1. Prophecies about the Nations (Chs. 46-51)
  2. Prophets Recollection of History (Ch. 52).
I.     Prophet’s Call – Ch. 1
                   Jeremiah was from a priestly family.  Hence he was both a prophet and priest.  He was called by God in 627 BC (13th year of Josiah’s reign).  Although he was directly called by God in 627 BC, he was divinely ordained before his birth (5-9).  Jeremiah’s mission was two fold;  negatively “too root out and to pull down”  God’s enemies and sinners; positively  “to build and to plant” God’s remnant in Israel (v : 10 ; 31 : 28).  God gave Jeremiah two visions – as he has promised First “the almond tree” (11-12).  Almond tree buds early in the spring season.  According to the Jewish concept, the bud of almond tree symbolizes readiness.  God is ready to judge them who opposes His words.  Second “Boiling cauldron” (13-16).  Boiling pot symbolizes the severeness of judgement which would come on Judah.  When God gave Jeremiah the call for mission, He also promised him God’s protection (17-19).
  1. Prophecies concerning Judah and Jerusalem (Chs. 2-39)
                   This part of scripture has many prophecies concerning Judah and Jerusalem.  In this part, God points out the sin of Judah and calls for repentence.  He also warns of judgement which would certainly come on Judah for its rejection of God’s plan.
  1. The first message about Judah’s failure and sin (2 : 1 – 3 : 5)
Judah is compared to an unfaithful wife.  It forgot God   and served Baal. (2 : 1-8 ).  Judah had chosen broken cisterns (False gods) instead of the fountain of living waters.  Living water here represents God who is the source of all Lives. (2 : 9-25 ; 17 : 13 ; Ps. 36 : 9 ; Is. 55 : 1 ; Jn. 4 : 10-14).  Israel trusted Assyria and Egypt instead of God to protect itself from possible attack of Babylon.  Jeremiah used many animals and plants to portray the sin of Judah (wild vine, dromedary, wild donkey, thief).
  1. The Second Message to Judah to repent (3 : 6-6 : 30)
Merciful God called Judah to repent of its sin and backsliding (3 : 6-4 : 4).  Shepherds (3 : 15 ; 2 : 8) refer to the rulers of Judah.  The phrase “From your youth” refers probably to the period of Judges (3 : 25).  From the days of Judges till today Israel has disobeyed God many times.  However, God called them to repent (4 : 1-4). If they repent, they would escape from the possible invasion of Babylon (4 : 5-31).  The Lion in 4 : 7 is a metaphor for Nebuchadnezzar, and “for country” in 4 : 16refers to Babylon (Is. 39 : 3).  Judah would be certainly Judged (5 : 1-31).  However God was ready to forgive it, if there was at least one righteous persons (5 : 1).  But there was none.  All were liars, including the prophets (5 : 2,12,13).  Since there was none righteous, God would judge Judah (6 : 1-30).  The title “watchman” refers to the true prophets (6 : 17 ; Ezk. 3 : 17 ; 33 : 1-9 ; Heb. 2 : 1).  False prophets promised false peace (6 : 13-14).  Majority of people believed false prophets.  So God would judge Judah by using other nation (Babylon – vv. 22-26).
  1. Jeremiah’s third Message to rebuke Judah – 7 : 1-10 ; 25
He rebuked the degenerated worship in Jerusalem.  The Jews thought they would be protected as long as the Temple of Jerusalem stands.  It was a superstition.  So Jeremiah reminded Judah that Shiloh   was destroyed (7 : 1-20 ; 1 Sam. 4)   Israel trused the Ark of the covenant which was at Shiloa rather than God (I Sam. 4 : 3-4).  Hence God judged Israel.  So then, God would also judge them for trusting in the temple rather than Him and for following false gods ( 7 :15-20).  They sacrificed with rebellious heart (7 : 21-28).  Judah’s disobedience and its certain doom brought deep despair to Jeremiah (7 : 29 – 9 :26).  Jeremiah condemned idolatry of Judah and predicted  forthcoming exile. (10 : 1-25)
  1. Jeremiah’s Fourth Message about the Covenant of God with Judah (11 : 1-13 : 27)
The Jews not only degenerated in worship but also disregarded the covenant, which God made with them on Mt. Sinai (11 : 1-8 ; Deut. 29-30).  Obedience would bring blessing but disobedience bring curse (Deut. 27 : 26 ; 28 : 1-14).  But the Jews disregarded God’s covenant and broke it by going after false idols (11 : 9-10).  So God would judge them; then idols can not save them from coming judgement (11 : 11-17).  Since Jeremiah said about the prophecy of Judgement against Judah, the Jews threatened him.  But God promised protection to him and punishment to his opponents (11 : 18-23).  Out of despair, Jeremiah questioned “Why does the way of the wicked prosper” (12 : 1-4).  However God answered that the trouble against Jeremiah would increase (12 : 5 – 6).  God also told to Jeremiah, as a vineyard was destroyed by its keepers, Judah had been destroyed by its own leaders (rulers – 12 : 7-13).  Moreover, God would judge neighbouring nations for destroying His vineyard Judah (12 : 14-17).  God explained about the coming judgement on Judah by giving him  symbol of the Linen Sash (Belt or girdle – 13 : 1-11).  In this manner, God would bring down the pride of Judah (v ; 9).  People would be filled with confusion as a drunken man (13 : 12-14).  Dark mountains represent the coming judgement (13 : 15-19).  Jerusalem is  represented here by the symbol of woman (13 : 20-27).  It would be punished for its sin as chaff is scattered by the wind.
  1. The Message of the Devastating Drought (14 : 1-15 : 21)
There was severe droughts in Judah, due to its sin, especially of Manasseh (15 : 4 ; 2 Kings 21 : 1-16).  People willingly followed him and his sinful deed.  Jeremiah interceded for the people but God told him not to pray for them (14 : 7-12).  Because they believed the false prophets and their message of false comforts (14 : 13-18).  So God said that the people as well as the false prophets would be judged and that He would punish them even if Moses and Samuel prayed (14 : 19-15 : 9).  Moses and Samuel interceded for Israel when Israel sinned (Ex. 32 : 11-14 , 30-34 ; Num. 14 : 13-23 ; I Sam. 7 : 5-9 ; 12 : 19-25 ; Ps. 99 : 6-8).  Due to their prayer, God spared Israel in the past.  But Now, God said to Jeremiah that He would punish Judah even if Moses and Samuel interceded.  So Jeremiah lamented for the people thinking of the judgement (15 : 10-21).
  1. The sign of the Unmarried Prophet (16 : 1-17 : 18)
Jeremiah was commanded not to marry.  God gave this command to him because many children would die due to the sword, pestilence and deadly diseases which God had intended to bring on Judah.  Death of children would bring great sorrow.  If Jeremiah would not marry, he would have no child.  So he would be spared from the sorrow over the death of his children due to pestilence.  To be spared of such sorrow, God told him not to marry.  Though people continually rejected God, Jeremiah put his trust on the Lord (17 : 12-18).
  1. The Warning of Sabbath Desecration – 17 : 19-27
                   The Law that could be easily monitored is the observance of Sabbath.  The people neglected Sabbath day.  Failure to observe the Sabbath day is an indicator of the sinful response of Judah toward all of God’s laws.  God warned of judgement, if people of Israel did not keep the Sabbath perfectly.
Note :  Sabbath is very important for the people of Old Testament
  1. The Signs from the Potter’s House – 18 : 1-19 : 15
                   God taught a principle to Jeremiah by using the example of Potter.  A potter makes a vessel as he wishes.  If the vessel does not come as he supposed, he breaks it and makes a new one.  Through this example, God said about coming judgement on Judah.  Jeremiah told people about judgement but they did not repent instead they tried to attack Jeremiah (18 : 18-23).  Since they did not repent, God said Jeremiah to take an earthen flask and break it in front of the people (19 : 1-15).  As the earthen flask was broken, the people of Jerusalem would be broken by God’s judgement.
Tophet :  It was a high place in the valley of Hinnom, just outside of Jerusalem.  The wicked people of Judah sacrificed their children to the heathen god Molech.  Jeremiah said Tophet would become a cemetery when God judges Judah (7 : 31,32 ; 19 : 10-15).
  1. The trials of Jeremiah – 20 : 1-18
                   Following Jeremiah’s prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem (19 : 14-15), Pashur, a temple official placed Jeremiah in stocks (20 : 1).  When released, he again prophesied of Babylon’s imminent overthrow of Jerusalem and also of Pashur’s death (20 : 3-6).  But the whole city mocked Jeremiah and treated him as a traitor.  So Jeremiah was troubled in his heart.
Note :  Chapters 1-20 are written chronologically but chapter 21 onwards, Jeremiah wrote the book based on the subject matter.
  1. The Message to Zedekiah – 21 : 1-23 : 40
                   Before Judah finally fell in 586 BC, Babylon had already taken two groups of captives from Jerusalem (605 BC – 597 BC).  On the eve of this final siege (about 588 BC), Zedekiah sent the leaders to enquire Jeremiah about God’s plan for Judah.  God answered them about His plan to help Babylon instead of Judah (21 : 3-14).  He also gave the examples of three previous Kings – Shallum or Jehoahaz (22 : 10-12), Jehoiakim (22 : 13-23 ; 2 Chro. 36 : 4-7) and Coniah (or) Jehoiachin (22 : 24-30).
Note : Shallum (Jehoahaz) a son of Josiah was carried away captive by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt in 609 BC, after reigning for three months.  He died in Egypt (2 Chr. 36 : 1-3).  Then Jehoiakim was a wicked king, he built a beautiful palace for him, but he did not pay to his workmen.  When God judged him, there was none to give him royal burial (22 : 19).  Then Coniah (Jehoiachin or Jeconiah) was exiled to Babylon in 597 BC.  But later, he was freed by Evil -Merodach (24 : 1 ; 29 : 2 ; 2 Chro. 36 : 8-10 ; 2 King 25 : 27-30).  Jehoiachin had seven children but none sat on the throne of David       (1 Chro. 3 : 17,18 ; Jer. 22 : 30).  His sons did not become kings.  However his grandson Zerubbabel was governor of Judah.  Jehoiachin was the last legitimate king of Judah until the birth of Jesus.  Jesus came in this line.
                   As God delivered three kings to enemies, God would deliver Zedekiah to his enemy (Babylon).  This prophecy fulfilled in 52 : 8-11, 24-27.  Then God said about the judgement of false prophets (23 : 9-40).  While said about false prophets and the leaders, God revealed about the perfect king (Messiah – Jesus Christ = 23 : 1-8).  This perfect king, called “the Lord our Righteousness”, will rule in the Millennial kingdom (1000 years.)
(Burden here simply means God’s message – 23 : 33)
  1. The Vision of the Fig Baskets – 24 : 1-10
                   In this vision, good figs represented the captives who were in Babylon, because they would come back to Jerusalem.  The bad figs represented Zedekiah who faced God’s judgement (52 : 8-11, 24-27).
  1. Prophecy about Seventy Years of Captivity – 25 : 1-38
                   By this time (605 BC), Jeremiah had ministered for 23 years.  But the people of Judah did not repent.  So God told Jeremiah to prophecy to the people and to the leaders of Judah that they would be captive in Babylon for seventy years (11,12).  After the completion of seventy years, God would punish Babylon, and other nations which were against Israel.
  1. God’s warning of Destruction – 26 : 1-24
                   This warning message was given in 609 BC.  The priests,  the prophets and the people heard this message in the house of the Lord.  The prophets mentioned in this passage (1-16) are the false prophets.  They arrested Jeremiah and brought before princes.  The princes referred the past history of the prophet Micah and the King Hezekiah (17 – 19) and  Urijah and Jehoiakim (20-23).  However Ahikam was in favour of Jeremiah (2 King 22 : 3-13).
  1. The Message of Yokes (Bondage) – 27 : 1-28 : 17
                   The yoke refers to God’s judgement on neighbouring nations and Judah.  Jeremiah told these nations to submit to Nebuchadnezzar (593 BC).  The false prophet Hananiah Challenged Jeremiah (Ch. 28).  Hananiah prophesied falsely by using God’s name. (Thus speakes the Lord of Hosts – 2).  He also said the bondage would be broken within two years by breaking the wooden yoke of Jeremiah.  Jeremiah did not reply to them.  But later God replied to Hananiah through Jeremiah that the bondage would be severe as of iron.  He also warned Hananiah.  Since he had asked people to rebel against God’s plan and against Jeremiah, he would be killed.  As Jeremiah prophesied, Hananiah died after two months. (28 : 1,17).
  1. Jeremiah’s Letter to the Captives in Babylon – 29 : 1-32
                   Jeremiah wrote a letter to the captives in Babylon in 597 BC.  In that letter, he asked the people not to believe the false prophets and their message of early returning and  he said them the captivity would be for 70 years (8-11).  After 70 years, God would bless them by bring them back from captivity.  He also asked the people to live peacefully in Babylon (4-7).  He warned the false prophets Ahab, Zedekiah and Shemaiah (20-32).  Shemaiah wrote a false letter to punish Jeremiah.  So God said Shemaiah would be judged like Hananiah (28 : 15,16).
16 : Deliverance Promised  by the New Covenant – 30 : 1-33 : 26
                   The term “the time of Jacob’s trouble” denotes the seven years of tribulation  period (30 : 7 ; Dan. 12 : 1).  During this tribulation period Antichrist will persecute Israel and the Jews.  Due to this tribulation, the Jews will look for the help from God.  God will deliver them from their enemies and make a “New covenant” with Israel (31 : 31 ; Ezek. 36 ; Heb. 8 : 8-12 ; 10 : 16,17).  Under this New covenant, Jesus Christ (Messiah) will rule Israel and the whole world.  “David their king” in 30 : 9 refers to Jesus Christ, the Messiah.  During His rule, the nation of Israel will be restored.  As Jeremiah purchased a piece of land, the people of Israel will again purchase land in Palestine and build their houses at the time of New covenant (32 : 1-44).
                   More over, During this time, the Lord of Righteousness (33 : 16) will answer their prayer in a special manner (33 : 3).  Therefore we understand this New covenant is eternal, whereas the old covenant was temporary in nature (31 : 31-40).
This prophecy was given in 587 BC, while Jerusalem was under siege.
Note – (31 : 29) – This was a proverbial saying of the Jews.  Often people misunderstand this scripture, so that they themselves excused their own sinful behaviour and blamed God’s judgement on their forefathers.  But Jeremiah and Ezekial (18:2) said that God’s judgement on Jerusalem was due to the sin of those then living in Jerusalem, not due to the sin of their forefathers.  Hence we can understand, each individual must give account to God for his / her own sin (v : 30 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 10 ; Ex. 20 : 5 ; Num. 14 : 18).
  1. Desolation pronounced because of the Old Covenant – 34 : 1-36 : 32
                   In this passage, God warned the kings of Judah about coming destruction.  When Jerusalem was under siege (588 BC), Zedekiah was warned by God.  Although Babylon Army was withdrawn temporarily to face Egyptian forces, (34 : 21), they came again and captured Zedekiah.  This fulfilled in 52 : 8-11.  Before prophecy about Zedekiah, Jerumiah prophesied about Jehoiakim about the disobedience of Judah. (35 : 1-19).  He showed the example of Rechabites concerning obedience.  Rechabites were a nomadic religious order founded by Jonadab son of Rechab in the ninth century B.C. (2 King 10 : 15,23).  They refrained from using wine.  They maintained this life style for more than 250 years as obeying to the command of its founder.  Rechabites obeyed to their father’s word but God’s people (Judah) did not obey God’s word (14 –19).  By hearing this prophecy, Jehoiakim attempted to kill Jeremiah and his scribe Baruch in 604 BC. But God protected them (36 : 26).  So God said that Jehoiakim’s son would not become rulers of Judah (36 : 30) for long time.  As it was said, Jehoiachin  (a son of Jechoiakim) ruled only 3 months and was taken captive to Babylon (2 King 24 : 8-15).
  1. Events Surrounding the Fall of Jerusalem – 37 : 1-39 : 18
                   These three chapters explain as to how Jeremiah suffered in the hands of rulers and as to what were the events before the fall of Jerusalem city.  King Zedekiah believed the false prophets (37 : 19) instead  put the true prophet Jeremiah in prison.  Then they put him in Dungeon to starve and die (Ch. 38).  However Ebed – Melech later rescued Jeremiah with the permission of king.  Although Zedekiah asked the idea of Jeremiah (38 : 14-28), he did not obey to Jeremiah’s advice.  Finally, as Jeremiah prophesied Babylonian army captured Jerusalem city.  Babylonians rescued Jeremiah.  They appointed Gedaliah as the Governor of Jerusalem.
Note :  Since Ebed-Melech rescued Jeremiah from dungeon, God delivered him from Babylonians.  So they did not kill Ebed-Melech.  So also Babylonians appointed Gedaliah as Governor of Jerusalem, because Gedaliah’s family always helped to Jeremiah.  Gadaliah’s father also helped Jeremiah (26 : 24).
III. Prophecies about the Remnant of Judah (Chs. 40 –45)
                   From the time of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah had been warning Judah about sin and its consequence.  But the people of Judah did not repent.  So God predicted about coming judgement on Judah.  By hearing about Judgement, Baruch fainted.  So God said to Baruch through Jeremiah that he would be protected (45 : 1-5).  After many warnings, Judah did not repent for its sin.  So God judged Judah through Babylon.  Finally Babylon destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC.
                   When Babylon destroyed Jerusalem, it appointed Gedaliah as its Governor.  Nebuchadnezzar gave full freedom to Jeremiah and Baruch (40).  However Gedaliah was assassinated by Ishmael (41).  Since Gedaliah was killed, the remnant Jews of Jerusalem were afraid of Nebuchadnezzar that he might revenge for Gedaliah.  So they went to Egypt.  When they went to Egypt, they forcibly took Jeremiah against his will.  Jeremiah warned that if they   go to Egypt, God would punish them there (42 – 43).  They did not listen to him.  They said that they had suffered because they had not burned incense to other gods (44 :15-23).  So Jeremiah said that surely God would punish them in Egypt. (44 : 24-30).
IV.           Prophecies about the Nations – Ch. 46-51
Most of the nations mentioned in Jeremiah’s prophecy were the neighbouring countries, which had long histories of friction with Judah.  They would be judged.   Egypt (46 : 1-28) would be punished because it was against Israel from the time of Pharaoh.  Philistia was a long-term enemy of Israel from the time of Judges (47 : 1-7).  Moab was a neighbouring nation (48 : 1-47)..  Moabites were the descendants of Lot (Gen. 19 : 37).  Ammon would be judged (Jer. 49 : 1-6).  The Ammonites were also descendants of Lot (Gen. 19 : 38).  Edom was a country in which the descendants of Easu lived.  They were always against Israel.  So God was against Edom (Jer. 49 : 7-22 ; Obed. 10-14).  Damascus was the capital of Syria.  Damascus was also against Jerusalem especially during Selucids rule.  So God would punish it (Jer. 49 : 23-27).  Kedar and Hazor were probably Arab tribes (Gen. 25 : 13 ; Jer. 49 : 28-33).  Elam was east  of Babylonia (Jer. 49 : 34-39).  God would punish Babylon which destroyed Jerusalem (Ch. 50-51).  As God predicted, Babylon was destroyed by Cyrus (2 Chr. 36 : 22-23).  Although God judges all these nations, He would restore and bless many of these nations in the later days, especially in the millennium.
V.               Prophets Recollection of History – Ch. 52
In this chapter, Jeremiah summarized the important events of history of his time.  He also recorded the last days of Jehoiachin (52 : 31-34).  Jehoiachin was in prison for 37 years.  Finally he was released by Babylon King.
False Prophets in the time of Jeremiah
  1. Two False prophets died in Babylon – Ahab and Zedekiah – 29 : 20-23
  2. One false prophet was punished – Shemaiah – 29 : 24-27
  3. One false prophet died in Jerusalem – Hananiah – 28 : 17
The Prophecies of Jeremiah
  1. Fall of Jerusalem (1 : 14-16 ; 4 : 5-9 ; 5 : 15-17 ; 6 : 1-6 ; 32 :2,3 ; 38 : 17,18)
  2. Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple (7 : 11-15 ; 26 : 6-9).
  3. Death of King Jehoahaz in Egypt (22 : 10-12)
  4. Unlamented death of Jehoiakim, King of Judah (36 : 37-39)
  5. Cutting off of the royal line of king Jehoiachin (22 : 24-30)
  6. Death and punishment of false prophets (29 : 20-32)
  7. Death of false prophet in Jerusalem (28 : 13 – 17)
  8. Exile of a friend named Seraiah (51 : 59)
  9. Failure of the Egyptian – Judean alliance against Babylon (37 : 5-10)
  10. Defeat of Egypt by Babylon at Carchemish (46 : 1-12)
  11. Babylonian occupation of Egypt (43 : 9-13)
  12. Seventy years captivity of Judah in Babylon (25 : 11 ; 29 : 10)
  13. Restoration of Jerusalem after the seventy years (27 : 19-22 ; 30 : 3, 10, 11, 18-21 ; 31 : 9, 12,38,39 ; 33 : 3-9).
  14. Defeat of Babylon after the seventy years (25 : 12 ; 27 : 7)
  15. Capture of Zedekiah (21 : 3-7 ; 34 : 1-5 ; 37 : 17)
  16. Kindly treatment of the exiles in Babylon (24 : 1-7)
  17. Final Regathering of people of Israel (30 : 3,10 ; 31 : 8-12)
  18. Final Rebuilding of the land of Israel (30 : 18-21 ; 31 : 38, 39 ; 33 : 7-9)
                   Most of these prophecies fulfilled in the history.  The rest will be fulfilled in the future.
                   The book of Lamentations does not provide any explicit statement on its authorship. However, Septuagint mentions Jeremiah as its author.  This is a strong traditional belief that Jeremiah is the real author (2 Chro. 35 : 25).
                   The content of Lamentations is about the destruction of Jerusalem.  Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylonians in 586 BC.  Hence the date must have been certainly after 586 BC.
                   This book describes How God punished sinful Judah by the hand of wicked Babylonians because of Judah’s hardheartedness.  It was written with the purpose of mourning the destruction of Jerusalem and with the purpose of encouraging Judah that God would bless them when they keep the covenant of God.
Literary Style
                   The main genre of this book is personification.  Jerusalem is personified as wisdom is personified in Proverbs 8-9.  The forms of poems 1,2,4, and 5 are laments spoken from the lips of Jerusalem.  Third poem is placed in the mouth of the nation mixed with Jeremiah’s personal lament.
Analysis of the Book
  1. First Poem (Ch. 1 : 1-22)
              The prophet often depicted Jerusalem as a woman (daughter of Judah 2 : 2).  In this chapter prophet lament for Jerusalem (1 : 1-10) and then Jerusalem itself laments how it was under the siege from Babylonian army.
  1. Second Poem ( (2 : 1-22)
              In this poem, Jehovah’s anger is expressed (1-10) and the agony of the people (11-17).  Because of suffering, the people looked for relief (2 : 18-22).
  1. Third Poem (3 : 1-66)
              Since people looked for relief, the prophet joined with them in their suffering and comforted them by giving the future hope (21 – 33).
  1. Fourth Poem ( 4 : 1-22)
              Jehovah’s anger expressed in Second poem is given with more detail in the fourth poem.
  1. Fifth Poem (5:1-22)
              In this poem, Jerusalem itself prayed for its deliverance and Restoration.
Note :  Since the book of Lamentations is written as poem, some scholars think it should be dealt with poetical books.  However, we take it with prophetical books for two reasons; first, it was written by a prophet and second this book is placed between the books of two major prophets.
Authorship and Date
                   Ezekiel, the son of Buzi was a priest (1 : 3).  The name Ezekiel means “God strengthens” or “strengthened by God.  Internal evidence supports the unity of Ezekiel’s prophetic record.  The style of writing, language, thematic development are consistent through out the book.  Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon attacked Jerusalem, second time due to the rebellion of Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin in 597 BC.  He captured 10,000 hostages including Jehoiachin and Ezekiel.  Finally and third time, Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC.  Ezekiel began his ministry 592 BC before the destruction of Jerusalem and completed his ministry probably in 570 BC.
Outline of Ezekial
  1. The vision and call of Ezekiel – 1 : 1-3 : 27
  2. Prophecies concerning of Jerusalem’s Destruction – 4 :1 – 24 : 27
  3. Prophecies against Foreign Nations – 25 : 1-32 :32
  4. Prophecies of Restoration – 33 : 1-48 :35
  1. The Vision and Call of Ezekiel – 1 : 1-3 : 27
              Ezekiel was called to ministry at the age of thirty (1 : 1), when he was in Babylon.  He saw a vision of “Four living creatures”.  The number “Four” that is used more than 40 times in this book, is a symbol of completeness (37 : 9 – Four winds ; Gen. 13 : 14 – Four directions ; Is. 11 : 12 – Four corners).  These four creatures are Cherubim (v : 10 ; Ch. 10).  The movement of wheel and “full of eyes” symbolize the omnipresence of God (Omni – presence = Being present in all places at the same time).  Thus God was present in Babylon as well as in Jerusalem at the same time.  When Ezekiel saw the glory of God, he fell and worshiped Him (1 : 28).  So “The Spirit entered” means “the Spirit enabled” him to stand (2 : 1-3).  Ezekiel is called here “Son of man”.  God called him and made a prophet for rebellious people of Jerusalem, who were in Babylon (3 : 11).  He was like a watchman to warn the people about the coming destruction (3 : 16-27).
              “Eat this scroll” means that Ezekiel must first understand God’s message what God reveals to him.
  1. Prophecies concerning Jerusalem’s Destruction – 4 : 1-24 : 27
              This entire section of the book of Ezekiel described siege and destruction of Jerusalem.  
Sin in Nation – Chapter 4 – 7
              In chapter 4, Ezekiel drew the map of Jerusalem and then he marked as to how the city would be under siege.  The sin ratio of Israel and of Judah was symbolic (390 : 40) (vv : 4-8).  During this siege, the people would suffer for food.  (5 : 10).  In Chapter 6, Ezekiel explained that God would bring judgement because Judah had gone away from God by worshiping idols.  In chapter 7, he explained judgement would come on the whole land (Whole Juda “Four corners” means the whole land).
Sin in the Temple (Chapters 8 – 10)
              The elders of Jews not only defiled the nation with idols, but also they brought the idols of pagan gods and goddess into the temple ( 8 : 6-12).  Their women were weeping for Tammuz.  Tammuz was a Sumerian fertility god (v : 14).  Woman weeping for Tammuz was a pagan practice of worshiping idols.  Since the elders defiled the temple, God would begin the judgement from the temple.  Before beginning judgement, the glory of God had gone up from the Cherub (9 : 3).  Then angel marked  the righteous men who hated idols (9 : 4).  These righteous men would be protected when God judges the city of Jerusalem.  This judgement would begin from the holy place but righteous would be protected (9 : 6).  Since idols were kept in the temple, the glory of God departed from it in four stages (ch. 10); First to the threshold, then over the Cherubim, then to the east gate and finally to the Mount of Olives (10 : 4,18, 19 ; 11 : 23).
God’s judgement on Sinners and God’s Answer to Ezekiel’s Prayer (Ch. 11)
              There were 25 wicked counselors in Jerusalem.  They gave false counseling to people.  They compared themselves to meat and the city to the pot.  They said as the pot protects the meat from fire, they would be protected from judgement (11 : 1-3).  God said they would be punished (11 : 4-13).  As God said, judgement began immediately.  So Ezekiel prayed to God to know about the future of Israel.  God answer him saying, that He would save Israel and restore the nation.  The final restoration of Israel would be fulfilled during Millennial rule of Christ (11 : 14-25).
Dramatic Revelation of Judgement (Ch. 12)
              God asked Ezekiel to act a drama.  As God said, he did without asking question (1-7).  After Ezekiel performed the action (Drama), God explained its meaning.  As Ezekiel went, the prince (king  Zedekiah – v:12 ; 2 Kin. 25) would go to Babylon as captive.  However, the people did not believe Ezekiel’s prophecy.  They said a proverb “these days are prolonged, and every vision fails” (22).  By saying this proverb, people assumed as many prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah had not yet come to pass, the prophecy of Ezekiel would not come to pass (17 – 22).  So God said to Ezekiel that they would not say this proverb any more because the judgement upon them comes soon.  (23-28).  Ezekiel prophesied this probably in 592 BC.  As he prophesied, Jerusalem was destroyed in 586 BC by Babylonians.
Judgement on False Prophets and False Worshipers (Ch. 13-14).
              God said that He would judge all false prophets.  They prophesied from their heart (13 : 2,17) by saying “Peace” (13 : 10-16).  By giving false peace and assurance, these false prophets cheated the people for gain (13 : 19).  So God pronounced three kinds of judgement on false prophets (9) – First, they would lose the respect among the public ;  second, their names would be omitted from the citizenship records of the Jewish nation; third, they would not return from exile to the land of Israel.  Not only the false prophets, but the false worshipers (Idol worshipers) will be punished (14 : 1-11).  When God punishes such unfaithfulness, none can stop Him.  Even if, Noah, Daniel and Job prayed, they can not stop the judgement, but they can protect themselves for their faithfulness (14 : 12-23).
Worthless Vine (Ch. 15)
              Israel is compared to Vine.  Isaiah (Is. 5 : 1-7) and Jeremiah (Jer. 2 : 21) spoke about Israel’s failure to produce good fruit.  But Ezekiel speaks that not only Israel failed to produce fruit but Israel is totally a useless vine.  The plant (vine) itself is useless.  Thus in the sight of God, when vine is compared to Israel,  Israel is totally useless.
God’s Love for Jerusalem (Ch. 16)
              This chapter speaks an allegory on Jerusalem.  It compares Jerusalem as childbride and a queen (1-14) and then a harlot (15-34).  God cared and nurtured it as a baby (16 : 4). He dressed and adorned her (Jerusalem) with dressing and adorning with (golden) ornaments, probably refer to the fame of Jerusalem (10 –12).  Although God loved and cared it in such a loving way, it behaved like a harlot.  Harlotry here refers to the political alliance of Jerusalem with Egypt (26) and to the idol worship (15-34).  However all its lovers (Nations of political alliance) would forsake Jerusalem one day (35-43).  Samaria and Sodom are compared to sisters of Jerusalem and “daughters” refers to small towns of Judah.  All these cities forsake God and worshiped idols (44-59).  By playing harlotry, they broke the covenant relationship which they had with God.  So God would punish Jerusalem (Harlot).  Neverthless, God in His compassion will remember the covenant and renew it with an everlasting covenant (60-63) and by blessing.(11 :: 19,20 ; 36 : 25-28).
Allegory of Eagle, Cedar and Vine (Ch. 17)
              This chapter tells about Zedekiah’s rebellion to King Nebuchadnezzar and his new political alliance with Egypt.  Due to this rebellion, the nation would be attacked by Nebuchadnezzar.  However, God will finally help Israel and exalt it (22-24).  This chapter has many allegories comparing that Great eagle is Nebuchadnezzar (3,12). Top most young twig is king Jehoiachin (4), Land of trade is Babylonia ; city of merchants is Babylon (v:4,2 King 24 :12,15); Seed of the land is King Zedekiah, (Planted – Zedekiah was made king by Nebuchadnezzar).  This Zedekiah is also vine planted by abundant waters Babylon (5,7,8).  Another great eagle is Egypt.  Zedekiah (Vine) rebelled against Babylon and joined with Egypt (11-19).  So the East wind (Army of Babylon) would destroy it (10).  However, in the future God would plant a Cedar on Mountain.  The Cedar Probably refers to Messiah from the line of David.  The high tree is Jehoiachin and the low tree is descendant of David (and Jehoiachin).  Messiah would come in this line.  The former planting was human done by Nebuchadnezzar, (v:4) ; the future planting will be divine done by God (17 : 22-24).
False Proverb  of Jews Refuted (Ch. 18)
                   “The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge”? (v:2) was a Jewish proverb, used by the Jews in Babylon.  They by this proverb meant that they were punished for their father’s sin.  God refuted this proverb and said that every one will be punished for his own sin (Jer. 31 : 29,30).  Children will not be judged for father’s sin.  Since every one is judged for his own sin,  God called them to repent (18 : 19-32).  God will give a new heart and a new Spirit to those who repent. (18 : 31 ; 11 : 19).
A Mourning Song on Judah / Israel (Ch. 19)
              This chapter is written in the form of funeral song.  It has two allegories; First Lioness and Cubs (19 : 1-9) and Vine (19 : 10 – 14).  Lioness was personification of Israel / Judah (or) Hamutal, the mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah (2 Kg. 23 : 31 ; 24 : 18).  If Lioness was Hamutal first cub was Jehoahaz (w Kg. 23 : 31-34 ; Jer. 22  10-12).  He was deported to Egypt after three months of rule.  He died there.  The second cub (young lion – v:5) was Zedekiah, son of Hamutal (24 : 17-18).  Zedekiah was made king by Nebuchadnezzar after Jehoiachin.  But, he rebelled against Babylon (19 : 5-9 ; 2 King. 24 :20).  So king of Babylon came and captured him as a captive to Babylon (2 Kin. 25 : 1-7).   The second allegory was vine (Eze. 19 : 10-14).  This vine was Judah.  The destruction of Judah is described as death.
Rebellious Israel and God’s Restoration of Israel (Ch. 20)
                   The Jewish elders who were in Babylon came to Ezekiel to enquire about the future of Jerusalem (1-3).  Ezekiel explained them how they have rebelled against God by disobeying God’s laws and by worshiping idols in Bamah (High places – 29).  This captivity was the result of their sins (1-32).  However Ezekiel encouraged them that God will restore Israel in the future (33-44) after judging them for sin (45 – 49).
God’s Sword and Furnace (Chs. 21-22)
              The people, the elders, the princes, the priests and the prophets (false prophets) all were wicked (22 : 23-31).  The whole nation of Judah had gone against God.  So God would use Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon as His sword (21 : 3) to punish the sinful Judah and its people(21 : 1-27).  When God punishes Judah, He would punish Ammonites because Ammonites rejoiced and plundered Judah during earlier attacks of Babylon on Judah (21 : 28 – 32 ; 25 : 1-7 ; Zec. 12 : 1-9).  By punishing Judah for its sins (22 : 1-16), God would purge Judah’s sin as a furnace purifies dross from silver and gold. (22 : 17-22).  The Babylonian captivity was compared to furnace, which purified Judah’s sins and idolatry.
Allegory of two Harlot Sisters (Ch. 23)
              The two sisters are two nations.  Oholah represents northern kingdom of Ten tribes, called Samariah.  Oholibah represents southern kingdom of two tribes, called Judah / Jerusalem.  Oholah means “Her Own Tabernacle” and Oholibah (Jerusalem) means “My Tabernacle is in Her”.  Although  the people of these nations were redeemed from Egypt, they forgot God.  They worshiped God and on the same day they offered and sacrificed their children to Molech (False Idol – v : 39).  Thus they equaled God with idols.  It was against Ten commandments (Ex. 20 : 1-5).  Moreover, they both had political alliance; Samariah with Assyria (2 King 15 : 19-29 ; 17 : 1-14) and Judah  with Assyria, Chaldea, and Egypt (12, 14-17, 19-21).  The same countries became enemies to Israel later.  For idolatry and political alliances, God punished both Samariah and Judah.
The Symbol of the Cooking Pot (24)
              This poetic symbol of a ‘Pot set on fire’ symbolizes the siege of Jerusalem (3-5).  The pot is Jerusalem, the meat represents people of Jerusalem and the fuel is Nebuchadnezzar’s siege.  The same symbol was used in Ch. 11 : 3,7,11.  But the interpreted meaning is different in both cases.  Jerusalem and its people would be judged by Nebuchadnezzar here.  Due to this siege and attack of Nebuchadnezzar, the people would suffer.  But the Jewish people in Babylon would not mourn for it.  This was prophetically explained through the death of Ezekiel’s wife (24 : 15-27).
  1. Prophecies against Foreign Nations – 25 : 1-32 : 32
              These nations were enemies to Israel one or another time.  So God would judge these nations.  They are Ammonites (25 : 1-7), Moabites (25 : 8-11), Edomites (25 : 12-14), Philistins (25 : 15-17), Tyre (26 : 1-28 : 19), Sidon / Zidon (28 : 20-24) and Egypt (29 : 1-32 : 32).  When these nations are punished, Israel would enjoy restoration and blessing (28 : 25-26).
  1. Prophecies concerning Restoration of Israel – 33 : 1-48 : 35
              These chapters were written, when Ezekiel was reported about the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC (33 : 21-22).
God’s Watchman (Ch. 33)
              Prophet Ezekiel was compared to watchman who watches over a city in the night to sound alarm in case of any danger or enemies attach (2 King 9 : 17-18 ; Jer. 4 : 5).  Here Ezekiel was appointed to warn the people about their Spiritual condition (1-9).  He warned the people of their sin and about coming destruction.  But they did not repent.  So, the judgement came on Jerusalem as Ezekiel   said (33 : 30-33).
Israel’s True Shepherd (Ch. 34)
            “Shepherds of Israel” refers to the political leaders / rulers of Israel.  They fed themselves instead of caring people (1-4).  So God was against these shepherds and He would punish them (5-10).  After punishing the false shepherds, God, Himself will become their shepherd (11-31).  He will seek them and bring them into Israel from the nations where they were scattered.  He would bless them by good pasture.  He will appoint a new shepherd (v:23).  This shepherd will be from the line of David (My Servant David here refers to Jesus Christ, the Messiah of Israel).  He is the true shepherd not only to Israel but to the whole world (2 Sam. 7 : 13 ; Is. 9 : 6-7 ; Jer. 23 : 5-6 ; Mich. 5 : 2-5 ; Mt. 1 : 1 ; 22 : 41-45 ; Jn. 10 : 10-16 ; 1 Pet. 2 : 25 ; 5 : 4).  This true shepherd will make a new covenant with Israel (25 – 31).  This will be fulfilled during the Millennial rule of Jesus Christ.
     Judgement on Edom (Ch. 35)
              Mt. Seir is the name for Edom.  The people lived in Edom were known as Edomites.  They were the descendants of Esau, the brother of Jacob (Gen. 32 : 3).  Their hostility began from the ancient days (Gen. 25 : 22-34 ; Amos 1 : 1).  The Edonites hated Judah and Jerusalem.  They helped Nebuchadnezzar when he attacked Jerusalem.  They also rejoiced over the fall of Jerusalem (15), plundered the towns of Judah (12) and boasted (13).  So God said that Edom shall be judged for its arrogant behaviour and acts.
     The Renewal and Restoration of Israel (Ch. 36)
            Although God had punished Israel for its sin, He will again bless it and renew it (1-15).  When He renew it,  he would sprinkle clean water (36 : 25).  The sprinkling with water was a ritual of the law for cleansing the unclean (Lev. 14 : 51 ; Num. 19 : 18 ; Heb. 10 : 22).  As there was a sprinkling in the law, there will be a new sprinkling on the whole Israel to clean it from its past sins.  This new sprinkling probably refers to the Restoration of Israel.  After this restoration, God will give them a new heart and a new Spirit (36 : 26, 27 ; Jer. 31 : 31-34).  This will be fulfilled in the Millennial Kingdom ultimately.
Vision of Dry Bones (Ch. 37)              
              According to many scholars, the dry bones here represent the nation of Israel.  After the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC by Nebuchadnezzar, Israel was like dry bones-no life was in it.  It was spiritual and political condition of Israel.  Neverthless, God will give life to it again by sending His Spirit.  When the Spirit enters, the bones will get life.  As God created Adam, he will again recreate Israel as a new nation in its own land (14).  When God again renew Israel, He will make two nation (Northern Kingdom of 10 tribes and southern kingdom of 2 tribes) into one nation.  For this united one Nation of Israel, there will be one king.  This one king is Messiah (22).  This will be fulfilled in the Millennial rule of Jesus Christ.
     War of Gog (Ch. 38 – 39)
            Gog is the prince of the land Magog.  This war will happen right before the middle of the tribulation.  During the first half of Tribulation period, Antichrist will continue to rise in power.  But he will have three major enemies.  The Northern Alliance (38 : 2-6 ; Dan. 11 : 40 – Gog and Megog = Russia), the  Southern Alliance (Cush = Ethiopia and Put = Libya) and the Eastern Alliance (Rev. 16 : 12, Persia = Iran).  These chapters indicate the battle will take place when Israel dwells peacefully, just before the middle of the Tribulation (38 : 8).  Gog (king of Russia) and his allies will invade Palestine in an attempt to gain geographical advantage over Antichrist (38 : 8,12,16).  Neverthless, God will destroy this Northern Alliance (38 : 18-22 ; 39 : 2-6; Dan. 11 : 40-45).  It will take seven months to bury the dead (39 : 12) and their weapons will provide fuel to Israel for seven years (39 : 9-10).  Following  this, Israel will suffer a great persecution from Antichrist.  But God will deliver Israel from Antichrist in the battle of Armageddon (39 : 25-29 ; Dan. 9 : 27).
Special Note
            The War of Gog mentined in Ezek. 38 – 39 is known as the First War of Gog I.  Because this will happen at the first part of tribulation.  But another war of Gog mentioned in Rev. 20 : 7-10 is known as the second war of Gog; Because it will happen after the Millennium (Rev. 20 : 7).  As we call First world war and Second world war, These wars are known as the First war of Gog and the Second War of Gog.
Restoration of the Temple (40 : 1-46: 24)
            This vision was given to Ezekiel in 573 BC, many years after the captivity began.  Ezekiel was transported in Spirit to Jerusalem (High mountain is Jerusalem, which has high significancy spiritually).  The Restored Temple is described with its outer court, Inner court and the Temple itself (40 : 5 – 42 : 20).  The glory that departed from the Temple (in 10 : 18 ; 11 : 23) returned to the restored Temple (43 : 1-5).  This restored temple will be free from all Pollutions (43 : 6-12).  The alter will be consecrated (43 : 13-27).  The prince mentioned here is probably a Chief Priest (44 : 1-3).  The glory filled the temple (44 : 4-9).  Levites will be purged (44 : 10-31).  The holy area is described (45 : 1-8) and the duties of prince (probably co-rulers) are mentioned (45 : 9-17).  The feasts are mentioned (45 : 18-25).  The future millennial worship system is explained (46 : 1-24).
The Millennial Land (47 : 1-48 : 35)
                        This river will be a great source of life to men and trees (47 : 1-12 ; Is. 11 : 6-9).  The boundaries and divisions of the land are also mentioned (47 : 13 – 48 : 35).  This Millennial Jerusalem will be named “The Lord is there” (Jehovah Shammah).
Students Assignment
  1. Discuss the authorship of Isaiah.
  2. What are the prophecies fulfilled during Isaiah’s Life time?
  3. Who were the Kings under whom Jeremiah ministered?
  4. Write the purpose of Lamentations.
  5. Write about the judgement of Edom.
Note :  Write the assignment and send it to CALS.  Mention also your Register Number and Name in your Assignment.