BL - 25 Theology - Part - III




The Greek terms ‘Angelos’ (Angel) and ‘Logy’ (Study or teaching) are combined together to form the English term ‘Angelology’ which means ‘study concerning angels’.  The study of angels and their characters are important to have proper understanding of teachings of the Bible.

  1. The time of the creation of Angels


                   The angels are the first created beings.  The first creative act is recorded in Genesis 1 : 1.  The angels were created first on the beginning memonents of the first day of creation.  Having created the angels at the very opening seconds of the first day, God laid the foundation of the earth.  Angels witnessed this creation of the earth, and sang for joy at the laying of the foundation of the earth.  This statement in Job. 38 : 6-7 confirms our belief that angels must have been created just prior to the creation of the earth, in the very opening seconds of Day one.

Note  : The morning stars and the sons of God represent angels (Job. 38 : 6-7).

Read :  Ps. 148 : 2,5; Rom. 8 : 38,39; Eph. 6 : 12; Col. 1 : 16; Jn. 1 : 1-3

  1. The manner of the creation of Angels


                   The creation of angels was one time act of God.  In that one time act, God created all angels.  God created the original number of angels at one time; no more have been added nor can any more be added.  Angels are numerous.  The Bible does not reveal the exact number of angels.

                   God created angels in ‘a company or group’.  They do not procreate and do not have any genetic or racial connections between them (Mt. 22 : 30).  They will not  reproduce after their kind as man and animals do.  In other words, angels will not have parents.  Angels are never called sons of angels.  However, the angels are called ‘sons of God’ (Job. 1 : 6; 2 : 1).  The term ‘sons of God’ for angels imply that the angels were the direct creation of God.  Therefore the angels are not a race, but a company – created only once by God’s one time act.

                   The Angels are created spirit beings.  They are not sexual beings.  This simply means that the angels can not marry or procreate. (Mk. 12 : 25).  The Greek word ‘angelos’ is always rendered in masculine gender.  Although angels are spirits and do not have any gender, the masculine gender is rendered for them because of their great strength of might.  All angels are in masculine gender, if at all we attribute gender.  The Bible never use  feminine gender for angels.  Therefore we can say certainly that angels are only one gender that is masculine.

  1. The Basic and General characteristics of Angels


                   Since angels are spirits, they are incorporeal or bodiless.  However they have a kind of celestial bodies by which they might identify each other (1. Cor. 15 : 40).  Whenever they appeared to men, they appeared in the form of man (Gen. 19 : 1-2).

                   Since angels are created beings, they are finite being, having limitation in relation to time-space-mass.  (2 Pet. 2 : 11; Mt. 24 : 36; Dan. 9 : 21-23; 10 : 10-14).  They can be present in only one place in a time.  Although they have such limitations, their power, wisdom and properties exceed those of men.  They can speak (Zech. 6 : 5).  They are also emotional beings (Job. 38 : 4-7); They are wise (2 Sam. 14 : 20).

                   They are handsome. They appear as young men (Lk. 24 : 4;       Mk. 16 : 5).  Although angels are more powerful than man, their power and strength among angels vary one from another.  Some angels have more power and strength than others (Dan. 10 : 13).

                   The marks of personality such as intellect, will and emotion are found in angels.  Therefore the angels are created spirits with personality.

Read :  Mt. 28 : 5; Mk. 1 : 24 ; Lk. 15 : 10; Heb. 1 : 6; Isa. 6 : 3; 14 : 12-13 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 12

When God created angels, all of them were good. (Gen. 1 : 31)   Later some angels rebelled against God under an angel which is later called Satan.  After this rebellion of some angels, the angels are classified into two groups; namely Good Angels and Evil Angels.

  1. The Doctrine of Good Angels


  • Number of Good Angels


It is very difficult for us to calculate the total number of good angels.  Certainly, their number is beyond our calculation (Dan. 7 : 10; Mt. 26 : 53; Hebrews 12 : 22; Rev. 5 : 11).  God only knows exact number of angels.

  • Special classification of Good Angels


It is very interesting to note different classes of angels who God has appointed to fulfill His purpose.  The names of some good angels are given in the scripture.

  1. Archangel : Archangels probably refer to Chief angels which lead a group of angels to do some specific jobs. The Bible specifically mentions archangels namely Michael and Gabriel.
  1. Michael : This name means ‘who is like God?  Michael is entitled as ‘Archangel’ only once in Jude 9.  He appeared twice to Daniel.  He will again appear during the last half of the tribulation and will fight against Satan (Rev. 12 : 7; Dan. 10 : 13,21 ; 12 : 1).

Note :  Some scholars believe that the archangel whose voice is heared at the rapture is Michael. (1 Thes. 4 : 16).  Michael was responsible for the nation Israel.


  1. Gabriel : This name means “mighty only of God”.  Although he was not mentioned with the title ‘archangel’, it seems he is an archangel who is in-charge for announcing God’s message.  Whenever he appeared to people; Either he announced God’s message to people or he interpreted God’s message and visions (Dan. 8 : 15-22; 9 : 21; Lk. 1 : 11, 19-21,26).  Therefore, it seems that he is probably the Chief to communicate God’s message to men. He is the head of communication department of angels.
  1. Cherubim : Cherubim are a specific group of angels.  They guarded the path to the tree of life (Gen. 3 : 24).  They are also associated with the Shekinah on the mercy seat (Ex. 25 : 17-22; 26 : 31; Heb. 9 : 5 ; 1 Kings. 6 : 23; 2 Chro. 3 : 7 ; Ezk. 41 : 18ff).  Cherubim are also closely related with the throne of Jehovah. (1 Sam. 4 : 4; 2 Sam. 6 : 2 ; I Chro. 13 : 6).  Some scholars believe that Cherubium are proclaimers of God’s glorious presence, God’s sovereignty and God’s 


Note :  According to some theological scholars, the four living creatures of Ezekiel (1 : 5-28; 10 : 2-15) are Cherubium.  Probably, these are the same living creatures (Angels) of Revelation (Rev. 4 : 6-9).  The living creatures of Revelation involve in worship (Rev. 4 , 5, 7, 9) and in executing the judgements of God during the Tribulation (6 : 1,3,5,7; 15 : 7).

  1. Seraphim : The Hebrew term “seraphim” means ‘burning ones’.  Which suggests that seraphims are fervent like fire in their devotion to   Isaiah saw seraphims (Is. 6).  They praise God for His perfect holiness.
  1. Heavenly Host : The term ‘Heavenly Host’ represents numerous good angels, probably with lower angelic governmental order. God’s army composed of angelic creatures (John. 5 : 14,15 ; 1 Kgs. 22 : 19).  These host of angels have various governmental orders.  Their orders are “thrones, dominions, rulers, principalities, and powers”.  (Col. 1 : 16; Eph. 3 : 10).


Some of the angels are also called as ‘Elect angels’,  which simply means ‘good angels’.  This class of angels is probably responsible to watch over the ministry of the local church (1 Tim. 5 : 21 ; 1 Cor. 11 : 10).

  • The Organization of Good Angels

Although the angels are innumerable, all angels have different responsibilities, and are in different positions, such as archangel, cherubim, and Seraphim (Deut. 33 : 2 ; Dan. 7 : 10).  Since they are created by and for God, God has authority over them (Col. 1 : 16 ; Ps. 148 : 2,5 ; Mt. 26 : 53).  They are totally subject to Christ (Eph.1 : 20, 21). A company of angels always stands around the throne of God, as the have been assigned. (1 Kings 22 : 19 ; Rev. 5 : 11).  Each angel performs different duty.  Some angels work mostly in the realm of man while Cherubim and Seraphim work in the realm of God.

  • The Ministry of Good Angels


The angels were active mainly at the time of crisis as well as at the time when God’s people needed direct guidance and new revelation.  They have other important ministries as well.  The following are the ministries of angels.

  1. Angels worship God. Ps. 148 : 2,5 ; 29 : 1 ; Rev. 4 : 8
  2. They obey the commandments of God (Ps. 103 : 20-21).
  3. They help and deliver God’s people from trouble (Gen. 19 : 1-15 ; Dan. 6 : 22 ; Act. 5 : 19).
  4. Certain angels bring God’s message to man. (Mt. 28 : 5 ; Acts 1 : 11 ; Lk. 1 : 26 ff).
  5. Gabriel interpreted visions to Daniel (Dan. 8 : 16; 9 : 21).
  6. Angels report to God. Job. 1 : 6 ; 2 : 1
  7. Archangel Michael took care of the body of Moses (Jude 9)
  8. They announced the birth of Jesus. (Lk. 2 : 8-15)
  9. They protected Jesus at His childhood (Mt. 2 : 13)
  10. They strengthened Jesus physically at the temptation and in Gethsemane (Mt. 4 : 11 ; Lk. 24 : 43).
  11. Angels sometimes punished ungodly (Gen. 19 : 11 ; Act. 12 : 23).
  12. Angels opened the tomb and announced the Resurrection of Christ (Mt. 28 : 1,6).
  13. Angels will accompany Jesus at second coming (Acts 1 : 10,11, Mt. 25 : 31; 1 Thes. 4 : 16).
  14. They watch over the daily affairs of nations (Dan. 4 : 17 ; 10 : 21).
  15. Angels care for God’s people both Testament periods. (Ps. 91 : 11,12 ; Heb. 1 : 14 ; Acts. 27 : 23-24; Lk. 16 : 22 ; Mt. 24 : 31; Acts 12 : 5-7).
  16. They observe the activities of the local church. (1 Tim. 5 : 17-21 ; 1 Cor. 11 : 10).
  17. Angels will fight against Satan (Rev. 12 : 23 ; 20 : 1-2)
  18. Angels will gather the unsaved at the end of the age (Mt. 13 : 39-40)



                   Since Satan is also a fallen angel, we must study about satan under the title of angelology.  Study concerning satan and other evil spirits will enable Christians to know their spiritual foe, his evil characters and how to combat and defeat his evil designs.

  1. The origin and the fall of Satan


                   When God created all were good, including the angels (Gen. 1 : 25).  However after a few days – probably in the first weeks after creation – some angels under the headship of Satan rebelled against God.  Since they rebelled against God, and were morally corrupt in their nature, God punished and cast away them from heaven.  Isaiah 14 : 1-20 and Ezekial 28 : 1-19 are the passages which basically deal with the rebellion of Satan against God.

Isaiah 14 : 1-20 : This text portion primarily deals with the King of Babylon (v : 12-17).  Neverthless, this passage indirectly refers to Satan who is working behind and who was the real energizer of the King of Babylon.  This Babylonian King is the type of Antichrist.  The description and style of language of this passage is not appropriate when applied to an ordinary man (Babylonian King), but is appropriate when applied to Satan.  Eg. The fall of Satan corresponds with Antichrist.  Is.14 : 12 is to be compared with Revelation 12 : 9 ; 13 : 1 ff.  Therefore this passage deals with Satan rather the King of Babylon.

Ezekiel 28 : 1-19 :  Although this passage is directed toward the King of Tyre, the contents of this passage are indirectly spoken to the one who was motivating the King to rebel against God.  Here the motivator of King is none other than Satan about whom these things are spoken.  As this passage says, Satan was

–        full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. v : 12

–        in the garden of Eden – v : 13

–        covered with precious stones – v.13

–        created being – v : 13

–        an anointed Cherub – v : 14

–        perfect in all his ways – v : 15 (until unrighteousness was found)

–        pride which was the cause of fall – v : 17

                   Therefore, one can understand that one of the   angels – probably an archangel – rebelled against God, the creator and became Satan.  God did not create Satan but a rebelled angel became Satan.

  1. The names of Satan : The Bible has given him various names to depict his character, as the following:
  1. Satan : This name is used more than 50 times in the Bible.  Hebrew word which means ‘Accuser’ or ‘opponent’ (Adversary) – Job. 1 : 6, 9 ; Zech. 13 : 1 ; Mt. 4 : 10 ; Rom. 16 : 20 ; Rev. 20 : 7
  2. Devil : (Used 35 times).  This means slanderer – Rev. 12 : 9 ; 20 : 2 ; Mt. 4 : 4.
  3. Beelzebub : The rule of the demons – Mt. 12 : 24. It is of Chaldean origin, meaning ‘lord of lies’ (Lk. 11 : 18 ; 2 Kings. 1 : 2, 3, 16).
  4. Deut. 13 : 13 (usually translated ‘worthless’)
  5. Serpent – 12 : 9 ; 20 : 2
  6. Tempter – 4 : 3
  7. Wicked One – 1 Jn. 2 : 14 (Evil one – Jn. 17 : 15 ; 1 Jn. 5 : 18)
  8. Prince of Demons – 12 : 24
  9. God of this age (world) – 2 Cor. 4 : 4
  10. Prince of the power of the air – 2 : 2 (Air = Space)
  11. The accuser – 12 : 10
  12. Prince of this world – John 12 : 31
  13. The Dragon – 12 : 3,7,9
  14. The Deceiver – 12 : 9


  1. The personality of Satan


The Bible always regards and treats Satan as a person.  The Old Testament assumes the existence of Satan (Gen. 3 ; 1 Chr. 21 ; Job 1 : 6 ; Zech. 3 : 1-2).  Jesus made 25 statements out of 29 regarding Satan in the Gospels.

Moreover all the writers of the New Testament teach concerning Satan – personal pronouns are used to mention about Satan (Job. 1 : 6-12 ; Eze. 28 : 14-16 – pronoun “You”; 2 Cor. 11 : 14-15 – pronoun ‘himself’ ; Jam. 4 : 7 – He).  Satan has the marks of personality such as will, purpose (Isa. 14 : 12 – 14) and speech (Mt. 4 : 1-11).  He has moral failure for which he is to be judged (Mt. 25 : 41 ; Jn. 16 : 11).

  1. The gradual failures of Satan (career of Satan)


  • First He was in the heaven with God. Ezekiel 28 : 12-15. Then he rebelled against God.  Thus his failure began.
  • He was cast into second heaven for his sin – Eph. 2 : 2 ; Rev. 12 : 3-4
  • He will be cast down to earth in the middle of tribulation – Rev. 12 : 7ff
  • He will be bound in the Abyss during the Millennium – Rev. 20 : 1-3 ; Zech. 13 : 2
  • He will be released for a ‘little season’ after 1000 years – Rev. 20 : 7-9.
  • Finally He will be cast into the lake of fire to suffer for ever – Rev. 20 : 10.

Satan’s career began in heaven and will end up in hell.

  1. The works of Satan


  1. Satan works and opposes God and His plans.
    • He deceived Adam and Eve through lie – Gen. 3 : 4-5
    • He corrupted human race (Gen. 6) in order to spoil the purity of the promised one (Gen. 3 : 15)
    • He indicted violence against royal line through Herod – Mt. 1 : 16-18.
  2. He counterfeits God’s works – 2 Cor. 11 : 14-15
  3. He accuses believers – Rev. 12 : 10
  4. He sows tares among believers – Mt. 13 : 39
  5. He motivates unbelievers to persecute the believers – Rev. 2 : 10 ; 2 Cor. 12 : 7
  6. He tempts the believers to sin – 1 Cor. 7 : 5
  7. He deceives the nations – Rev. 20 : 3
  8. He causes spiritual blindness to unbelievers – 2 Cor. 4 : 4 ; Mt. 13 : 19
  9. He can hinder the ministry – 1 Thes. 2 : 18



                   Evil angels are a company of angels which rebelled along with Satan against God.

  1. The origin of Evil Angels


God did not create ‘evil angels’.  But a group of angels rebelled against God and fell with Satan.  They followed Satan, when he planned rebellion against God in order to make himself in the place of God (Ezk. 28 : 16).  These angels are known as fallen angels or Satan’s angels (Mt. 25 : 41 ; Rev. 12 : 9).  Jude refers to them “the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation (Jude. 6)”.  Among these fallen angels, a specific group is called as demons (Mt. 12 : 43, 45 ; Mk. 1 : 23-24).

Note :  These evil or fallen angels are never called “sons of God” Because the term “sons of God” when referring to angels refers only to good angels.

  1. Personality of evil spirits or fallen angels


Since angels have personality, the fallen angels also have personality.  But the morality of evil angels is degraded beyond recovery.  Hence they can not do good but harm to human beings.

  1. The works of evil angels

As satan opposes God, these fallen angels opposes God.

  1. They oppose the people of God (Believers) – Eph. 6 : 12
  2. They try to hinder the work of the good angels – Dan. 10 : 13
  3. They support and obey to Satan – Rev. 12 : 7
  4. They especially demonic spirits control the bodies of unbelievers (not all) and animals – Mk. 5 : 9-13; Mt. 12 : 43,45
  5. The inflict physical infirmities – Mk. 9 : 17 ; 9 : 25 ; Lk. 8 : 29.
  6. They produce and promote moral impurity – Mk. 5 : 2 – unclean spirit can not do good.
  7. They may do false miracles – Rev. 16 : 13-14, Ex. 7 : 12,22
  8. They pervert the truth and bring about false doctrine – 1 Tim. 4 : 1-3
  1. Demon possession

Demons :  As we have studied, a specific group of evil angels are called as demons.  Fallen angels can be classified into various groups.  Each group is responsible for a specific duty assigned by Satan.  Some are responsible to lie; some to instigate murder; some to possess human body; some to promote sexual impurity.  Because of this or clique mentality, some evil angels are called “Demons”.  Therefore Demons are a clique group of evil angels.  Some of these demons like to possess human body or animals.  They do so, probably either they try to escape from punishment or they try to torment the people for enjoying their own evil pleasure (Mk. 5 : 1-20).


Note : Some of these demons were very interested to instigate sexual fornication, between godly and ungodly,  although they themselves are not sexual beings.  Such demons instigated probably sexual relation between godly race of Seth and ungodly race of Cain in order to corrupt the promised seed (Gen. 6 ; Jude 6,7).  God immediately chained this group of evil angels in order to stop their evil plan of instigating ungodly to have sex with godly. (2 Pet. 2 : 4).


          All these evil angels will be judged with Satan. Rev. 20 : 10 ; Mt. 25 : 41.


Can demons possess the believer of Jesus Christ?


No .  Because the Holy Spirit indwells in the believer.  Moreover the Holy Spirit is greater than demon and Satan (1 Jn. 4 : 4).  Therefore demons can not possess the body of the believer who has truly accepted Jesus Christ as his only saviour.

Benefits of learning this Doctrine


                   We understand that God is greater than Satan (1 Jn. 4 : 4).  Demons can not possess the believer because God, the Holy Spirit is in him     (1 Jn. 4 : 4).



Introduction :  The Greek word ‘Anthropos’ means ‘man’.  Therefore Anthropology deals with ‘Doctrine concerning man’ which includes his creation, his nature, his being etc.

  1. The origin of Man


                   Where did man come from?  Scientists and philosophers attempt futilely to give satisfactory answer through various theories especially evolution Theory.  Hitherto, They have miserably failed to give the proper  answer.  But the Bible provides the proper answer for the origin of man, although some do not accept it.  The Bible says that man came to existence through the creation.  This Biblical view is called Creation Theory.  Now, let us first evaluate Evolution theory.

  1. Evolution or Natural Development Theory


According to Evolution, the origin of man was “that process by which, through some kind of aggregation of matter through many ages and species; by chance or by law, man appears”.  This man is the outcome of an evolutionary process commencing from a self-existed first cause.

Refutation of evolution theory


                   This theory has many failures.

  1. i) This theory is, first of all, unscientific, because it fails to provide proper proof for its claim. The very basic principle of science is that “every finding or discoveries must be substantiated with adequate facts and proofs”.  In so far as evolution theory, it failed to substantiate its claim with proofs hitherto.  Charles Darwin (1809-1882) who first propagated this theory, later regretted for his false theory which he could not prove.
  1. ii) Since the propagandists of evolution theory failed to prove it, they later suggested that there is a ‘Missing Link’ between the species of man and the ape. Some of their publications show pictures of a imaginated creature which they term as the picture of missing link.  These pictures are imaginative drawings, not photographs.  Hence ‘missing link’ concept itself is imaginative theory.  It has no proof.

iii)     No animal blood can be injected into man’s veins in order to save human life.  This medical fact proves that man has no direct or indirect blood relation with any animal.  Hence we know man did not originate from animal.

  1. iv) We can see that there are many differences between the constitution of man and animal; physically, mentally, morally etc.
  • Physically = Man is an upright being while animals are on all fours.
  • Mentally = Man is intellect, but animals have only natural instinct.
  • Morally = Man is the only creature of God that has moral qualities while animals are not moral beings.
  • Spiritually = Man alone has been created with spiritual concepts. He alone of all the creaturs can worship God. The highest beast has no God consciousness.
  1. According to evolution theory, new species evolve after some thousands of years. But the fact is contrary; because every year after years, the existing things and beings continuously degenerate instead of evolve.

There are many more reasons which speak against evolution. Therefore we reject evolution theory which itself is false and unscientific.

B.      Creation Theory


                   According to creation theory, “man was created by God as the Bible teaches”.  God created man instantaneously.  Gen. 5 : 1,2,5 ; Ps. 33 : 6-9.  Moreover the Lord Jesus accepted the Genesis account of creation (Mt. 19 : 4 cf Gen. 5 : 2).

                   Since the so-called scientists have miserably failed to prove their evolution theory, we reject evolution theory.  Moreover, creation theory is right, undefeatable and plausible.  Hence we must believe creation theory according to the Bible.

Scriptural Teaching concerning the origin of man


                   According to the whole council of God (Gen. 1 : 26) Adam was brought into existence by creative and formative act of God (Gen. 1 : 26-27).  God through creative act created immaterial part – soul and spirit – of man (Gen. 1 : 27 ; Mt. 19 : 4).  God through the formative act made (material part) the body of man (Gen. 2 : 7 ; 6 : 17 ; 7 : 22).  Hence Genesis chapter 1 explains creative act while chapter 2 explains formative act of God.

                   The Hebrew word ‘bara’ is used in Gen. 1 : 1 and 1 : 27.  This speaks of creation out of nothing.  In this method, God created the universe and immaterial part of man.  This act is also called Ex-Nihilo which means “out of nothing”. 

                   God used existing material to create the body.  The body had no life and no breath to evolve.  God then breathed into man the breath of lives (2 : 7 ; 6 : 17 ; 7 : 22).  The plural “lives” points to two levels of life; spiritual and physical – both began at the same time when God breathed.

                   Adam was created with a mature intellect.  Therefore he had discernment and wisdom (2 : 20).

                   When God first created Adam, He created Adam with potentials of all material to make Eve.  Eve was created potentially in Adam and brought into an individual existence by a special formative act of God (1 : 27 ; 5 : 2 ; 1 Tim. 2 : 13).  When Eve was taken out of Adam, there was “no breathing of life into Eve”.  This indicates both material and immaterial parts of Eve were taken from Adam.  God created this pair so that the entire human race could descend from this pair by natural generation (Act 17 : 26).

  1. Nature of Man


          Here nature of man refers to man’s state of being before his fall.

  1. Original Image of Man : God created man in His own image and likeness.  The creation of man is distinguished from all other creations.  God made each variety of plant life after its kind, but He created man in His image.  This image and likeness are seen in several ways as following..

Man’s Triune nature :  The Triune God said “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: (Gen. 1 : 26).  Thus man, made in the image and likeness of God is a triune being consisting of a spirit – a soul and a body (1 Thes. 5 : 23).

Intellectual and Moral Nature of Man : The image and likeness also refer to the intellectual and moral nature of man (Eph. 4 : 23,24 ; Col. 3 : 10).  Man is a rational being.  This distinguishes man from animals for they have instinct but not rationality.  Man is also a moral being like God.  But animals do not have moral values.

Physical nature of Man :  God had designed in His mind a body so that Christ could incarnate according to the design of that body (Heb. 10 : 5).  God made man’s body after the archtypal form that He had in His mind, the pattern that He Himself had designed for His own corporeal and visible expression in Jesus Christ.  The image of God was probably a garment of light (Ps. 104 : 1-2 ; 1 Tim. 6 : 15-16).  Therefore the image of God includes – soul, spirit, intellect, moral, garment of light and body designed by God.


B.      Original Intellectual and Moral condition of Man


                   Intellectually, man was not created as a savage, but a higher being with a lofty mental powers (Gen. 2 : 20).  Adam was created with sufficient intellectual capacity to give names to all living creatures and to have dominion over all the earth.  The evolution theory that man has developed from an originally low order of intellectual being resembling an ape is a figment of unbridled imagination falsely dubbed science.  The very reverse is true to fact.

                   Morally, man was created sinless, and innocence.  He possessed no knowledge of evil.  Brought into existence for the glory of God, the first parents of human race were established in Eden.

  1. Man’s Constitution (Body – soul – spirit)


                   There are two views concerning man’s constitution.  They are Dichotomy and Trichotomy.


                   This view holds that man has two fold nature.  There man consists of immaterial part (spirit and soul together) and material part (Body).  This view lacks direct support from the Bible.


                   This view holds that man has three fold nature which includes – Body – Soul – Spirit.  This view has direct support from the scripture.  Because 1 Thes. 5 : 23 clearly mentions “. . . . your whole spirit, and soul and body be preserved blameless . . . “  Therefore let us study further about Body, Spirit and Soul.  The constitution of man includes man’s body, soul and spirit.

  1. i) Body : Man’s body was made from the earth, first.  The Bible says that the body is house of clay and its foundation is the dust (Job. 4 : 19 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 1,3,4).  The word ‘dust’ does not mean clay, or old dirty dirt, but the finest materials of the earth including minerals of the earth.  The process by which God made man is not known.  We leave that up to God.
  • Chemical Analysis Proves Man’s source : Modern analysis detects in the body the same elements that are in the earth; such chemical elements as Sodium, Carbon, Iron, Water, air, heat and the like.
  • Earth sustains Man’s Existence : The body is sustained by that which grows out of the earth. It is man’s body and not his spirit that is sustained.  Famine in our days has proved that if vegetation is taken away, life is taken away.  This proves that man is made from the earth.
  • Death substantiates Man’s Elements: At death corruption sets in and man’s body soon returns to the dust from which it was formed (Gen. 3 : 19).
  1. ii) Soul : “The Lord God formed man from the dust of ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul: (Gen. 2 : 7; 1 Cor. 15 : 45).  The soul is the seat of the emotions and appetites.  Plants, animals and man have a soul.  There is difference between the souls of men and the souls of animals.  The animal’s soul is connected with its body, while man’s soul is connected with his spirit.  The soul of an animal dies with the animal, but man’s soul never dies, because he was made ‘a living soul’ – a soul that would never die.

The soul of man is the seat of his emotions, appetites (Deut. 12 : 15) and Desires (1 Sam. 2 : 16), Emotionally, the soul hates (2 Sam. 5 : 8), mourns (Job. 14 : 22), Vex (2 King 4 : 27), Rejoice (Is. 61 : 10), Suffers (Gen. 42 : 21) and sorrows (Mk. 14 : 34).

Adam became living soul when God breathed.  Eve received soul from Adam.  Their children got their soul from Adam and Eve.  Hence every child gets its soul from and through parents. (Gen. 5 : 3 ; Act. 17 : 24-26).

(iii)    Spirit :  Spirit is the one that distinguishes all other creatures from man.  Animals and other living things do not have spirit.  The body without spirit is dead (Jas. 2 : 26).  When a man dies, the soul departs with the spirit of man.  The soul and spirit can be separated (Heb. 4 : 12).  However, there is no scriptural proof that they are ever separated.  When the rich man (Luke 16) died, he went into Hades, with body – soul and spirit (Mt. 10 : 28).  The spirit of man is the seat of his intelligence. (1 Cor. 2 : 11).  Animals do not have intelligence (Ps. 32 : 9).  Child gets its spirit through its parent, at the time of conception, when it gets its soul.

  1. Man’s condition before fall


                   On the day (6th day) of creation, Adam was mature and man.  The very first day he was able to speak to God as a man (Gen. 2 : 16 ; 1 : 29).  He named all animals, because he had immediate intuitive knowledge (2 : 20).  Adam lived in the garden of Eden (2 : 8) not in caves.  God also gave him, Eve a helpmeet (2 : 20, 22).  Adam ate fruits or vegetables before fall (1 : 29).  He did not eat any meat.  He was a pure vegetarion before fall.

                   God gave a few responsibilities to Adam.  He has to guard the garden from the possible appearance and attacks of the Devil (1 : 28 ; 2 : 15).  They have to replenish the earth.  They have to abstain from eating of the forbidden fruit (2 : 16, 17).

                   We do not know what kind of fruit, it was.  Nothing was wrong with the fruit; there was just God’s prohibition behind it.  God wanted Adam and Eve to have knowledge but He did not want them to gain it by disobedience.  We have to remember, Adam had been placed on his guard; he had been warned of the enemy; Satan did not come in unawareness.  This being true, why did God allow Adam and Eve to be subjected to the attack of the Devil?  Testing always comes before a blessing.  Man always has to be tried before he is promoted.  God gave the test so that  man might be blessed for ever.

Summary of Man’s nature before fall


                   Man was spiritually innocence.  He was good morally and had sound knowledge intellectually.  He was guiltless – in body – spirit – soul.  Whole of his being was without spot.



                   The word “Fall” refers here to Adam’s failure in keeping the responsibilities given by God.  He failed in the test that he should not eat of the forbidden fruit.  He thus disobeyed to God’s command.  He became sinner before the Holy God by disobedience.

                   The source of sin was Satan.  He first sinned in heaven by his rebellion against God.  So he was cast away from heaven.  Moreover God was pleased with Adam and had sweet fellowship with Adam.  Satan was envious of this fellowship.  He came to tempt Adam and Eve so that he could break their fellowship with God.  He was not only a liar but the father of liars. He perverted God’s word and His command by giving false meaning – that they could become gods (3 : 1-5).  Eve believed Satan’s word instead of God’s word.  She ate and gave the forbidden fruit to Adam.  They disobeyed God and became sinners (2 Cor. 11 : 3).

                   By accepting Satan’s wrong explanation of God’s command, they doubted God’s love (Pro. 14 : 22, Is. 55 : 7), doubted God’s word (1 Jn. 3 : 4), and God’s authority (Rom. 8 : 7,8).  Rejecting God’s authority is tantamount to attempt to become god.  Adam and Eve failed because they wanted to be gods.  The devil himself fell (Is. 14) because he wanted to be like the most High God.  This brought about his downfall, so he planted the same seed of false ambition in Adam and Eve.  Unfortunately they accepted Satan’s word and ate the forbidden fruit to become gods.  But miserably they failed and became sinners.

                   Some may ask “was this fair to them?”.  They were warned and placed on guard against Satan.  There was only one prohibition in the garden.  They did not need that fruit; they lacked nothing.   Hence this punishment is reasonable.

A.      The Effects of the Fall of Man

There were two effects – namely Immediate effect on Adam and Remote effect on his posterity.

          Immediate Effects upon Adam and Eve


They were shameful (Gen. 2 : 25 ; 3 : 7).  God Himself is clothed with a garment of light (Ps. 104 : 2) and when He made man, he made him in His own image and likeness.  Thus, it was possible that man also was  also clothed with a garment of light.  When man sinned, that clothing of light was lost, and he made himself a fig leaf covering to take the place of that garment of light which was lost (Rom. 3 : 23).

Moreover, as the result of fall, they got fear (Gen. 3 : 10), they were separated from God and expelled from the garden (3 : 23, 24).  Adam lost his lordship over creation.  He ruled every creature before fall.  (Ps. 8 : 6-8) He lost his lordship.  Jesus will return this lordship to man when he comes again to rule (Heb. 2 ; Is. 11) .

          Remote Effects upon Adam’s Posterity


The spirit is darkened through fall.  Their understanding of spiritual things is darkened (Eph. 4 : 17, 18).  They are spiritually dead (Eph. 2 : 1-2).  They will remain darkened until the Holy Spirit comes into illuminate.  Second, the soul is debased and corrupt.  (Eph. 4 : 18-19; Jer. 17 : 9).  Third, the body is subjected to disease and death (Rom. 5 : 12).  Fourth, man became guilty, got fear of death (Heb. 2 : 15).

B.      The Effects of Sin


(i)      God’s Judgement

Immediately, God pronounced judgement on the serpant,   on the creation and on the man (Gen. 3 : 14-19 cf Gen. 5 : 29).  There will be a future judgement (Rev. 21 : 8). 

          (ii)     God’s provision for sinner

Despite there was a pronouncement of Judgement, God graciously promised a provision for the sinner, so that man might have a Redeemer (Gen. 3 : 15).  The seed of woman is no one else but Jesus Christ (3 : 21).  When Adam and Eve realized their nakedness, they covered themselves with aprons of fig leaves.  Later, God clothed them with animal’s skin.  As far as covering their nakedness was concerned, fig leaves were as good as animal skin; however, blood has to be shed – “For without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sin” (Heb. 9 : 22).  They had to be covered with that which was slain for their sins.  Likewise, the sinner today has to be clothed with the rightousness of Him (Christ) who died for them.  Hence God’s provision for sinner is Jesus Christ.

C.      Spiritual Condition of man after sin


                   Man became sinner and guilty before the Holy God (Rom. 3 : 9, 10, 19).  The righteousness is absent in their spiritual condition.  They are unrighteous.  They have sinful nature by birth (Ps. 51 : 5 ; Eph. 2 : 3 ; Gen. 6 : 5 ; Jer. 17 : 9 ; Rom. 8 : 7 ; Gal. 5 : 19-21).  They practice sin (Tit. 3 : 3 ; Rom. 3 : 23 ; Col. 1 : 21 ; Ps. 14 : 1-3).  They are totally lost in sin (Lk. 19 : 10 ; Is. 53 : 6 ; 2 Cor. 4 : 3,4).  They are spiritually dead (Eph. 2 : 1,5).  They are under God’s wrath (Rom. 1 : 18 ; Jn. 3 : 36).  The penalty for sin is death (Heb. 9 : 27).  They are sure of hell (Rev. 20 : 15 ; 21 : 8).




                Although man as a sinner is condemned for eternal hell, God made a provision in Christ so that every sinner who repents sin and who accepts Jesus as his only saviour will have eternal forgiveness of sin in Christ (1 Cor. 15 : 21, 22, 45, 47; Rom. 5 : 12-21; 6 : 23). Eternal forgiveness for a sinner in Christ is the greatest display of God’s grace (Eph. 1 : 4,6).  By accepting Christ as his saviour, man receives the righteousness of God.  Sinner becomes righteous in Christ.  Having the righteousness in Christ is the spiritual condition of a believer.  This spiritual condition differs from the life of the unbeliever.

                Every man or woman who receives Jesus Christ as Saviour will have the following spiritual status.

  • A New creature (2 Cor. 5 : 17 ; 2 Pet. 1 : 4 ; Gal. 6 : 15 ; Jn. 3 : 16 Regeneration is a recreation. God can create. God can also re-create. Believer gets a new nature through regeneration of Holy Spirit.)
  • Saved (2 Tim. 1 : 9 ; Eph. 2 : 8,9)
  • Child of God (Jn.1 : 12 ; Gal. 3 : 26)
  • Under God’s favour – Eph. 1 : 3 ; Rom. 5 : 2
  • Waits for God and His glory- Phil. 3 : 20-21 ; Tit. 2 : 13
  • Dead unto sin – Rom. 6 : 11 ; 1 Pet. 2 : 24.
  • Sure of Heaven – 2 Tim. 4 : 18 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 4

Every believer has all these privileges in Christ.



First Read – Gal. 5 : 17   : This verse explains the spiritual condition of man.  The child of God has two natures (Old sin nature and New Nature); but the sinner (unsaved) has only one nature (sin nature).  These two natures in a believer war against one another.  Every true believer has experienced this warfare of which Paul speaks (Rom. 7 : 12-25).

                   Every sinner has sin nature.  At the time of his regeneration, the Holy Spirit gives the new nature to him.  Hence, a saved person has new nature along with his old sin nature.  Let us study How the scripture describes about these two natures.

  1. The sin Nature : The scripture attributes various terms to this sin nature, which man got when Adam sinned.  The terms usued for sin nature are “the natural man (1 Cor.2 : 14), the Old man (Rom. 6 : 6); the outward man (2 Cor. 4 : 16), the heart (Mk. 7 : 21-23), the Carnal mind (Rom. 8 : 7), Sin (Rom. 5 : 12), and the Flesh (Jn. 3 : 6; 6 : 63 ; Rom. 7 : 18,23 ; 8 : 8,9).  The flesh does not here mean “muscles and sinew”, which are parts of the human body, but rather carnal sin nature.  Every child which is born through Husband and wife relationship is born with this sin nature (Ps. 51 : 5).


This nature is also called Adam’s nature, because he fell (Fallen nature).  Every child inherits this fallen sin nature through its father.  This nature is evil.  This nature is an unchangeable nature till the death of man. (Jn. 3 : 6.a).  The end of this nature is death (Rom. 6 : 23 ; 8 : 5-13).

  1. The New Nature : When a sinner accepts Jesus Christ as his only saviour, the Holy Spirit gives him this new nature (or) the spirit nature (Jn. 3 : 6.b).  The scripture attributes various terms for this new nature such as “Divine Nature (2 Pet. 1 : 4 ; 1 Jn. 3 : 9 ; 5 : 18,19) the new man (Eph. 4 : 24 ; Col. 3 : 10 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 17), the Inward man (2 Cor. 4 : 16 ; Rom. 7 : 22 ; Eph. 3 : 16), New heart, and Mind (Rom. 7 : 25).


This New nature is Christly nature, imparted nature, Holy nature.  The end result of this nature is resurrection at rapture (1 Cor. 15 : 51-53, 57).

C.               The Spiritual conflict between the two natures of believer


Every born-again child of God has two natures; but the unsaved man has only one nature.  The old nature can not be fully eradicated either at the time of regeneration or during the life of a believer in the earth.  Therefore, we have a Spiritual battle between the Old and New nature (Gal. 5 : 17).  Paul explains this truth by quoting this spiritual battle of his life in Romans 7 : 15-25.  God expects every believer to win this Spiritual battle, against Old sin nature, by two methods; namely “overcoming sin” and “submitting to spirit”.

Overcoming sin :  In order to overcome sin, we have to first accept the reality that “our old man is crucified with Christ” (Rom. 6 : 6-11).  Second we should never make provision for our flesh.  This means that a believer should not entertain the flesh and its deed (Rom. 13 : 14).  Third, mortify the flesh (Col.3 : 5 ; Heb. 11 : 12).  Fourth, believer should never yield to sin (Rom. 6 : 13).  Fifth, put off sinful lusts (Eph. 4 : 22; Act. 7 : 58). When we find difficult to overcome sin, we must ask God’s help available in Christ (Rom. 7 : 24-25).

Submitting to Spirit :  In order to overcome sin, on the one hand, we must control our lust of flesh with the help of crucified Christ, on the other hand, we must submit ourselves to the control of new nature.  For the growth of the new nature, we must first reckon that we are made alive in God through Christ (Rom.  6 : 11).  Second we have to walk in the Newness of life (Eph. 2 : 10 ; Rom. 6 : 4 ; 7 : 6).  Third, we have to feed the New nature on the word of God (1 Pet. 2 : 2).  Since our new nature is similar to a baby, we should feed our new nature by reading, and meditating God’s word daily.  The word of God like milk will nourish our new nature.  The word of God is the only food that ever nourish the growth of new nature.

              Fourth, we have to put on the new man (Eph. 4 : 24).  This means the believer has to behave like the child of God.  In order to grow in new nature, we should fully depend upon the Indwelling Spirit for power (Eph. 4 : 30 ; 6 : 10 ; Zech. 4 : 6b).  The Holy Spirit will give the power through the word of God to us so that we may overcome sin and defeat the old nature.

Relation between these two natures:  Since these two natures are co-existing in a believer, the believer has spiritual conflict.  He thinks to do good but does the contrary (Rom. 7 : 15-25).  Therefore, as Paul asked we should ask God for help through Christ.  God will help us to defeat our sin nature.


              When our new nature grows steadily, the old sin nature will become weak.  As we grow more and more in our spiritual life through the word of God,  Our new nature will become strong.  This is the sign of Spiritual growth.  If a believer does not read God’s word  daily and submit himself to the guidance of Holy Spirit, his new nature will become weaker.  He can not give fruits as well.  In order to give spiritual fruits, a believer  must grow in his new nature by feeding on God’s word with prayer daily.  There is no other alternative to God’s word.

Benefits of learning this doctrine of Man


     We understand that

  • God created man – Gen. 1 : 27
  • God saves the sinner through Christ- Eph. 2 : 8-10
  • God makes the believer as His Child – Jn. 1 : 12
  • God has given the word (The Bible) so that we might grow – 1 Pet. 2 : 2



                   The word Hamartiology is derived from the Greek words “Hamartia’ which means ‘sin’ and ‘logos’ which means ‘word or study’.  Hence, Hamartiology means ‘study concerning sin’.

Root idea of sin :  The Hebrew word frequently used for sin is “chata’ and its Greek equivalent is ‘Hamartia’.  Both words mean ‘to miss the mark’, ‘to fall, to err’.  Sin means missing the mark.  In olden days, if anyone had to be selected as a soldier in infantry, he had to shoot an arrow on a specified point.  Failing to shoot the arrow on that point was called “Missing the mark”.  Since he had failed to shoot the arrow on the point, he would not be selected as a soldier.  He has missed the mark.  This “missing the mark” is technically called “sin”.  The same idea is applied to “sin” in theology because man has missed the basic requirement of God’s moral test.  Adam missed and failed by disobedience in the test which was given by God.  This disobedience is sin.

New Testament terms used to denote sin


                   The word ‘sin’ literally means ‘to miss the mark’. A sinner had missed the mark which God established and he had gone in his own way.  The following terms of New Testament denote sin.

  • Sin – Rom. 5 : 12 ; 1 Jn. 1 : 9
  • Transgression – Rom. 4 : 15 ; 5 : 14
  • Trespass – Eph. 2 : 1
  • Disobedience – Rom. 5 : 19
  • Wrong = failure to have and keep perfect righteousness. 3 : 25
  • Ungodliness = irreverence to God – Rom. 1 : 18
  • Lawlessness = Rebellion – Mt. 24 : 12 ; 2 Thes. 2 : 3
  • Ignorance = doing evil due to lack of knowledge – 1 Tim. 1 : 13
  • Defeated – 2 Pet. 2 : 19-20
  • Evil or wickedness – Mt. 13 : 49 ; Lk. 11 : 31


Author of sin : Satan is the author of sin, because sin originated in him when he rebelled against God in heaven. (Ezk. 28 : 15)

Various Definitions of sin


                   The following are various definitions given by well known theologians (names in bracket).

  • Sin is lack of conformity to the moral law of God either in act, disposition, or state (Berkof. p. 233)
  • Sin is any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God given as rule to the reasonable creature (Theissen. p. 242)
  • Anything in the creature which does not express or is contrary to the Holy character of the creator – Lev. 19 : 2 ; Is. 6 : 1-6 (Buswell).

In summary, anything either in act or in thought in man contrary to God’s Holy nature or to God’s revealed word is sin.


Scriptural definition of sin :  The Bible also define sin  in its simplest way as following:

  • All unrighteousness is sin (1 John. 5 : 17)
  • Any attitude that is contrary to faith is sin – Rom. 14 : 23.

Read :  1 Jn. 3 : 4 ; James 1 : 14-15 ; 2 : 9-10; 4 : 17

  1. Effects of sin


                   The effects of sin have affected the whole being man – including man’s body, soul, spirit, mind, heart, and nature.  Due to sin, man is spiritually dead. (Eph. 2 : 1).  The simplest meaning of death is ‘separation’.  The spiritual death means that man is separated from God.  When Adam sinned, he met immediate spiritual death.  However, his body did not die immediately, but it began dying as soon as he sinned.  Ultimately man will be dead (Gen. 2 : 17).

                   Besides spiritual and physical death, man’s mind also affected due to sin.  Man’s mind is vain, understanding is darkened, ignorant of spiritual values, no real feeling for God (Eph. 4 : 17-19).  Men are enemies to God in their mind (Col. 1 : 21) and their minds are blind to the Gospel (2 Cor. 4 : 3-4).

                   The whole nature of man is affected due to sin.  Therefore, man’s will is perverted, (Jn. 8 : 44), man is powerless to please God (Rom. 7 : 17-18) and he does not seek God (Rom. 3 : 11).

Read :  Pro. 21 : 27 ; Rom. 8 : 8 ; Eph. 2 : 1-2,5 ; 4 : 18 ; 1 Tim. 5 : 6 ; Prov. 21 : 4 ; Is. 64 : 6.

                   Since man has fallen in sin, and his mind, body, nature, soul and spirit are affected by sin, he is totally depraved.  Sin affecting the whole human being is called “Total Depravity”.  Because of this Total Depravity, man is totally unable to do one thing to please God (Rom. 3 : 10-12; 5 : 6; 6 : 20 ; 7 : 18 ; 8 : 7-8 ; Eph. 4 : 17-19).

  1. Total Depravity of man due to sin


                   The whole being of man is now under Total Depravity.  Man’s soul, spirit, body, and nature are fully depraved through the fall of man.  Hence the fallen human race is unable to keep God’s law in his life satisfactorily.  Moreover man is  unable to reinstate himself to God’s favour, to change his fallen sin nature, and to exercise right affection toward God.  Although man is able to exercise his volitions (will power), he is unable to exercise his holy volitions according to God’s plan.  Due to fall and total depravity, man is naturally inclined to do what he desires rather what God expects.  Man has come short of the glory of God (Rom. 3 : 23).  Fallen man did partially lose his glory.  Man’s glory is marred, due to total depravity.

Note :  Although man is totally depraved, he has the image of God still in him (James 3 : 9).  Therefore man sometimes do good deeds, toward fellow beings,  even he can think good.  However man’s good deeds or good thinking will not be sufficient to receive God’s favour.  Man’s good deeds are filthy rags before God (Is. 64 : 6).  Man does good deeds for his selfish reasons either for his self reputation or for receiving some favour from others, especially from higher authorities, or for his own benefits.  He does not do good deeds for God’s glory but for his own.  Sometimes, unsaved man does good deeds in the name of God or in the name of his religion.  Even, this kind of good deeds will not be sufficient to make him eligible to receive God’s favour.  All good deeds that man does before his repentence and salvation will be like filthy rags, before God.   Totally depraved man must first seek God’s forgiveness through repentance and confession of sin.  When a fallen man (sinner) repents and accepts Jesus Christ as his only saviour, God graciously grants him eternal life.  This eternal life can not be claimed by a totally depraved man by doing good deeds, because eternal life is a gift of God (Jn. 6 : 44 ; Eph. 2 : 5,8).

  1. Imputations of sin in scripture


                   As revealed in God’s word in connection with the fall of man, there are three imputations set forth.  First, the imputation of Adam’s sin to the race; second, the imputation of the sin of man to Christ; Third, the imputation of the righteousness of God to the believers.

A.      The imputation of Adam’s sin to the race – Rom. 5 : 12 – 18


                   Rom. 5 : 12 clearly states the imputation of Adam’s sin to his posterity is actual, since in the federal head representation,  Adam’s posterity sinned when he sinned (cf Heb. 7 : 9-10 – As Levi payed tithes when Abraham payed before the birth of Levi).

                   Although man contend, that Adam’s posterity is not responsible for Adam’s sin (First sin), the divine revelation stands that because of the far-reaching effect of representation of Adam on the federal head of the race, Adam’s one – initial sin (First sin) is immediately and directly imputed to each member of the race with the unvarying sentence of death resting upon all (Rom. 5 : 12-14).  Likewise, by the fall of Adam, the effect of one-initial sin (First sin) is transmitted in the form of a sinful nature immediately or by inheritance, from father to son throughout all generations.  The effect of the fall is universal so also the offer of divine grace.

                   Men do not now fall by their first sin, they are born fallen sons of Adam.  They do not become sinful by sinning, but they sin because by nature they are sinful.  They become possessed of the Adam’s nature and themselves are said to have sinned in Adam.

B.      The Imputation of the sin of man to Christ – 2 Cor. 5 : 21


                   Since all are sinners before the Holy God, none can save himself.  All are unrighteous before God.  They can not be saved themselves.  Hence God made a provision in Jesus Christ that God imputed man’s sin on Jesus Christ.

                   It is evident that there was a judicial transfer of the sin of man to Christ, the sin-bearer.  Jehovah has laid on Him (Jesus) the iniquity of us all (Isa. 53 : 5 ; Jn. 1 : 29 ; 1 Pet. 2 : 24 ; 3 : 18).  All sins including the initial sin (First sin of Adam) as well as sin of whole humanity are imputed on Jesus Christ when He died on the cross for our sins (1 Cor. 15 : 3).

C.      The imputation of Righteousness of God to believers – 2 Cor. 5 : 19


                    As God placed and imputed the sins of whole humanity on Jesus Christ when He died on the cross,  God is also  pleased to impute His righteousness on those who believe Jesus Christ as their only saviour.  Christ through His death satisfied and fulfilled God’s righteousness.  There is a judicial transfer of the righteousness of God to the believer (2 Cor. 5 : 21); because there could be no other grounds of justification or acceptance with God.  This imputation belongs to the new relationship with in the new creation.  Being joined (united) to the Lord Jesus Christ by the baptism of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. 6 : 17 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 17 ; Gal. 3 : 27) to Christ as a member in His body (Eph. 5 : 30); it follows that every virtue of Christ is extended to those who have become an organic part of Him.  The believer is “in Christ” and thus partakes of all that Christ is.

                   A believer is saved because God imputes His righteousness on him, when he repents and accepts Jesus Christ as his only saviour.

Read :  Gen. 15 : 6 ; Ps. 32 : 2 ; Rom. 3 : 9, 22 ; 4 : 3, 8, 21-25 ; 2 Cor. 5 : 21 ; Philemon  17, 18 ; Rom. 11 : 32 : Gal. 3 : 22.

  1. Sin in Relation to the Christian Believer


  1. The Possibility of sin


                   Becoming a Christian does not free one from sinning.  Even a saved person may commit sin (1 Jn. 1 : 8-10).  When a believer does sin, he should admit his sin.  He should never try to hide it or deny to confess it.  When a believer confesses his sin, God will immediately forgive him.  When a believer does sin, he loses his joy and fellowship with God.  However, he will not lose his relationship with God – Child of God – position.  As soon as he confesses his sins to God, God restores him back His joy and fellowship again.

B.      The preventives for sin


                   God has provided three preventives for sins in the life of believers.

  1. The word of God : If a man keeps God’s word in his heart, he will not sin (Ps. 119 : 11).
  2. The intercession of Christ : The Lord Jesus is constantly interceding that we should not sin (Jn. 17 : 15)
  • The work of the Holy Spirit : The Holy Spirit helps us to overcome sin, when we yield to His guidance.

When a believer is free from sinning, he will serve God effectively (Jn. 7 : 37-39).

  1. The Penalties of sin


  • For Believers


  1. Every sin brings a certain loss of fellowship between the believer and his heavenly Father (1 Jn. 1 : 6).
  2. Certain sins may require the local church to take action – excommunicating the erring brother in the church, but always with the hope and always working toward his ultimate restoration (1 Cor. 5 : 4-5).
  3. Chastisement may be given by God for persistent sin (Heb. 12 : 6).
  4. God may take a believer to heaven through sudden physical death because of his habitual sinning (1 Cor. 11 : 30).

These four forms of penalty and punishment are only for believers.  Any one of these punishments may come on them, if they sin.

  • For unbelievers


All the unbelievers of all generation will receive eternal punishment in hell.  There is no escape and second chance (Mt. 25 : 46 ; Lk. 16 : 26 ; Rev. 20 : 10).

  1. The Remedy for sin


                   The confession is the demand of the word of God (1 Jn. 1 : 9).  This confession must have the element of repentance and a desire to forsake that sin (Act. 19 : 18).

Benefits of learning this doctrine of sin


                   We understand by learning this doctrine of sin that

  • All are sinners before the Holy God (Rom. 3 : 23)
  • We can not save ourselves without Jesus (Jn. 15 : 5)
  • Jesus Christ died for our sins (1 Cor. 15 : 3)
  • God will forgive all our sins when we confess (1 Jn. 1 : 6)
  • God’s word will keep us away from sin (Ps. 119 : 11).





  1. When did God create Angels?
  2. What are the basic characteristics of angels?
  3. What are the ministries of Good angels?
  4. What are the failures of Satan?
  5. Can the demons possess believers?



  1. What is evolution theory?
  2. What is creation theory?
  3. How is man different from animals?
  4. What are the two views concerning man’s constitution?
  5. What was man’s condition before his fall?



  1. Who is the author of sin?
  2. What is the root idea of sin?
  3. What is total depravity?
  4. What are the three imputations?
  5. What is the remedy for sin?

Note :         Write this assignment and send it to CALS.  Do not forget to write your Name and Register Number on your assignment.