BL - 24 Pentateuch


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Introduction  TO  PENTATEUCH

The word Pentateuch basically means “five parts’.  However, in the biblical sence, Pentateuch refers to the first five books of the Bible.  The Greek speaking Jews used the term “he pentateuchos Biblos” to denote the Torah (The Law of Moses).  From this term, we get “Pentateuch” for the first five books of our Bible.

   In Hebrew tradition, the title of the book was given from the very word with which the book began.  The Hebrew word “Bereshith” is used in the Hebrew Bible.  It means “In the beginning”.  However, Septuagint (Greek Translation of Hebrew Bible) used the term “Genesis” because this book describes the beginning of history.  Our English Bibles have used the same term Genesis for the first book of the Bible.



English Title

Septuagint Title





In the beginning




Going out




Law of Levites








Second Land


                        These are the five books in Pentateuch.  The Jews called it Torah and they gave a very high veneration to it.  They believed that God had spoken to them through it.




                        The Jews strongly believed God used Moses to write these five books in Pentateuch.  Jesus Christ also accepted the authorship of Moses.  The early church also believed the authorship of Moses.  None questioned the authorship until 19th century AD.


                        However, in the later part of 19th century, some critics questioned about the authorship of Moses and dates of the books.  They hypothetically argued for multi-authorship saying Pentateuch must have been written by many authors and Moses was prominent among those authors.  Those critics brought out a theory, known as “JEDP Theory”.  According to this theory, Pentateuch was composed by using the documents such as J, E, D and P documents.  Each of these letters represents one document namely,


                        J (or) Y  –       Stands for Jehovah’s Document.

                        E              –       Stands for Elohim Document

                        D             –       Stands for Deutronomical Document

                        P              –       Stands for Priestly Document

shortly known as “JEDP Theory”.


J – Document


                        The portions which use the name Jehovah (Yahweh) are considered under J-document.  According this theory, J-document was composed in 10th or 9th century BC.


E – Document


                        The portions which use the divine name Elohim are considered under E-document.  E – stands  for Elohim.  This document was composed a little later, probably 9th or 8th century BC.


D – Document


                        The teaching in Deutoronomical tradition is placed under this document since it deals with Deuteronomy, it is called D-document by the critics.


P – Document


                        The portions which deal with the Jewish religious systems and priestly systems are placed under this document by critics.  They assume this document was composd in post – exilic times (After Babylonian captivity). 


                        Although the critics aruge for JEDP – Theory, it has no biblical support.


Problems Connected with JEDP Theory


  1. It has neither biblical support nor historical support nor proper archeological support.


  1. The critical scholars themselves divide in their views. A view of one scholar about JEDP theory has less acceptance by other scholar.  They have no unified view. (Ex. Some accept JEP theory but reject D document).


  1. Archaeological findings proved that the history of Israel mentioned in the Bible is correct but the fabricated history by critical scholars, especially of Wellhausen is wrong (p.9., Torah-Tamil Bible Introduction – Part I; Thyagu; Thyana Ashram, Chennai, 2002).


Support for Moses’ Authorship


  1. The education that Moses had at Pharaoh’s palace would have enabled him to read and write. (Ex. 24 : 4 ; Dt. 31 : 9). So God used him to record His revelation. (Ex. 33 : 11, Dt. 34 : 10).


  1. Moses was the only man who had sufficient knowledge of both Egypt and Canaan. Hence he could give the correct geographical system of ancient Egypt and Canaan. (Act. 7 : 22).


  1. Some birds and animals we find in Pentateuch are found only in those regions of Egypt and Wilderness. Hence, the author who recorded Pentateuch was familiar with these lands.  So he could record them very accurately.


  1. The critics could not disprove the authorship of Moses.


  1. The Jews strongly accepted the authorship of Moses.


  1. Jesus Christ and His apostles accepted the authorship of Moses (Jn. 5 : 46).


  1. A number of words from Egyptian language that are found in Pentateuch suggests the fact that the original author of Pentateuch had his roots in Egypt. This fact is also a proof for Moses’ authorship.


  1. Ancient name “Salem” is used for Jerualam (Gen. 14 : 18). This indicates Pentateuch was written much before the time of David.


Conclusion about Authorship


                        Since, the critics could not substantiate their views with valid evidences, it is right to decide that the author of Pentateuch is Moses.



Outline of Genesis


  1. God of creation (1 : 1-2)
  2. The Days of Creation (1 : 3-2 : 3).
  • The Man of Creation (2 : 4-25)
  1. The fall of Human Race (3 : 1-24)
  2. The Growth of the Human Race (4 : 1-5 : 32)
  3. God’s condemnation (6 : 1-7 : 24)
  • God’s care for Mankind is Perfect (8 : 1-19)
  • God’s Covenant is Perfect (8 : 20 – 9 : 29)
  1. Delineations of the Nations (10 : 1-11 : 32)
  2. Call and Life of Abraham (12 : 1-23 : 20)
  3. Life of Isaac (24 : 1-26 : 35)
  • Life of Jacob (27 : 1-35 : 29)
  • Life of Esau (36 : 1-43)
  • Life of Joseph (37 : 1-50 : 26)


Study Notes of Genesis


  1. God of Creation (1 : 1-2)


                       “In the beginning” – there are five areas of thought in this phrase.


  • It gives the historic beginning of the universe – the first creative act.
  • It is an actual date / day – not a myth but an actual event.
  • Matter is not eternal, but created.
  • The Act of Creation was revealed by God.
  • Faith is the only right to understand creation.


“God” is known by Hebrew word Elohim.  It speaks of God’s might and power.  It is a plural noun in Hebrew but it takes a singular verb.   It suggests the Trinity in a unity – three Divine persons in one Godhead.  This plurality in a unity is illustrated in 1:26, 27.  All three persons of the Godhead were active in creation.  The Father planned it (1 Cor. 8 : 6), the Son created it (Jn. 1-3: Col. 1 : 16) and the Spirit perfected it (Gen. 1 : 2; Job 26 : 13 ; Ps. 104 : 30).


The word “Created” is the translation of Hebrew word “bara’.  The word (bara) is used to express the creation of something without the use of pre-existent materials.  Moreover, it is always used of God’s activity not of man’s. (1 : 1,21,27; 2 : 4).


The other three Hebrew words used in the creation details (Gen. 1,2) are



Used to describe the making of something out of created materials (1 : 16, 25, 26 ; 2 : 2).



Used of fashioning some material as a potter does to clay.  It is used of God’s work of fashioning man from the dust of earth (2 : 7, 19).



Means “to build”.  It is used when God made the woman from man’s rib.



                        ‘Heaven and the earth”.  Earth was created in the first few seconds of the first day.  The earth was created with minerals that are necessary for plants, animals and man.  After creating minerals, God made living beings on the earth.  “Heaven” should be translated “heavens” as in Hebrew, because there are three spheres in heaven; namely


  1. the atmospheric heaven (where Oxygen is)
  2. the heaven of planets and stars (space)
  • the heaven of God’s dwelling place (God’s throne)


  1. The Days of Creation (1 : 3 – 2 : 3)


1 : 3 – “Let there be light” – this is created light.  It is fixed outside of the earth to give a day / night cycle.  It is not the sun, because that was not made until the fourth day. 

1 : 5 – “And the evening and morning were the first day”.  This sentence clearly indicates 24 – hour day.  It is nothing to do with long ages.


 The Arguments for a 24 – hour day


  1. Numerical adjectives (one – two – three – . . . ) are used with each day.
  2. Evening and morning are used. This indicates a day.
  3. The creation week is an example of man’s.  Work week and God’s rest day are the  example of man’s rest day.
  4. The hermeneutical principle says that a word should be taken in its normal meaning unless other circumstances force a different / special meaning.
  5. The day-age theory would make it impossible for Adam and Eve to make it through the “thousand – year” day of rest that followed their creation.
  6. “Days” are included with “seasons” and “years” in v:14, making the last two designations of time meaningless if a day does not mean a day of 24 hours.
  7. God – the Almighty – did not need more than 24 – hours to create.


Note : The day-age theory can not account for the day-night cycle, because long nights of hundreds of years would have killed all of the plants life.  The plants can not live for many years without light / day. The plants can live only in 24-hour day cycle.  Hence day-age theory is impossible for practical reasons.


1 : 21 – “After their kind” – This phrase clearly indicates that species reproduce their own kind.  Four points help us to understand this fact.


  1. a “kind” includes organisms that can reproduce among themselves.
  2. a “kind” is able to produce offspring with reliability and stability.
  • a “kind” has variety (Ex: Various types of dogs / elephants)
  1. There is no cross-breeding to develop new kinds (different kind) and so some “kinds” may have become extinct or are seriously impoverished.


1 : 27  – “God created man in His own image – man was created in the moral likeness of God, i.e. knowledge (Col. 3 : 10), righteousness and true holiness (Eph. 4 : 24).  He also was created as a personal being with intellect, emotions and will, which God has and man still retains these qualities.


1 : 31 – “It was very good” – God’s creation was perfect in every ways and everywhere both in heaven and earth.


Note : This means that Lucifer had not yet fallen, that disease and death had not yet entered the universe.


2 : 2 – “God ended His work” – means He completed His work of creation not His work of sustaining and directing / ruling it.


               “He rested on the seventh day” – no sense of fatigue or weariness is implied, but only that God ceased from His creation work as a model for man to rest one day in seven.


  • The Man of Creation (Gen. 2 : 4-25)


2 : 4 – “The Lord” – This title word is Yahweh (Jehovah) in the Hebrew.  This name speaks of God’s grace to man: His covenant and salvation, His care and love; but it also speaks of God’s self-sufficiency; His power and knowledge and His will to do as He wishes.  The combination of His name with Elohim was very fitting when dealing with God’s creation and care of man.


2 : 7 – “Formed man of the dust of the ground” – God formed (Yatzar) man as a potter would shape his pottery. “Dust” does not mean it was dry pulverized earth, but a damp lump of clay.


           “Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life” – the breath of God is something special that man has that the other creatures do not have.  The sea creatures, the air creatures and the land creatures have all been made living souls like man, but only man has been made in the likeness of God’s image and he alone was given the breath of God.


2 : 8 – “Eden” – probably was located near the place where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers join.  The other two rivers are unknown but must have been in that locality before the flood.  Eden means “delight”.


2 : 9 – “The tree of life” seems to imply that this tree was able to free man from the possibility of death (cf. 3 : 22).  The tree of life will be found in the New Jerusalem, (Rev. 22 : 2).


           “The tree of knowledge of good and evil” – This tree was not poisonous, but it was used by God to test man’s obedience.  This tree would bring about the knowledge of good and evil whether man obeyed or did not obey.  If he did not eat, he would learn about good and evil from God’s side; but if he did eat, Adam would learn about it from satan’s side.  It would be far better for him to know good and evil from God’s view point.


2 : 17 – “thou shalt surely die” – God gave Adam a strong command with a severe penalty – it was a test of his obedience.  Death means separation.


  1. Physical death in which the soul is separated from the body.
  2. Spiritual death in which the sinner is separated from God in this life (It first happened when Adam sinned).
  • Second death or eternal death in which the sinner is separated from God for ever.


Note :  When Adam sinned, he was spiritually separated from God.  This is spiritual death. As a result of this spiritual death, his physical  death occurred gradually.  Moreover, his spiritual and physical death was passed on to his posterity / generation.


2 : 20 – “Gave names” – Adam (man) only named the various “kinds: of air-breathing  animals (cattle, birds and beasts) and nothing is said about the fish and creeping things.  He had a superior intelligence to determine their characters and he gave them names that fit their characters.


            “But for Adam there was not found a helper comparable to him”.  It indicates that Adam felt loneliness, emotionally when he saw all animals with their pair.

            God’s test probably included three aspects of Adam.



Test of Intelligence


Naming the animals.  Adam passed by naming all animals.



Test of Emotions


Feeling loneliness.  Adam passed in this test too by differentiating himself from the other pairs of animals.


Test of Will Power


Choosing the right and the wrong.  Adam failed in this test although he had passed the first two.


2 : 21 – “Ribs” – literally a “part of the side”.  It undoubtedly referred to more than Adam’s rib (cf 2 : 23).  God took a part of Adam to make him a mate, so that she would be inseparably a part of him.


2 : 22 – “Made He a woman” – the word for made is “banah” (Hebrew) which means “to build “. God built a woman from the side of Adam.  So, he would be of his flesh and of his bone (cf.  v : 23).


2 : 24 – “They shall be one flesh” – what was true of Adam and Eve is also true of each man and woman that marries.  They are one flesh and should not be separated from each other through divorce.  Instead, they should be separated from their father and mother “Leaving their parents” means both husband and wife must be loyal to each other.


  1. The Fall of Human Race (3 : 1-24)


           This chapter and the following two chapters (4,5) are crucial to understanding the Bible in its entire context as well as its immediate context.  For the most part, the contents of the Bible from Genesis 3 through Revelation 20 are a result of the event of Genesis 3. When Adam sined, it affected the whole human race (1 Tim 4 : 14; Rom. 5 : 12; 1 Cor. 15 : 22).  Although Adam was fully responsible for his sin, Satan was the master mind (author) who plotted this fall (Gen. 3 : 1 ff).


           There is a clear difference between man and animals.  Animals have “the life principle (body and soul) but man alone has the breath of God “the everlasting principle” (the spirit).  This is the image  of God in man which is his basis of fellowship with God.  The image of God includes man’s capacity for intellect, self-consciousness, self-determination, emotion, use of languages for communication etc. No animal has the above characteristics but operates from a framework of natural desires and instinct.  Man can learn many languages but animal make only voices.  So man has body, soul and spirit.


Purpose of Testing Man


           Adam as the head of human race, was created with a holy nature but (Gen. 1 : 31) he was not confirmed with a holy moral character.  Character is only produced by exercising one’s ability to make the right choices.  Hence, God chose to test Adam to give him an opportunity to make a proper and right choice and confirm himself in an eternal holy state so that man would not be able to sin”.


The Nature of the Test


           It allowed Adam to exercise his will following God’s clear command (Gen. 2 : 16, 17).  There are two ways to gain knowledge. First, one can learn by descriptive knowledge.  This is the way we learn history, for  example.  Second, one may learn experientially.  Compare learning about an orange be descriptive knowledge (hearing or reading about it) with experimential knowledge (personally eating it).  Genesis makes it clear that God wanted adam to have an experiential knowledge to good and evil – But from an obedient experience, not a disobedient experience.


3 : 1-5 – “Serpent” – this creature was chosen by satan to be used (perhaps energized) to do his work (cp. Jn. 8 : 44 ; I Tim. 2 : 14 ; Rev. 12 : 3,4,9; 20 : 2).  Animals can not speak.  Probably, satan was behind the serpent and spoke as if serpent did.  Satan’s method of approach was sly in that he waited until Eve was alone.  “Yea, hath God said” – satan quoted God’s word but misinterpreted it.  Even today, satan’s main tactic is that cast doubt in the mind of people about God’s word and that misinterpret it.


3 : 6 – Satan’s deceit had worked and now Eve began to rationalize within herself  instead of resisting satan (Jam. 4 : 7).  Notice here, the threefold means which led to Eve’s sin (1 Jn. 2 : 16).


  • Lust of the flesh = “good for food” ; it appealed to the appetite of the body.
  • Lust of the eyes = “pleasant to the eyes”; it appealed to the attractiveness of things.
  • Pride of life = “desired to make one wise”; it appealed to her ambition to get ahead.


                 Satan used this same approach on Jesus (cp. Mt. 4 : 1-11), but Christ was victorious.


Note :             It is not clear why satan chose to use this particular beast, and how he spoke whether by indwelling in serpent or by hiding behind serpent. Adam and Eve could see nakedness because the glory that covered them before sinning was removed.


Consequence from the fall


            The fall due to the willful disobedience and rejection of God’s word brought the following consequences.


3 : 7-13 – The entire human race was affected as a consequence of sin.  Adam and Eve hid themselves because of their guilt.  They now knew evil and good but from a depraved standpoint.  This guilt was related to their spiritual death or separation from God as God said.  As the result of spiritual death, man’s physical death entered in his body, so man dies gradually and eventually.  The spiritual death separates man from God, while physical death separates man from fellow men.


            Adam’s sin has been passed on to the entire human race.  So, every child is born with sin nature and is totally depraved (Rom. 5 : 12 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 22).  In the totally depraved condition, the entire being such as soul, body, spirit of man is affected.  He can not please God by any means (Is.64 : 6).  Since all men are born sinners (Ecc. 7 : 20 ; Rom. 3 : 23) all men are subject to eternal punishment (Rom. 6 : 23). The only remedy for spiritual death (eternal punishment) is salvation through Christ (Rom. 3 : 21-28).


3 : 14, 15 – The entire animal kingdom was put into bondage by Adam’s sin (Jer. 12 : 4; Rom. 8 : 20) but God cursed the serpent more than other animals.  Near Eastern culture used the phrase “to eat dust’ as a figurative expression for being cursed.  The curse on the serpent indicates that his manner of mobilization was changed by the curse.  This passage (v : 15) is often called the proto – evangelium (primary – gospel), because it is the first gospel message.  Here, God indicated that the real struggle upon earth is between satan and Christ (Rev. 12).  The seed of the woman is a clear reference to the Christ (Rev. 12 : 1-5 ; Gal. 3 : 16, 19 ; 4 : 4 ; Heb. 2 : 14 ; 1 Jn. 3 : 8).  But satan’s seed consists of those who choose to follow him and who reject God’s plan of redemption.  This struggle began from the days of Cain and Abel.


3 : 16 – The woman, though the first to sin, was deceived but Adam was not; therefore, the human race was cursed through Adam, not Eve (1 Tim. 2 : 14).  Finally, God said she would be ruled by her husband.  This is not to imply that she would be an inferior person, but in a sinful society, they must be designated leaders to avoid chaos.


3 : 17-19 – Adam’s sin resulted in a curse upon his environment.  His labour would not satisfy him and bring enough produce.  In addition, he would be expelled from the Garden.


Cure for the Fall (3 : 20-24)


            Adam’s new name for Eve suggests that he believed God’s promise of a deliverer (20).  He believed she would bring forth the seed to crush satan.  God provided skins of animal as coat for Adam and Eve. An animal was slain probably as atonement for the sin of Adam and Eve.  We do not know what animal was sacrificed.  It could be either a bull or a sheep.  This was the first blood sacrifice for sin.  Here, God taught them the principle that blood must be shed to remove sin (Heb. 9 : 22 ; Lev. 17 : 11).  Adam and Eve accepted from God the coat of animal skin.  It probably reveals Adam accepted God’s offer of salvation. Neverthless Adam and Eve were sent away from the Garden.  Then God protected the tree of life by flaming sword and Cherubim.


  1. The Growth of the Human Race (4 : 1 – 5 : 32)


4 : 1-8 –  After sending away from Eden, Adam and Eve got two sons, namely Cain and Abel.  Adam had probably instructed them concerning sacrifice as an offering for sin, as he had learnt from God.  By teaching the need of sacrifice to his sons, Adam did the role of a prophet.  So they both sons brought offerings.  The possible reasons for rejecting Cain’s offering are:



  • because it was not offered with faith (Heb. 11 : 4).
  • because he was a wicked person (1 Jn. 3 : 12).
  • because it did not involve the shedding of blood which is essential for forgiveness of sins (Heb. 9 : 22 ; Lev. 17 : 11). But, Abel brought offering a Lamb probably to sacrifice for his sins.  Hence, God accepted Abel and his offering.  This made Cain jealous and anger. So, he killed Abel.  Rebelion against God is manifested by rebellion against fellow brothers / man.


4 : 9-15 –  God punished Cain for Abel’s murder because Cain told an outright lie to God instead of repenting for sin and because he tried to evade God’s question.  The land was further cursed for Cain (12). God gave him a sign, probably a physical mark on body, to assure Cain that God would not allow adversaries to take his life.


4 : 16 – 24 – Cain went toward East and got married.  Probably he married one of Adam’s daughter. 


Note :  Since the law of Moses was not given at that time, marrying a sister was then practiced.  When Moses gave law, such practice was banned.


                        Lamech’s sons were skillful; Jabal for the pastoral life; Jubal for the musical instruments and Tubal-Cain for metallurgy.  The evidence of his work was demolished with the flood.  These pre-flood descendants had great technological skills but they received the judgement of God because they failed to consider and to honour Him (2 Pet. 2 : 5 ; 3 : 4-9); Lamaech gives us the first poetry recorded (23, 24).  He was probably the first poet.  His poem is a strong defiance against God.  He seems to mock God’s punishment of Cain.  He indicates that he slew a man who wounded him and killed a boy for striking him.  Notice that Cain’s descendants were technologically advanced, but were sensual and proud.  Cain’s descendent were ungodly.


Godly Descendents of Seth (4 : 25 – 5 : 32)


            Adam’s third son was Seth.  The sons of Seth worshiped God (4 : 26).  In those days, the age of man was much longer than now.  There are at least two reasons proposed for this: First, the genetic effects of sin had not advanced very far as of yet; second, the vapour canopy filtered out the ultra-violet rays from the sun until after the flood when it was destroyed.


            Enoch is an excellent example of what should characterize a believer – a walk which pleases God.  God rewarded him by translating him to heaven so that he did not experience death (Heb. 11 : 5 ; 2 Kings 2 : 11).  Enoch lived for a short period (365 years) for God translated him.  But his son Methuselah lived the most (969 years).


            Methuselah’s son was Lamech (5 : 25).  Lamech’s son was Noah.  He got three sons – Shem, Ham and Japheth. (Jesus came in the godly line – of Seth, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem etc.  finally Mary – through Virgin birth (cf – Lk. 3 : 23 – 38).


  1. God’s Condemnation (6 : 1 – 7 : 24)

            The Lord God had created man perfect, in His own image, but the sin of Adam marred and ruined that perfection.  Although God provided salvation from the penalty of sin, the presence of sin was not removed from Adam and his descendants.  He still remained a sinner in nature and his posterity were born as sinners.  The remaining chapters of the Bible explain How God deals with the posterity of Adam; either graciously for their salvation or judicially for condemnation.  This chapter (Gen. 6) explains one of God’s acts of judging the sinners.


6 : 1-2 – “Sons of God” – There are two prominent views concerning the identity of these individual.  First, some identify (mistakenly) them as fallen angels who descended to earth and cohabited with women to produce a wicked race.  The arguments for this views are: – the phrase, “Sons of God” normally sometimes refers to angels in the Old Testament (Job. 1 : 6 ;  2 : 1; 38 : 7) and – it seems possible to explain the sins of certain fallen angels (2 Pet. 2 : 4-5 ; Jude 6,7).  The second view rejects the first view but identifies the “Sons of God” as descendants of Seth or the godly line.  Consider a few strong favourable arguments”.


  1. “Sons of God” can also refer to believers (Ps. 73 : 15 ; Hos. 1 : 10).
  2. The context is speaking of the two contrasting seeds – Cain’s descendants (v 4) and Seth’s descendants (v 5).
  • “Sons of God” refers to good angels only in the other portions of Bible.
  1. God’s judgement was poured out upon men, not on angels in this passage (v. 5 ff).
  2. The verb “took” is a common expression to refer to the normal marriage relationship among human beings.


                       Based on the weight of arguments, the second view is possibly accepted.  If the second view is correct, the sin was with the male descendants of the godly Sethite line, who chose wives for themselves without regard for their spiritual life and God’s plan for them.  They married the ungodly descendant daughters of Cain.  This may have included polygamy.  The chief idea is that the distinction between the godly and the ungodly line was being obliterated, much to Satan’s delight (Rev. 12 : 3,4).


Note : Satan attempted to mix the ungodly cursed Cain’s line (daughters of men) with the Seth’s godly line (Sons of God).


Additional Notes Why Fallen Angels cannot marry Woman


  1. Marriage is honourable and it is only meant for human beings. Neither animals nor angels can marry (Gen. 2 : 21-25 ; Heb. 13 : 4).
  2. Angels (Whether good or evil angels) can not procreate.
  • Fallen angels are never called “Sons of God” in the Bible.
  1. Fallen angels can not form their own physical body. They can only possess the body of unbelievers and animals for doing evil.
  2. Even if the fallen angels form body, it could be only lower being than human being (Gen. 3 : 1-5). Because human body is a unique creation of God.So evil angels can not make it of themselves.
  3. Angels are spirit beings. They have no physical body.  Physical body is indispensable for married life.  How a woman could marry any fallen angel which has no body.
  • Physical body is necessary for biological relationship. Only two biological beings can interbreed.  The fallen angels are not biological being.  So, angels can not interbreed with women.
  • Evil angels can only speak like man but they can not make body like man.
  1. Angels are neither male nor female; they are spirit beings.
  2. Two unlike species can not interbreed.

(Eg. A lion (animal) can not interbreed with a crow (bird).  So also, a fallen angel (spirit being) can not interbreed with woman (human being).

  1. Even if there is any interbreeding between two unlike animal species, the result of such interbreeding is normally weaker birth.

            All these indicate angels can not marry any one.

  • The earthly beings are only created with reproductive system “to fill the earth”. But the heavenly beings (spirit beings – angels) are not created with reproductive system for they need not fill the heaven or earth by the descendants.


6 : 3 – “My spirit shall not strive with man forever” – the most consistent understanding of this verse interprets this from the dispensational point of view.  The word “strive” means “to rule or sit in judgement”. Recall that after Adam and Eve had sinned, they were no longer innocent.  God began a new dispensation with them that of conscious (Dispensation of conscience).  God’s fundamental order of rule was accomplished by the Holy Spirit’s ministry upon the conscious of man; external forms of restraint were lacking.  However, the wickedness of Cain and his descendants rendered the rule of the conscience as unacceptable.  Neverthless, God was patient and allowed the dispensation of conscience to continue for another 120 years.  (Then the dispensation of human Government was established – 9 : 6).  God knew that an effective rule could not be established through conscience because man was totally depraved and corrupted.  The 120 years indicated an extension of God’s grace – He gave man time for repentance through the preaching of Noah (2 Pet. 2 : 5).  It was during this time (120 years) that  Noah was able to build the ark.


6 : 4 – “Giants”  – literally “fallen ones”.  The grammar indicates clearly that these existed before the marriage of the godly (sons of Seth) and ungodly lines (sons of Cain).  The same term is used for genetic giants in Num.13 : 33 and may indicate such here.  However, the greatness of the people may be in respect to their strength and prowess.  God saw that this prowess was used totally for sexual self-gratification.


Note :  Giants were born for the ordinary men and women.


6 : 5 – 13  –  When sin multiplied, God decided to judge the sinners and to protect the godly seed of Seth.  Noah found grace in God’s sight because he refused to be part of the wicked society.  Noah preached for the repentance of people during the years he was building the ark with only a handful of converts (those in his own family), but he had a strong testimony (2 Pet. 2 : 5).  God’s grace was manifested in giving these wicked people a preacher and then providing them 120 years in which they could repent.  But they did not repent of their sins.


6 : 14-18 – Noah’s faith required action (6 : 14-16).  He had to obey God’s commands.  At this time, in his life, he is characterized by obedience which is true of any dedicated believer (6 : 11 ; 7 : 5,9).  The ark was made of gopher wood (this wood is unknown to day).  It was not a ship, but its size was more properly a barge.  Its overall size was approximately 450 feet long, 45 feet high and 75 feet wide.  It had a draught of about one half its height (cf. 7 : 20).  It has been estimated that it could carry the equivalent of 522 freight cars.  The window mentioned in verse 16 was an opening at the top to provide light and ventilation.  The ark included three stories. 


6 : 19 – 7 : 5 –  The distinction between “clean” and “unclean” animals indicates that God had probably revealed some characterizations, but a detailed codification awaited the Mosaic Law (Lev. 11).


                First, some argue it would be impossible for an ark of this size to carry all of the various species in the world.  But one must recall that the species in biblical thought includes all animals that are capable of fertilization while modern biology classifies animals according to external characteristics.  Therefore, Noah would not be required to take every kind of cow into the ark, but only one productive pair.  After the flood, man could reproduce this pair of cows and by a simple knowledge  of genetics and breeding he could produce various breeds with distinct characteristics.  Therefore, those brought on the ark were after the “kinds” of Genesis.


               Second, many wonder How all of the animals were gathered into the ark.  It could be as following: First, if the pre-flood earth had a canopy surrounding the earth, it provided a green house effect so that the animals could live as well in one place as in another.  Hence, the various animals, were universally distributed over the earth – near the ark as well as far from the ark.  Second, God no doubt, caused the animals to come to the ark, as God dealt with Jonah and the great fish.


               Third, the problems of food was minimul.  Since, the animals probably in hibernation either formed or natural. The dark atmosphere and the limited activity would have a natural tendency to decrease their natural appetition.     Fourth, the number of clean animals should be understood as seven pairs (fourteen animals).  Some interpret this to be a total of seven animals, three pairs with one left for sacrifice, but the Hebrew argues for seven pairs.  These would be used after the flood for sacrifice, food, and multiplication.


7 : 6 – 11 –  “There were two sources of water which provided the massive amount of water that was needed to flood the earth.  The first was the fountains of the great deep”, which were underground reservoirs.  The second source of water was the “windows of heaven” which were opened.  Many believe this relates to a canopy of water vapour which surrounded the earth (Gen. 1 : 6-8).  This canopy had provided a green house effect to give the earth a universal sub-tropical climate before the earth.  Due to this green house effect, men could live for many years before the flood.  During the flood, it took 40 days of rain to empty the water in that canopy.


7 : 10-12, 17-23 –  Scripture indicates that the earth’s mountains were covered by 22 ½ feet of water.  It should be remembered that this was before the great geologie mountain developing period and mountains of extremely great height were not then extent.  Some have argued for a local flood rather than a universal flood; but consider several strong reasons that argue for the universal flood.


Supporting Arguments for the Universal Flood  


  1. The duration of the flood was a total of 371 days after which the ark was on top of Mount Ararat.
  2. The purpose of this flood was to destroy all mankind, except Noah and his family (Gen. 6 : 5-7, 11-13).
  3. Jesus’ testimony confirmed it – Lk. 17 : 26, 27.
  4. The ark would not have been necessary if this were a local flood.
  5. The size of the ark could have been greatly reduced if it were a local flood.
  6. The depth of the flood shows it was universal.
  7. The testimony of Peter proves it was world-wide (2 Pet. 3 : 3-7).


7 : 11 – 24 –  The flood came upon the earth in the 600th year of Noah’s life and was completed in the 601th year of his life- 371 days later.


Chronological Chart of Flood (7 : 11-24)









Noah entered ark and it rained



7 : 11


Rain restrained; fountains stopped



7 : 12, 17


Water prevails / ark floated and rested



7 : 24; 8 : 3


Mountain tops visible



8 : 5


Raven and Dove sent out



8 : 6-9


Dove sent again (Olive Branch)



8 : 10-11


Dove sent third time (No return)



8 : 12


Cover removed / face of ground dry



8 : 13


Earth fully dried / Noah left ark



8 : 4


VII.     God’s Care for Mankind is Perfect (8 : 1-19)


            The word “remembered” here has the idea of special providential care (8 : 1). The same idea is found elsewhere in scripture (Gen. 19 : 22 ; 30 : 22 ; Ex. 2 : 24).  This remembrance included His care both inside and outside the ark.  Water’s abatement (8 : 2-19).  There are two major causes for the drying up of the earth. God sent a strong wind (8 : 1) which would have produced violent waves and evaporation.  Many geologists believe this explains the formation of the earth’s great salt deposits.  Second, this is probably the geological period of mountain developments when ocean floors were lowered and mountains were pushed up higher than ever before known (Ps. 104 : 6-9).  True geology has developed explanations which adequately incorporate the scriptural account of the flood and give us a young earth which is not millions and billions of years old.


VIII.   God’s Covenant is Perfect (8 : 20 – 9 : 29)


            “Noah built an altar” (8 : 20).  The first act of Noah following his disembarkment from the ark was religious in nature.  He offered sacrifices to God (using the clean animals), which indicate Noah’s dedication and consecration.  God was pleased with Noah’s actions and made a promise to him (8 : 21).  God promised never to curse the earth with another universal deluge (9 : 9 ff).  With the flood the second “dispensation of conscience” came to the end and the third dispensation of “Human Government” began (9 : 1ff).


            God’s Commands for this new dispensation included the following:


  1. Noah and his sons were to repopulate (9 : 1,7).
  2. Dominion over the animal kingdom (9 : 2).
  3. A new diet for man (9 : 3,4). Here, God gave permission to eat animals, but not their blood, because blood was an object lesson concerning their atonement for sin (Lev. 17 : 11).
  4. The institution of capital punishment (9 : 5, 9). God clearly indicated that any premeditated murder on the part of an individual was to be punished with death by society in a collective sense.  The slaying of animals for food was not to create a feeling of indifference concerning man’s life.  Capital punishment was necessary because man was created in the image of God and any man who intentionally destroyed that image must pay for it by forfeiting his life.  No society can long survive if God’s supreme value is not placed upon human life.  Capital punishment has not been revoked (Rom. 13 : 4-5).


God’s Covenant with Noah (9 : 8-19)


            God unilaterally pronounced an unconditional covenant to Noah and his family by announcing that He would never again destroy the earth by a universal flood (Ps. 104 : 9 ; Job. 38 : 10).  The rainbow became a sign of token of this covenant (Gen. 17 : 11 ; Ex. 31 : 13).  The rainbow is produced by the refraction of light through rain drops.  It is possible that Noah had never seen a rainbow previous to this time.  It seems that there might have been no rain before the great flood.  “That I may remember the everlasting covenant (9 : 16).  God is not forgetful of his promise, but this is anthropomorphic language which is used to tell man that God would keep His gracious promise to mankind.  Indeed, rainbow serves as a reminder to man of God’s promise and faithfulness.


Noah’s Family (9 : 20-29)


            Probably Noah drank the wine as he did before the flood.  Wine got fermentation because the water canopy was removed and sun beams directly reached the earth after the flood.  Noah was unaware of this climatic change and fermentation of wine.  Hence, he became unconscious.  His son Ham saw it first.  But letting it to other sons, he disrespected father.  But, other sons covered their father in order to show respect.  So, Noah cursed Ham but blessed Japheth and Shem.  Noah’s curse of Ham is the first recorded human curse (Gen. 3 : 14, 15). Probably due to this curse, the Cananites (descendents of Ham) became slaves of Shem (Father of Hebrew race) during Israel’s monarchy.


  1. Delineations of Nations from Noah’s Family (10 : 1 – 11 : 32)


Chapter 10 –  deals the genealogical list of Noah’s sons, for three reasons: First, to reveal the descendants of Noah; Second, to present the origin and dispersion of the nations; third, to present Shem as the progenitor of the people from which God would elect one man (Abraham) through whom He would accomplish His purpose to save sinners (in Christ, the seed of Abraham – Gal. 3 : 16-18).


The Nations through the sons of Japheth (10 : 2-5) are Gomer, Magog, Madai etc. They now spread westward to the Aegean Sea, northward into Europe, and eastward into Asia.  They generated great material gain and much power, probably due to the blessing of Noah (9 : 27).  Some Japhethites can be identified as the Medes, Greeks, Cypriotes and Russia.


The Nations through the sons of Ham (10 : 6-20) are Mizrain (Egypt), Canaan, Babel (Babylon), Nineveh (Part of Assyria), Philistines, Zidon (Phoenicia) and Jebusites (present Jerusalem).  Caphtor (Caphtorim) is the island of present Crete, the original home of the Philistines who later invaded and conquered the Palestinian coastal area (10 : 14 ; Jer. 47 : 4 ; Amos 9 : 7).  Nimrod was also significant person (10 : 8-12).  The name Nimrod means “rebellious”.   Some scholars believe that Nimrod established the first human kingdom and perhaps explains the phrase “a mighty hunter before the Lord”.  That is, he was able to hunt and enslave men and thereby built a kingdom.


The Nations through the Sons of Shem (10 : 21-31) are Elam (Old – Persians), Asshur (Assyrians), Aram (Arameans lived in Syria), Lud (Lydians) and Eber (Progenitor of the Hebrews).  Peleg’s descendant was Abraham (Lk. 3 : 34-35).  Many scholars believe that the “division” spoken of in verses 25 and 32 may speak of the division of the earth into its separate continants; geologically.  Other scholars believe the division is here speaking of language groups which resulted from the tower of Babel incident.


Tower of Babel (11 : 1-9): On those days, people spoke one language (we do not know what was the first language as well as we do not know the exact location of Shiner.  But some think it was northern Mesopotamia).  All came together and built a tower, due to their pride.  This tower was not intended (as taught by many) to reach into heaven (Note the italics in v:4) because none can reach heaven by the steps of tower.  But rather its top was dedicated to heaven – that is – the sun, moon and stars of heaven.  They tried to worship the creations instead of the creator. So God miraculously confused their language.  Babel means “to confuse” or “to scatter”.  Although people began scattering immediately, the actual scattering probably took many years to accomplish.


Geneology of Abraham (11 : 10-32) : Abraham’s original name was Abram (11 : 27, 29).  He was a descendant of Shem through Eber and Pelog(11 : 15, 16 ; Lk. 3 : 34, 35).  Man’s longevity was dropping sharply from Noah’s 950 years to Abraham’s 175 years of age in just ten generations.  This reduction was symbolically predicted in Gen. 6 : 3 (120 years).  Psalm 90 : 10 will later reduce the span of a person’s life to a symbolic 70 years.  Abraham was born five generations after Babel.


  1. The Call and Life of Abraham (12 : 1 – 23 : 20)


Introduction of History of Israel :  With the call of Abraham, the history of Israel began.  There are two important historical events in the formation of Israel as a nation.  The first event happened around 2000 BC, when God called Abram (Abraham) to leave his Ur of the Chaldees to become the father of the nation of Israel (12 : 1-3).  This call gave Israel an ethnic distinction.  Genesis 12-20 reveals Abram’s obedience and failures in his new country. The second major event in Israel’s history happened around 1440 BC when God gave Moses the law at Mount Sinai. This law gave Israel a political basis – It was a theocracy (Ex. 20-40).


Chapter 12 – God called Abraham and gave him the promise.  God’s promise to Abraham included a land (nation) in addition to material blessing and a great number of descendants (1-3, 7).  God called Abram and also tested him.  This test had two aspects; Tested by obedience to God’s call (12 : 4-9) and Tested by famine (12 : 10-20).  During famine at Canaan, Abram went into Egypt which was very fertile due to Nile River.  Going into Egypt brought problem to Abraham and his wife.


Note : Abram traveled 1500 miles from Ur to Canaan, the promised land.


Chapter 13 : God called Abram, not Lot.  But Abram brought Lot with him.  Lot’s men had strife with Abram’s men.  They made trouble to Abram.  But godly Abraham settled the problem amicably and allowed Lot to choose the place to go.


Chapter 14 : Chedorlaomer, the King of east subjected the kings Sodom and Gomorrah.  After twelve years of subjection, they revolted against Chedorlaomer. So, Chedorlaomer with kings of Shinar and Ellasar (1) came to the Dead Sea region to put down the revolt of Sodom and Gomorrah.  They again subdued Sodom and its allies and took captives including Lot. When Abram heard this news, he and his men followed the kings of east (probably kings of Iran, Iraq and Turkey) and defeated them and rescued Lot. When Abram returned victoriously, he was met by two kings.  The First was Melchizedek; the king of Salem (Jerusalem) (18 -20 ; Heb. 7 : 1-10 ; Ps. 110 : 4).  Abram offered tithe to him, because Melchizedek (My king is Righteous) was the priest of God.  The second was the king of Sodom.  He was ready to give all booty to Abram.  Abram refused to get anything from him, because the king of Sodom had no faith in the God of Abram (21-24).


Note : Abraham was a leader for a group of Sojourners.  He led them religiously. He also became an international military leader by defeating the Kings of east.  This made Abraham a family leader, social leader, religious leader and military leader.


Chapter 15 :  In this chapter, God made a covenant with Abram, known as Abrahamic covenant (1-5).  He believed God’s covenant and it was counted for his righteousness (15 : 6).  This covenant again included posterity of Abram, and a land (5, 7).  As accepting the covenant, Abram sacrificed.  The sacrificial animals were served in half and then each party of the covenant would pass between the two halves according to the ancient customs. However, in this case while Abram was asleep, God only walked through the parted animals which indicated this was  an unconditional covenant. While  God made this covenant, He also predicted the future sufferings of Israel in Egypt for 400 years (13-16).  The four generations mentioned symbolically here were Levi, Kohath, Amram and Moses.


Chapter 16 :  According to ancient customs, a woman who could not bear children was responsible to provide her handmade to her husband to bear children. Sarai followed this custom instead of waiting for the fulfillment of God’s promise. She gave Hagar to Abram.  She bore Abram, a son named Ishmael.  This son was according to flesh, not according to promise (Gal. 4 : 23).  Abram was eighty-six years when Ishmael was born.


Chapter 17 : Thirteen years lapsed between Ishmael’s birth and God’s next appearance to Abram at the age of Ninty-nine. God again restated the covenant.  As the sign of covenant, God first changed Abram’s name (Exalted Father) into Abraham (Father of a multitude) (4-6) and secondly God commanded the sign of circumcision (7-13).  Abraham and his men practiced circumcision immediately (26, 27).  To this day, Ishmaelites circumcise a male at the age of thirteen while observant Jews circumcise on the eight day (Lk. 2 : 21 ; Phil. 3 : 5).

Chapter 18-19 :  The three men were two angels and the Lord (18 : 13,17 ; 19 : 1).  The Lord informed Abraham about birth of promised son, in the near future (18 : 1-15) and He also informed about the immediate destruction of Sodom for its wickedness of homosexuality (19 : 5).  Abraham interceded for it.  But there was none righteous.  However, the Lord permitted Lot to escape.  Unfortunately Lot’s wife disobeyed and became a pillar of Salt (19 : 26).  Lot’s daughters had illegitimate affair with their father and bore sons (19 : 30-38).

Chapter 20 : Abraham again did the same mistake that he had done in Egypt concerning his wife.  However, the Lord protected Sarah from Abimelech.  God also advised Abimelech (6, 7).  God declared Abraham, as a prophet (20 : 7), although Abraham did not predict the future.

Chapter 21 : The promised son was born, Abraham named him, Isaac. (Isaac means Laughter).  Ishmael scoffed Isaac.  It grieved Sarah.  For this reason, Ishmael and Hagar were sent away with provisions (8-14).  However, the Lord blessed Ismael as a nation (15 – 21).  Then Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech, the King of Philistine.  Abimelech was probably the title of Philistine kings then.  Abraham worshiped God (21 : 33).

Chapter 22-23 : This is one of the important chapter.  Here God tested Abraham’s faith by asking to offer his only son Isaac to sacrifice.  Certainly God knew Abraham’s heard.  Probably God wanted to demonstrate Abraham’s faith to others. The place where Abraham went to sacrifice was Mt. Moriah. Some believe, this was the location where the temple of Jerusalem stood later.  Then Abraham lived at Beersheba.  It was an important religious centre for Abraham and Isaac.  They worshiped God there (21 : 33).  Sarah died at the age of 127 and was buried at Machpelah, which was bought by Abraham as his own land (23).  Abraham was now 137 and Isaac was 37 years, when Sarah died.

  1. The Life of Isaac (24 : 1 – 26 : 35)

Chapter 24 :  Now Abraham was 140 years (25 : 20; 21 : 5).  He decided to arrange a marriage for Isaac.  He advised his servant (probably Eliezer) to select a wife for Isaac.  He did not want Isaac to marry a girl from Canaanites, because Canaanites were idol worshipers and wicked.  He wanted a girl from Mosopotamia.  So Abraham’s servant made a journey for a long distance (450 miles) and found  Rebekah, suitable wife for his master’s son.

Chapter 25 :  Abraham married Keturah, a concubine like Hagar (1 Chr. 1 : 32).  She bore him six sons.  He sent them eastward so that Isaac might receive inheritance (1-6).  Abraham died at the age of 175. When he died, Isaac was 75; Jacob and Esau were 15.  This chapter lists out the descendants of Ishmael (12-18) and Isaac (19-34).  Isaac was 40 when he married Rebekah and she was barren for 19 years.  Then she bore twins: Jacob and Esau.  Esau’s descendants became Edomites and Jacob’s descendants became Israelites.  The covenant blessings of Abraham went to Jacob through Isaac, because Esau sold his birth right to Jacob.

Chapter 26 :  This chapter describes many problems that Isaac faced.  Through these problems God led him from Gerar to Beersheba.  Beersheba was worship centre of Abraham (21 : 33).  When Isaac reached Beersheba, the Lord appeared him again and renewed the covenant that He made with Abraham (26 : 23-25).  When Abimelech understood God’s blessing of Isaac, he came and made a peace treaty with him (26 – 33).  By this time, Esau married two women of Hittite.  They gave trouble to Isaac and Rebekah.

XII.     The Life of Jacob (27 : 1 – 35 : 29)

Chapter 27 :  This chapter explains how Jacob deceived his brother Esau and  got the blessings from Isaac.

Chapter 28 : Jacob escaped and left his house in order to go to his uncle’s house (1-5).  But Esau again married (6-9).  On the way Jacob had a vision at Bethel (10-22).  Jacob was 77 years by this time.

Chapter 29-30 :  These chapters explain the life of Jacob in Labon’s house.  He married two of his daughters. Leah and Rachel.  They along with their maids bore him twelve sons and a daughter.  These twelve sons became the tribes of Israel.

                        Leah – Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah

                        Bilhah (maid of Rachel) – Dan, Napthtali

                        Zilpah (maid of Leah) – Gad, Asher

                        Rachel – Joseph, Benjamin

Chapter 31-33 :  Jacob had served Laban for a total of 20 years (14 years for his two wives and six years for wages).  But, Labon cheated Jacob many times in wages.  So, Jacob secretly departed from Laban’s house with his wives, children and other belongings.  When they departed Rachel secretly took her father’s images (idol gods).  Three reasons have been suggested for her theft.

  1. Ancient beliefs taught that the presence of these idols, which were goddesses with prominent sexual features, guaranteed fertility.
  2. The one who possessed the gods was almost guaranteed the wealth of the owner of these gods. Rachel had learned her selfishness from Laban and probably wanted to guarantee Jacob’s original right to his wealth.
  • These gods (idols) were supposed to provide special protection.

When Laban learned his images were stolen he followed and overtook Jacob in trans-Jordan in Mount Gilead.  After heated words, Laban made a treaty with Jacob.  This treaty was instigated by Laban probably as a precaution to keep Jacob from making any return to Haran to claim Laban’s inheritance.  After this event, Jacob expected opposition from his brother, Esau.  So he prayed earnestly at the Jabbok.  He wreskled with the Angel of the Lord. (Christophamy – Christ appearance as man before incarnation).  At the end, the Lord blessed him and changed his name Israel (Fighter for God) (32). However, Jacob’s reunion with Esau was sensational and happy (33).

Chapter 34 – 35 :  Most of Jacob’s children showed a lack of godly character which seems to be the result of ungodliness in their parents.  Dinah, daughter of Jacob was defiled by Hamor’s son (34).  Simeon and Levi revenged the people of Shechem.  Then Jacob went to Bethel where the Lord appeared to him earlier on the way to Haran.  He worshiped God.  God blessed him again and renewed His covenant that He had made with Jacob’s father Isaac and grandfather Abraham (35 : 1-15).  Then Jacob journeyed from Bethel.  On the way, Rachel died at the birth of Benjamin (son of the right hand).  Then he further journed and came to Hebron when Isaac was still living.  He met his father after 32 years of his departure.  After sometimes, Isaac died at age 180 (43 years after the blessing was received by a deception of Jacob).  Jacob and Esau buried him at the cave of Machpelah.

XIII.   The Life of Esau (36 : 1-43)

This chapter explains about the descendants of Esau.  He was known as Edom.  So his descendants were called Edomites.  They lived at Mount Seir (7,8).  This mount was originally inhabited by the Horites (20-30).  But Edomites replaced the Horites, the original inhabitants of Seir.

XIV.   The Life of Joseph (37 : 1 – 50 : 26)

Chapter 37 : Joseph was the first son of Rachel whom Jacob loved very much.l  Likewise Jocob loved her son Joseph above all his sons.  However, Joseph’s brothers disliked him for three reasons following : First, Joseph had given a report about their evil deeds to father; second, Jacob did not conceal his special love for Joseph by giving a coat of many colors.  The coat of many colors was an ornamented tunic, which was normally worn by royal families.  This indicates Joseph might one day become a leader over others; Third, Joseph’s dreams, though true and prophetic caused further animosity by his brothers. These dreams showed his future position  of authority over them.  so they used the opportunity to humiliatie and kill him (1-19).  Reuben persuaded them to drop him into a pit, probably with an intention of rescuing him later.  He wanted to save him because Reuben, the eldest son would be held responsible for Joseph’s welfare.  But his other brothers had sold Joseph, when Reuben was absent.  Thus Joseph became a slave in Potiphar’s house (38).  The title “captain of the guard” literally means “chief of the executioners” which may be a reference to the slaying of animals for Pharaoh’s kitchen for soldiers  or for religious sacrifice.  The Pharaoh in rule was most likely Sesostris III (Senusert-III) who reigned from 1878-1843 BC.

Chapter 38 : This chapter explains the sins of Judah.  He tried to hide it from others; but it was exposed one day.  It illustrates that sin is never truly hidden but will one day be exposed.  This chapter also indicates how Joseph’s brothers were wicked.  However, God was gracious and Judah became the ancestor of David (Mt. 1 : 3-16).

Chapter 39 :  Joseph was a righteous man.  He lived a perfect life.  He suffered in the prison without reason.  But God was with him (21,23).  So also, if anyone suffers without reason, God will be with him and lift him up one day.

Chapters 40-41 :  These two chapters explain the dreams which were shown to unbelievers (Pharaoh) and how Joseph had correctly interpreted.

Note : God spoke through dreams to unbelievers as well as to some believers when the Bible was not completely written. Since Joseph told and interepted the dreams correctly Pharaoh promoted Joseph next to him in position.

Chapters 42-45 :  These chapters explain the dramatic incidents happened in the life of Joseph and his brothers.  God used the natural means (famine) to work out his purpose.  As God purposed, Joseph became a ruler of Egypt (Rom. 8 : 28).  Joseph met his brother Benjamin after 22 years (43 : 29-31).

Chapters 46-49 :  These chapters explain how Joseph and his father Jacob met again after many years.  As soon as Jacob heard his son Joseph living and having high position in Egypt, he first went to Beersheba (46 : 1-5).  There, he offered sacrifice to God, as his grand father and father did (21 : 33 ; 26 : 23).  After sacrificing only, God spoke to him and he left to Egypt (46 : 8-27).  Jacob and his sons settled in Goshen (46 : 28-34).  Joseph administered the entire Egypt during the famine (47 : 13-26).  Joseph became a world class leader in administration of agriculture, finance, food, land etc.  At the very old age, Jacob blessed all his sons (48, 49).  Jacob accepted Joseph’s sons (Ephraim and Manasseh) as his sons and blessed them as well.  Jacob lived in Egypt for 17 years.  Then he died over 130 years old.  He was buried by his sons at the promised land where his father was buried at Machpelah (23 : 4-30; 47 : 27-31; 49 : 29-33).  Jacob hoped that his sons would oneday again possess the promise land.  So, he wanted his mortal remains to be buried at the Promised Land.  His sons did as he wished.

Chapter 50 : Joseph buried his father.  Then he assured to his brothers that he would not take any revenge on them (15 -21).  Then he died at the age of 110 years.  His body was embalmed in Egypt (50 : 26).




                   The title, Exodus, literally means “a road out” which signifies God’s deliverance of the Hebrew people from Egypt.  The Exodus furthermore, was a great act of separation, preparatory to the giving of the law (Ex. 19-24) which established Israel as a holy nation and peculiar people (Deut. 7 : 6-11). This book continually narrates the history of Israel that began in Genesis.


Author : Moses (For more details, study the introduction to Pentateuch).


Date      : It was written by Moses at the command of God after coming out of Egypt (Ex. 17 : 14).  This probable year was 1400 BC.


Outline of Exodus


  1. Egyptian Oppression over the Hebrews (1 : 1-22)
  2. The early life of Moses (2 : 1 – 4 : 31).
  • Moses’ confrontation with Pharaoh (5 : 1 – 11 : 10).
  1. Passover and Redemption of Israel from Egypt (12 : 1 – 13 : 22).
  2. Journey of Israel to Sinai (14 : 1 – 18 : 27).
  3. God’s Revelations to a New National People (19 : 1 – 40 : 38).


Historical Setting of Exodus


                        Moses did not mention the name of Pharaoh.  However, it is good here to establish the possible date of Exodus.  The conservative scholars believe the possible date of Exodus is about 1445 BC. There are two biblical texts supports this date.  First, According to I Kings 6 : 1, Israel’s exodus from Egypt took place 480 years prior to the 4th year of Solomon’s reign (966 BC).  Second, In approaching Canaan after 40 years of wandering Israel requested permission from the Amorites to pass through their land.  Instead of consenting, the Amorites attacked but God gave Israel victory over them.   In Jephthah’s day, they contested Israel’s right to possess their land.  Jephthah asked them why they had not done so in the last 300 years since it had been taken (Jud. 11 : 26).  Considering these historical facts of scripture, exodus must have happened in the year of 1445 BC when Amenhotep II reigned Egypt. 







  1. Egyptian Oppression over the Hebrews (1 : 1-22)


Chapter 1 :   God promised a land (nation) to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.  However they as well as their descendant could not possess the land for many centuries.  Jacob and his children total 70 in numbers went to Egypt as told in Genesis.  They multiplied great in numbers.  After 430 years, God began the process of redeeming Israel from the Egyptian bondage.  This chapter explains how the Israelites lived under bondage condition.


1 : 1-14 – The new King was Hyksos dynasty, established in 1730 BC. They          invaded Egypt and started oppressing the Israelites from 1730 BC.


1 : 5-21 – Since the Egyptians were afraid of the raising population of Israelites, the Pharaoh (Amenhotep-I : 1548 – 1528 BC) ordered the midwives to kill all male babies. However, the Hebrew midwives, Shiphrah and Puah did not follow king’s command but allowed the babies to be born.


1 : 22-  The Pharaoh mentioned in this verse was probably Thutmose I (1528-1508 BC).  Moses was born during this period (1525 BC) – (80 years before the actual exodus in 1445).


  1. THE EARLY LIFE OF MOSES (2 : 1 – 4 : 31)


Chapter 2 – Moses’ parents hid him for three months.  Then they put   him in an ark and laid at river’s bank.  Pharaoh’s daughter found the baby (Moses) and adopted him as her son. (Pharaoh’s daughter was Hatshepsut.  The Pharaoh mentioned here was Thutmose I). Moses lived in the palace for 40 years.  He understood he was Hebrew.  He tried to help the Hebrew man.  His misdeeds were probably reported to the Pharaoh. So, he escaped and fled to Midian. (Midianites were the descendents of Abraham through his second wife Keturah).  There, Moses married Zipporah, a daughter of Reuel, the priest of Midian (16-21).


Chapter 3 (Call of Moses) – The period of Exodus was one of the  important times of miracles.  During this time, God did many great miracles.  This period of Miracles began with the miraculous calling of Moses.  God miraculously called him at the burning bush in Mt. Horeb.  Moreover, God revealed His Divine title “I am that I am” (3 : 14).  This Hebrew name means “to be”; which is translated in English Yahweh / Jehovah / Lord (v : 15 ; 34 : 6, 7).  (The Lord Jesus used this title for Himself at least 7 times during His earthly ministry – Jn. 8 : 24, 28, 58).


Note : Removing shoe is a way of showing respect in the East.  Since God’s special presence was there, it was mentioned the Holy ground (v:5).  God appeared to His chosen people of Israel after 430 years.


Chapter 4 – Moses told many excuses to avoid God’s call.  However, God showed him three signs to remove his doubts; rod turned into a serpent (2-5), hand turned leprous (6-8) and water turned to blood (9).  God also assured Moses about his brother Aaron, who would be the prophet of Moses (10-17).


Note : Prophet here means one who speaks on behalf of others. Aaron functioned as a prophet of Moses (speaking on behalf of Moses).


            God gave the rod of Moses, as an authority of God; so it was called the rod of God (4 : 18-23).  Then Moses left to meet Pharaoh (Amenhetop-II).  On the way, Zipporah, the wife of Moses circumcised her son (4 : 24-26).


Note : The passage (4 : 24-26) is one of the difficult passages in the Bible to interpret.  However, the most probable interpretation is here.  As the leader of God’s covenant people, Moses must first prove himself to be faithful to that covenant in his own home. Circumcism was given to Abraham as a sign of the covenant (Gen. 17 : 10, 11), with the specific warning that those who refused it in Israel should be killed as covenant breakers (Gen. 17 : 14).  Moses had probably neglected the rite of circumcision. Due to this negligence, probably the son of Moses went to the point of death either by sickness or by divine punishment as warned in Gen. 17 : 14.  To avert the death of her son, Zipporah instead of Moses circumcised her son.  (However, it is very difficult to say who was at the point of death whether Moses or his son.  But comparing Gen. 17 : 14 and Moses’ call and purpose, it could be his son at the point of death).


III.      Moses’ Confrontation with Pharaoh ( 5 : 1 – 11 : 10)


            These chapters explain the many confrontations that Moses and Aaron had with Pharaoh (Amenhotep-II).  The miracles and signs began with the rod of Aaron that became serpent at Pharaoh’s court.  The sorcerers of Egypt could initiate this miracle but Aaron’s rod swallowed them all.  This miracle was a great blow to Egyptians because serpents were extensively represented among Egyptian deities.  Thus God’s superiority was demonstrated over Egyptian deities and their superstitious belief.





The Plagues that affected Egypt



Name of Plague

Related Egyptian god / belief


Nile water turning Blood

Orisis-beneficent god of Egypt



Hapi-god of soil productivity



Dust=Seb, the Father of gods.


Fly (flies) (Dog-fly)

Dung beetle=Sacret symbol


Murrain (Livestock died)

Isis (cow)/Amon (ram), Apis (Bull) and Mnevis (calf) were gods



Egyptian offered human ash to Typhan god


Hail storm / rain







Re-the supreme sun god


Death of the Firstborn



  1. Passover and Redemption of Israel from Egypt (12 : 1 – 13 : 22)


                        Since Pharaoh did not heed and free the people of Israel, God had to deal severly with Pharaoh. God warned about the death of the first born.  However, God commanded the people Israel to observe the passover so that the first born of Israelites would be saved.


            God’s Directions for Observing Passover (Month Abib / Nisan) – 12:5



Male (lamb) of the first year



On behalf of a first born male of house (Family)


Kill it in the evening


Between 3.00 and 5.00 PM


Take of the blood and strike it


Symbol of life and protection to house


Roast with fire


Fire probably represent the suffering underwent


Eat unleavened bread


Urgency of leaving Egypt


Eat bitter herb


Representing bitterness of life in Egypt


Eat not of it raw


Differentiate Israelites from other pagan sacrifice


Let Nothing of it remain


Exercising faith on God for future needs


With your loins girded


State of readiness of mind to work


Shoes on your feet


Preparation to exodus


                        After Israel did all as God had instructed them, the first born of  Egyptians including of Pharaoh’s house died.  Pharaoh allowed Israel to leave his country (12 : 31-33).  Israel immediately left Egypt (12 : 34-37) and started their journey from Rameses to Succoth.  The mixed multitude (12 : 38) were probably Egyptian impressed with the mighty works of God.  They joined with Israel in their journey. They later became the cause for Israel’s sin (Num. 11 : 4).


                        Since God has redeemed Israel, they were asked to dedicate their first born to God.  (13 : 1-22). Based on 13 : 16 (Deut. 6 : 8 ; 11 : 10) the Jews concluded that they were to wear literal pouches containing portions of the law.  Those pouches, called Taphilliu (or) Phylacteries (from Greek) were made from the skins of clean animals and bound to the forehead and left arm of all males when they reached the age of thirteen.  They contained strips of parchment inscribed with the three principle texts. (Ex. 13 : 2 – 10 ; Deut. 6 : 4-9 ; 11 : 13-21).  It is probable that the implications were symbolical and not literal. The pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire were manifestations of God’s guiding presence and protection.


  1. Journey of Israel to Sinai (14 : 1 – 18 : 27)


            Chapter 14/15 deals how people of Israel crossed the Red Sea and how the Egyptian army was destroyed.  God separated water and made a dry land so that Israel could pass through it.  No amount of naturalistic explanations can account for the timing, direction on intensity of the wind, the fact of the dry ground or the protective division between the two nations.  This was undeniably a miraculous event designed and wrought for God’s glory.  Experiencing the greatest miracle, Moses, people and Miriam, the sister of Moses praised God with a song of praises (15 : 1-21).  Miriam was the first women in the Bible referred to as a prophetess.  Although she was called the prophetess, she never predicted any future things, but only praised God.  After this event Israel experienced many great miracles.  The bitter water at  Marah was made sweet (15 : 22-27).  The Hebrew title “Yahweh rapha” is translated “the Lord who heals you”.  This shows God is the healer of the people either from sin or from sickness.


            Chapter 16/17 explains how God gave them Manna.  Israelite could not know what kind of food it was so they asked in Hebrew”Manna?”.  Manna means “what is it? (16 : 15).  Then, when they came at Rephidim, there was no water.  People complained and almost they were ready to stone Moses (17 : 4).  God asked Moses to strike the rock in Horeb.  Moses did as God had said.  They got water from the rock.  Right after this miracle, Israelites faced first war against Amalakites (17 : 8-16).  The Amalekites were descendants of Amalek, the grandson of Esau (Gen. 36 : 12).  While Moses prayed, Joshua led the Israelites and defeated the Amalekites,  Joshua grew as a military and political leader under the theocratic leadership of Moses.  For this great victory over the Amalekites Moses thanked God by building an altar.  He called God as “Jehovah Nissi” (The Lord is my Banner or the Lord is my victory – 17 : 15).


            Note :  This is the first time, God asked Moses to record this event.  Probably Moses, started writing the Pentateuch after this war.


                        Chapter 18  explains the reunion of Moses and his wife.  Moses had sent his wife (18 : 2) back to Jethro from the lodging between Midian and Egypt (Ex. 4 : 24-29).  When Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses had heared about all what God did for Israel in Egypt, he brought Zipporah and her son to Moses (18 : 1-27).  Jethro, although a priest of Midian, probably believed the Lord Jehovah by hearing the miracles of God (18 : 7-12).  So, he offered sacrifices to God.  He gave wise counsel to Moses to appoint leaders so that Moses would not have much burden to hear and to judge the people Israel (18 : 13-27).  The qualification for appointing such leaders were also given (18 : 21).


  • “Able men” – literally, men of might, active; 1 Chro. 26 : 6 – mighty men)
  • “Such as fear God” – Men who are deeply impressed with the reverence for the God of Israel and recognize their accountability before Him.
  • “Men of Truth” – Those whose integrity is not determined by advantage but by godly principles.
  • “Hating covetousness” – Man who are not ruled by materialistic ambitions and would therefore abhor bribery Is. 33 : 15).


Note : 18 : 21 gives the best leadership selection methods.  The administrative guidelines are also given in this passage (18 : 22-26).


  1. God’s Revelations to a New National People (19 : 1 – 40 : 38)


                        After coming out of their Egyptian bondage, Israelites encamped at Mount Sinai.  The plains of Mt. Sinai is known as the wilderness of           Sinai.  In         this place, God spoke to Moses before giving of the Law.


Chapter 19 – God spoke to Moses and said Israel shall be a special people (v:4-6),  Special nation and kingdom of priest.  So, Israel became the theocratic kingdom.  In order to prepare for God’s special presence, the people were asked to purify themselves (v : 10).  After purification, Moses went up to the Mountain.


Chapter 20 – After going up on Mt. Sinai God spoke and gave The Ten Commandments to Moses.


  1. I am the LORD they God Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
  2. Thou shalt not bow thyself down to them.
  • Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy GOD in vain.
  1. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
  2. Honor they Father and thy Mother.
  3. Thou shalt not kill.
  • Thou shalt not commit adultery.
  • Thou shalt not steal.
  1. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
  2. Thou shalt not covet.

The God reminded Moses and people of Isralites to worship Him and Him alone (20 : 22-26).


Chapter 21 – 24 :  After giving The Ten Commandments God gave some more regulations concerning the master and servants (21 : 1-11), Personal Injury(21 : 12-32), Property Damage (21 : 33 – 22 : 6), Moral Law (22 : 7 – 31), law on faithfulness (23 : 1-9), Sabbath (23 : 10-13), the feast of unleavened bread (23 : 14-15), the feast of harvest (23 : 16) the feast of Ingathering (23 : 17)  21 : 1-6:  Due to economic disaster or some misfortune, a person could sell himself into slavery (Lev. 25 : 39. Amos 2 : 6 ; 8 : 6).  Such slaves were to be treated as hired laborers and released in the seventh year (sabbatical year).  If they desired to be indentured for life, they were symbolicaly attached to the house by having their ear pierced against a door. (21 : 7-11).  The law gave special protection to slave girls.

  1. They could not be sold to Gentiles since this was a far less human type of slavery.
  2. If engaged to the owner’s son, she must be treated as a daughter.
  • If she is not provided food and clothing, she must be released.


            The property rights as well as human rights were highly regarded by the Mosaic Law (22 : 1-6).  In all cases of theft and vandalism the law demanded restitution.  If the damage was caused by accident (v.6), restitution was to be 100% . If the damage or theft was deliberate restitution was 200-500% depending on the circumstances.  The law of feasts united the twelve tribes.  Lest they would develop into twelve independent nations, the law unified them around the central tabernacle by means of these three annual pilgrim feasts (23 : 14-19).  During the feast of unleavened bread, they should not come in the presence of God with empty hand but with offering (23 : 15).


            After giving those additional explanations to laws, the comforting promise of God was given to Israel (23 : 20-33). Then God spoke to Moses, to the elders and to the whole Israel probably in an audible voice (24  : 1-3).  Moses read the law and the people ratified it publicly (24 : 1-8).  Moses, as the mediator of the covenant (Mosaic covenant) offered God the sacrifice to atone for the sins of Israel.  A sinful people and the Holy God could make no agreements apart from the act of atonement.


            Moses sprinkled part of the blood on the altar symbolizing God’s acceptance of the sacrifice and at the same time of consecrating the altar as a place of meeting with God.  The rest of the blood, Moses sprinkled upon the people signifying the fact that the same blood that was shed for their atonement was also intended to consecrate them to covenant fellowship with God.  Thus people of Israel became the people of God’s covenant (24 : 5-8).


Chapter 25-28 :  Worshiping God in the central sanctuary was very important in the law of Moses.  In these chapters God instructed the people of Israel to bring their offerings and materials in order to make the tabernacle and things therein (25 : 1-9).  God, Himself, showed Moses how he should build the Tabernacle of God. In these chapters, God gave instruction how to make the articles for the Tabernacle, and to make the dress for the priests and High Priest.  The “Make” section begins at 25 : 8 (Make me a sanctuary) and continues till 31 : 6 (they may make).  This word “Make” appears nearly 85 times in this section.  God demanded them that they should do as He had asked them to do (31 : 11).  They  were asked to make, the ark of the covenant, mercy seat, the table of shewbread, curtains for tabernacle, altar (25-27) and the dress for the priests (28).


Chaptr 29-31 : In these chapters, God instructed them how to dedicate the priests and how to offer the sacrifices, the food of priests (29 : 26-37).  There God explained them how to worship and make the altar of incence (31).  All the things that were in the Tabernacle were either directly or indirectly related with the Lord Jesus Christ and His ministry.  The sacrifice for sin denotes the death of Christ for the sinners – I Cor. 15 : 3,4.  After instructing how to make the things for tabernacle, God also identified those who were enabled by Him for that task of making tabernacle (31 : 1-11).  Not only people of Israels make tabernacle, but must also worship God in the Sabbath (31 : 12-18). God gave Moses two tables of stone, written with the Ten commandments (31 : 18).


Chapter 32 :  This chapter deals how Israel was disobedient to the God who redeemed them from the Egyptian bondage.  Moses was in the presence of God for many days.  This delay caused a doubt in the mind of Israelites.  So they demanded Aaron to make “a god” for them.  They wanted many gods.  However, Aaron made a god of golden calf (v.4).  They violated the first two commandments.  This act of Aaron and Israelites angered God.  Moses interceeded for Israelites so that God might not destroy them.  God accepted Moses’ request and continualy protected Israel.


Note : Aaron was the first ever high priest of Israel, called by God.  However, he failed by making a golden calf as people demanded.  Instead of obeying God, he accepted the sinful ways of people instead of leading the people in truth, he was led by people and his emotions.  As Aaron the High priest called by God lead the people toward falsehood, many leaders even though they are called by God, could lead many believers into falsehood.


Note : Ex. 32 : 32 “blot me out of your book which you have written”. This book is probably a record of all living souls and implies physical death (Physical punishment for sins committed by individuals) (As Moses prayed, Apostle Paul wished – Rom. 9 : 3)


Chapter 33 :  God said Moses that an angel would go before Israel instead of God.  When Israel heard this word, they were ashamed of their golden ornaments which probably had the image of golden calf that Aaron made.  They removed such ornaments  those with idols and repented of their sin.  Then they worshipped the Lord.  “All worshipped” literaly means that they bowed themselves down”, giving proper reverence to God’s presence in the pillar of cloud (8-10).   “The Lord spoke into Moses face to face” means that God spoke to Moses directly before the public. (vv. 10-11; Num. 12 : 8 – Mouth to mouth).  Moses expressed his desire to see God’s glory. God answered his request with some condition that Moses could not see God’s face, but the back (Note : The back here probably refers to the after effects (back effects) of God’s special personal presence directly; Because God is the Spirit, He has no body – Jn. 4 : 24).


Chapter 34-35 :  Moses again went up to Mt. Sinai for forty days (34 : 28). There he saw God’s glorious presence.  God reminded him of His covenant with people of Israel and gave him two new tables of stones which Moses broke when he saw the golden calf made by Aaron and Israelites (32 : 19, 20).  After being in the presence of God for forty-days, Moses came down with shining face (34 : 35).  Then Moses gathered all the people and explained about God’s plan of Tabernacle and asked things for making such Tabernacle.  As Moses asked, people brought gold, silver, brass etc.  willingly (35 : 5-29).  It shows that Isralites had large quantity of golden ornaments.  After receiving the articles people brought for God’s tabernacle, Moses gave these things to Bazaleel and others who were filled with Spirit so that they could make those articles needed for the Tabernacle as God had said (35 : 20-35).


Chapter 36-39 :  These chapters explain the preparation for Tabernacle.  People of Israel willingly offered daily all that they could (36 : 3). Moses gave all those things to the artisans (36 : 1-2). They “made” the articles for Tabernacle as God had commanded.  They made curtains, bells, ark of the covenant, bronze laver, Altar of burnt offering, gold lampstand, Table of show bread; Altar of Incence etc. for the Tabernacle. After making all, as the Lord said, they brought them to Moses (39 : 41-43).  Moses blessed them for making the articles as he had instructed them.


Chapter 40 : This chapter explains, how Moses established the Tabernacle, arranging all things such as laver, altars etc. in their respective places.  The erection of the tabernacle took place one year after the exodus (12 : 2) and nine months following Israels arrival at Mount Sinai (19 : 1).  The book of Exodus concludes on a very confident note.  The promise of 29 : 45 is fulfilled with the Lord living in the midst of His covenant people (40 : 36-38).  The Lord’s presence provided Israel’s sanctification, protection and direction to the land of promise.




                        The book of “Leviticus” deals with the things pertains to the Tabernacle, worship, work of Levites and holy life of the people of Israel.  At the last chapter of Exodus, the Tabernacle was erected.  Hence Liviticus explains how worship must be conducted in the Tabernacle.


Authorship and Date :  Moses was the author and wrote it about 1445 BC.  (For more details study  Introduction to Pentateuch).




Outline of Leviticus


  1. The sacrificial system in the Tabernacle – 1 : 1 – 7 : 38.
  2. The service of the Priest in the Tabernacle – 8 : 1- 10 : 20.
  • The Laws of various Impurities – 11 : 1 – 16 : 34
  1. The Holiness code for Israel – 17 : 1- 26 : 46
  2. The Law of Vows – 27 : 1- 34.


Study Notes of Leviticus


  1. The Sacrificial System in the Tabernacle 1 : 1 – 7 : 38


  1. Burnt Offering ( 1 : 3 – 17 ; 6 : 8-13)


                        The sacrifice was usually a domesticated male animal.  (However, fowls and females were used – 1 : 14 ; 4 : 28).  The animal should be without blemish, no physical abnormality and completely whole.  The worshipper must put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering.  The act of putting hands on animal suggests two things (i) designates a service (Acts. 13 : 2-3 ; Num. 27 : 20), (ii) transfers an obligation (Num. 8 : 10).  By this act, the worshipper declared this was his offering and transferred symbolicaly his guilt and liability of punishment to the sacrificial animal.  The worshipper must offer the sacrifice in faith for the forgiveness of his sin (Ps. 103 : 12).  The worshipper was very active in the sacrifice.  He killed, and skinned it, sometimes with the help of either the priests or the levites (2 Chr. 29 : 34 ; 35 : 11).


  1. Meal Offering (2 : 1-16 ; 6 : 14 – 23 ; 7 : 9-10)


            This offering characteristically was a bloodless offering.  It consisted of finely ground wheat flour, olive oil and Frankincense – wheat and olive oil were common items in the diet of Palestine. These facts suggest the symbolism – The worshipper labors diligently for the flour, thus he is offering his labors to the Lord – the best labors he can offer.  This offering was rarely offered alone, but always in connection with a bleeding animal sacrifice of “sweet savour”.  The expression “most holy” always denotes a portion of an offering that was solely for the priests.  These offerings were baked in an oven.  The first is a round cake with holes in it. The second is like a pancake (2 : 4-10).  This offering pictured the sinless ministry of Christ.


  1. Peace Offering (3 : 1 – 17 ; 7 : 11 – 34)

            Either male or female animal was acceptable for this offering.  The offerer laid his hands on the animal killed it and the blood was collected and  scattered around the altar of burnt offering.  The priest offered this animal’s fat, to God.  The fat of animal symbolized the best things (the fat of the land).  “The food of God” does not mean that God must eat as humans do (Ps. 50 : 9-13 ; Is. 40 : 16).  It speaks of that which would be food for man but which has been given to God.  This offering was given to God last of all, after the sin and dedicatory offerings were presented to Him.  It was the only offering of which the worshipper could eat and he could share it with the family and friends.


Note : On the one hand, for our spiritual benefit God prohibited blood, since it was the soul (life principle) of the animal and made atonement; on the other hand, God prohibited animal fat from human diet for our physical and health benefit.


  1. Sin Offering (4 : 1 – 5 : 13 ; 6 : 24 – 30)


            This sin offerings were for sins of Priests (4 : 1-12) done through ignorance.  Probably the sins of ignoring the Law of God (Lev. 6 : 2, 3).  The special handling of the blood was characteristic of this offering.  The priest had to collect the blood and bring it into the Holy Place, sprinkle it before the curtain leading to the Holy of Holies, put some on the altar of incense and pour out the rest.  The injured parts of sacrificed animals were offered in the peace offering, but the rest of the bull was burned outside the camp.


            For the sins of congregation (4 : 13-21) the leaders laid their hands on the sacrifice before sacrificing it.  Elders laying hand symbolized and represented the whole congregation.


4 : 22-27 : This passage speaks of the sins of a leader either king or princess. The blood of sacrificed animal was handed differently.  It was put on the horns of altar of burnt offering.  The horns speak of the strength or authority of the altar.  Leve. 4 : 27 – 5 : 13 explain sin offering for the common people (individual).


Note : The remainng parts of sin offering was burned outsided the camp in a clean place (Lev. 4 : 12,21).  It probably typified that Jesus would be crucified on a cross outside the camp (city of Jerusalem).


            The blood of sin offering was sprinkled by the priest before the veil, except once a year on the day of Atonement; when it was sprinkled by the high priest on the mercy seat within the veil.




  1. Trespass Offering (5 : 14 – 6 : 7 ; 7 : 1-7)


The only offering acceptable for a trespass offering was a ram.  The trespass offering dealt with sin as a violation of someone else’s rights, whereas the sin offering dealt with sin as a vilation of God’s command.  However, the trespass offering was also made when a person had defrauded God, such as withholding the tithes and offerings that belonged to him (5 : 14-19), or when he had taken something wrongfully from his fellowmen (6 : 1-7).


  1. The Service of the Priest in the Tabernacle (8 : 1 – 10 : 20)


Leviticus (8-10) explains how the priests came to the Lord and how they were anointed.  Moses first anointed the altar and the tabernacle. There the priests came wearing their priestly garments.  The anointing oil was poured aboundantly on Aaron (Jewish tradition holds that the leser priests were anointed only with a small amount, and by the finger).  The special sacrifices were made for the ordination of priests (8 : 14 – 32).  This concecration went on for seven days.  For these seven days, the priest should not go out of tabernacle (8 : 33).  After consecrating for seven days, the priest must begin his ministry on the eight day by offering sacrifices for themselves (9 : 8-14) and for the people (9 : 15-21).  Then Aaron must bless the people (9 : 22-24).  God punished Nadab and Abihu for offering strange fire (10 : 1-20).  The reasons for punishment probably were:


  1. They probably did not light their incense from the fire on the altar (Lev. 16 : 12 ; Num. 16 : 46).
  2. They may also have offered incense at a time when it was not commanded to do so.
  3. They very possibly may have presumed to go into the Holy of Holies (Lev. 16 : 12).


            By the death of his sons, Aaron and his family learned that love and service for the Lord must come before personal feelings for one another. (Lk. 14 : 26).


III.      The Laws of Various Impurities (11 : 1- 16 : 34)


The previous portion (8-10) explained, how the priests came to the Lord, but these chapters explain how people must come to the Lord for worship.  They should maintain ceremonial cleanliness.  So these chapters help them to distinguish between clean and unclean.  The purpose of these laws was to make Israel holy.  They were a constant reminder that Israel had been chosen  to be a holy people and that the God they served was pure, complete, and upright.  They should not eat the meat of unclean animals (11 : 1-47).  Woman must purify herself during maternity period (12 : 1-8).  There were separate laws for leprosy (13-14) and for the uncleanness of discharges (ch. 15).  Chapter 16 discusses the approach to God on the day of atonement. God explains how all Israel corporately is to be purified from their sins of that year.  On the day of atonement the High Priest would enter twice on the same day into the Holy of Holies to atone first for him and second for the people of Israel (16 : 1-16).  No other priest could be in the Tabernacle until the high priest was through making atonement in the Holy of Holies (16 : 17).  On the day of atonement, Israel as a nation renews its covenant with God.


Note : Two goats were presented, Although there were two goats, these goats were meant one offering, not two (16 : 5). A lot was cast to determine God’s will as to which goat was to be sacrificed and which goat was to be kept alive.  Both goats were consecrated to Jehovah (16 : 7,10).  One was scapegoat.  The scapegoat  (literally the goat for Azazel) carries the sins of people.  Azazel means total separation or destruction.  The goat sent into the wilderness vividly demonstrated the effect of the sacrifice: Israel’s sins were totally removed (Ps. 103 : 12 ; Mic. 7 : 19).  This scapegoat was sent through a particular person.  After senting the scapegoat into wilderness, the leader of the scapegoat washed himself, because he had gone outside the camp.  Outside of the camp is usually regarded as unclean place.  So the leader cleans himself.


  1. The Holiness Code for Israel (17 : 1- 26 : 46)


False worship and sacrifice to demons were prohibited (17 : 7).  So they must offer their sacrifices only in the tabernacle (17 : 4-6).  However, they should not drink blood.  Blood symbolizes life.


Note : Before science confirmed that life is in the blood, the Bible had said it.  It is the evidence that the Bible is the inspired word of God (17 : 11).


Chapter 18 deals on the laws of sexual morality.  Chapter 19 deals about social relationship.  The right relationship begins with God.  God wants His people must be holy, as He is holy (19 : 2).  Chapter 20 deals about false worship and its punishment, but chapters (21, 22) about holiness of priests and sacrifices.  Leviticus 23 enjoins on Israel seven different times of holy convocation and feast.  Many of these feasts had a memorial aspect.  They reminded Israel of their history and the God who had acted for them in that history.  Leviticus 24 describes God’s demand for the perpetual light, the showbread and reverence for His name.


Leviticus 25 discuss the year of Jubilee.  Every seventh year the land was to lie fallow (Ex. 23 : 10-13). Israelite can sell the land to another Israelite, but the possession of the land always returned to the original owner in the jubilee year. (25 : 14-16).  God promised special blessing for observing Sabbatical year.  The sixth year’s harvest would be enough for the Sabbatical year, the Jubilee year and the time until the first harvest of the year after the jubilee (25 : 20-22).  God is the creator. So the earth especially Israel belongs to Him.  The Israelites were tenants, not the actual land owners. God was the title-holder.  Therefore, there always had to be an opportunity for redemption of property (25 : 23, 24).  Since, God is the owner, Israel paid tithe as tax as recognization of His ownership.  Leviticus 26 deals about blessings conditions for blessing and curse for disobedience.


  1. The Law of Vows (27 : 1-34)


This chapter deal with various vows.  However, the first born, banned things, and Tithes could not be vowed (27 : 26-34).

Note : The practice of vow was not commonly practiced in the New Testament churches in gentile area outside Jerusalem.  However, once, Paul went to Jerusalem for his special vow (Act. 21 : 18-26).


                        Numbers is the fourth book in Pentateuch written by Moses.  It covers the period of 38-39 years of history.  Most of the events of Numbers happened around three places: Mount Sinai, Kadesh – Barnea, and the plains of Moab.  This concentration divides the books : Journeys in the wilderness from Mount Sinai to Kadesh – Barnea (1-2); wanderings in the wilderness due to failure at Kadesh a Barnea (13-19); journeys out of the wilderness from Kadesh-Barnea to the plains of Moab (20 – 26).

Authorship & Date :  Moses wrote about 39 years after Israel left from Egypt.  So the possible date was 1400 BC.  (For more details read the introduction of Pentateuch).

Outline of Numbers

  1. The ordering of Camp. 1 : 1 – 4 : 49
  2. The Purity of the camp. 5 : 1 – 6 : 27
  • The Offerings of the Camp. 7 : 1 – 9 : 14
  1. The March of the Camp. 9 : 15 – 10 : 31
  2. The stops of the Camp. 11 : 1 – 12 : 16
  3. Rebellion at Kadesh – Barnea. 13 : 1 – 14 : 45
  • Regulations of Offerings. 15 : 1 – 47
  • Rebellion of Korah. 16 : 1 – 17 : 13
  1. The rights of the Priests. 18 : 1 – 32
  2. The Rite of the Red Heifer. 19 : 1 – 22
  3. The March to Moab. 20 : 1 – 21 : 35
  • The Machinations of Moab. 22 : 1 – 25 : 16
  • Arrangements for the Possession of Canaan. 26 : 1 – 27 : 23
  • The Statutes concerning the worship of God. 28 : 1 – 30 : 16
  1. Revenge on the Midianites. 31 : 1-54
  • Rebuke of Reuben and Gad. 32 : 1-42
  • Recounting of Israel’s Journeys. 33 : 1 – 49
  • Regulations for Possessing Canaan. 33 : 50 – 36 : 13


  1. The Ordering of the Camp ( 1 : 1 – 4 : 49)

These chapters deal census of Israelites. This census was probably not an entirely new census, but was based on the census of Ex. 30 : 14 and 38 : 26.  The purpose of this census was to organize Israel as a military power.  Hence, only men of mature age (over twenty) were numbered.  The number of man (603, 550) means there were between two and three million Israelites (men, women and children).  It is repeated many times (Ex. 12 : 37 ; 38 : 26 ; Num. 1 : 46; 26 : 51).

This census included the Levites so that their duties could be assigned.  Duties were assigned by Aaron (4 : 27).  The Levites could do service in the Tabernacle from 30 to 50 years old when men are at their peak physically, intellectually and emotionally.

Note : Some doubt this population of Israel by asking how could so many people be fed?  The answer for this question as follows: The feeding of Israel is always depicted as a miraculous act of God.

  1. The Purity of the Camp (5 : 1-6 : 27)

Chapter 5 explains how the purity must be maintained in the camp, especially in relation to family.  Chapter 6 deals with the law of Nazarites.  Nazarite is a noun form of the Hebrew verb “to separate”.  The person who took Nazarite vow separated himself to the Lord for a specific period.  The temporary Nazarite is distinct from the lifelong Nazarite.  Samson is the best example for the lifelong Nazarite (Jud. 13-16 ; Amos 2 : 11,12).  Nazarite must abstain from vine, from cutting of hair and from contact with a corpose.

III.      The Offerings of the Camp (7 : 1 – 9 : 14)

The leaders who were appointed by Moses (Ch. 1, 2) brought offerings and inaugurated the trabernacle service (7 : 1-89).  Moses had access to the ark to hear God’s voice, while Aaron had access only to the place where the table and lampstand were, except on the day of atonement (7 : 89 – 8 : 4).  Ch. 8 : 5-22 explains the beginning of the Levitical service.  Prior to this, only Moses, Aaron and his sons did the work of the tabernacle. After leaders offered, the Levites offered their offering and began their ministry officially.  The Levites assisted the priests in the tasks of operating.  The Levites began their service at the age of 25 years as trainees.  After 5 year training they at the age of 30 became trained Levites for full service (4 : 3,4; 8 : 23-26).  Then the second Passover was observed (9 : 1-14).

  1. The March of the Camp (9 : 15 – 10 : 36)

This portion explain how Israelites camped and journeyed according to their order.  The cloud which led them from Egypt settled over the tabernacle when it was erected.  This cloud symbolized God’s protection and God’s presence with His people (9 : 15 – 23).  They had two trumpets.  The sound of two trumpets directed from the camp; one for assemblies (10 : 3, 4) and another for moving of the camp (10 : 5-8).  When Israelites were settled in their promised land, these trumpets would have a military function and a worship function (10 : 9,10).

  1. The Stops of the Camp (11 : 1 – 12 : 16)

Some others (Non-Israelites)  joined the Israelites when they left Egypt (11 : 4 ; Ex. 12 : 38).  This mixed multitude complained about food.  Moses faced a difficult time in his leadership.  To face the situation, God first gave him to assisting leaders.  Then Moses faced problems from his own family members; his sister Miriam.  However, God punished Miriam and proved Moses’ leadership.

  1. Rebellion at Kadesh – Barnea (13 : 1 – 14 : 45)

Moses sent 12 spies to Canaan.  But ten of them brought evil report, except Joshua and Caleb.  By hearing the report, Israelites murmered and wanted to go back Egypt (14 : 4).  For their rebellion,God pronounced punishment of wandering 40 years in the wilderness.  40 years symbolizies one generation.

VII.     Regulations of Offerings (15 : 1 – 47)

A few more regulations were given regarding the offerings, such as burnt offering, peace offering etc. (Read: Leviticus Notes on offering).

VIII.   Rebellion of Korah(16 : 1 – 17 : 13)

Korah was one of the Kohathites, who were privileged to carry the most holy objects on their shoulders.  Korah challenged the leadership of Moses and Aaron.  The congregation sided with Korah against Moses.  Moses made an attempt to make peace with them, but it was futile.  So God punished the rebellion (Ch. 16).  God also proved the Priesthood of Aaron by the budding of Aaron’s rod.

  1. The Rights of the Priests (18 : 1 – 32)

God differentiated between the duties of the priests and those of the Levites.  The priest must minister at the Holy place and the altar. The Leviteis must help the priests in the many duties of the court of the tabernacle, but could do nothing pertaining to the altar or the tabernacle proper.  God delineated the means by which the priests would be supported. They could eat from the meat offering, wave offering etc.  The Levites were given the tithes of the people. Of these tithes, the Levites had to tithe to the priests the best of what was given to them.  The Priests gave to God a portion of the offerings.

  1. The Rite of the Red Heifer (19 : 1-22)

The selected Red heifer was slain in front of a Priest and burned outside the camp.  The high priest would not officiate this rite. So, the heifer was slain before the priest in the second position (Second rank priest).  Then he would sprinkle the blood seven times toward the sanctuary from outside of the camp where the red heifer was killed.  This sprinkling of blood toward the sanctury from outside of the camp symbolized the purification of sin of the congregation of Israel.

  1. The March to Moab (20 : 1 – 21 : 35)

Chapter 20 opened in the fortieth year after the Exodus.  During this final year of wandering God began to prepare the younger generation to enter Canaan.  The younger generation also imitated two of the older generation’s besetting sins: murmuring and lack of faith in God.  People here also complained for water. In this place (Kadesh), Moses failed. God said Moses to speak to the rock for water.  But, Moses struct it.  For this failure, God forbid him that Moses could not enter the promised land.

Chapter 21 narrates the journey to the last stage before the conquest of the promised land; from Mt. Hor to the plains of Moab.  Although God gave victory (1-3), they complained about their way. So, God punished them by sending fiery serpents.  Many died.  So Moses made a bronze serpent.  Those who looked the bronze serpent as soon as they had been bitten by serpents did not die.

XII.     The Machinations of Moab (22 : 1 – 25 : 16)

Balaam was a false prophet and non-Israelite (2 Pet. 2 : 15 ; Jude 11 : Rev. 2 : 14).  God forbid him not to curse Israel.  He warned him through his donkey, when Balaam could not listen to God’s ways.  God said Balaam and made him to bless Israel in front of the King Balak.  However, through a cunning device of Balaam (31 : 16 ; Rev. 2 : 14), the Moabites called Israelites to worship their false gods and sex play.  So, God punished them too.

XIII.   Arrangements for the Possession of Canaan (26 : 1 – 27 : 23)

The second and new census was taken for the new generation of Isreal.  It was  also for the division of the land.  Larger tribes were to receive more, smaller tribes less. Since, Moses death was nearing, he appointed Joshua as his successor to lead Israel and to divide the promised land to each tribe.

XIV.   Statutes Concerning the Worship of God (28 : 1 – 30 : 16)

A few additional guidelines were given in these chapters about various offerings and vows.  (Read Leviticus Notes for details).

  1. Revenge on the Midianites (31 : 1 – 54)

The Midianites were revenged for their collaboration with Moabites (Ch. 22-25) in deceiving Israel (25 : 16-18).  This war was led by the Priests (Phinehas) instead of military leaders (31 : 6).  They killed all the males of midianites and plundered them.  But none of Israelites was killed in this war (31 : 49).  The leaders of Israel offered a special offering to the Lord for their victory in war (31 : 47-54).

XVI.   Rebuke of Reuben and Gad (32 : 1-42)

The two tribes (Reuben and Gad) wanted to settle at the east bank of Jordan when they possessed the land.  Their decision might discourage other tribes.  So Moses advised them to help other brothers in order to possess the promised land.  After complete possession, the two tribes could settle in the land at the east of Jordan.  However, Moses warned them, that if they disobeyed “your sin will find you out” (32 : 23).

XVII.  Recounting of Israel’s Journeys (33 : 1 – 49)

This chapter enumerates the various stopping places of Israel on their journey from Egypt to Canaan.

XVIII.Regulations for Possesing Canaan (33 : 50 – 36 : 13)

                        The boundaries and regulations were given for possessing and dividing the land.  Israel was to give the Levites  forty – eight cities to live in.  The tribes that had more territory were to give the Levites more cities (38 :1-8).  Three cities on each side of the Jordan were to be appointed as cities of refuge so that a man slayer could flee there and could be safe from the avenger of blood, that is, the relative who sought to avenge the death of his relative.  The manslayer should live there till the death of the high priest then. If the killer went outside the city of refuge and was found by the avenger, and was killed by avenger, the avenger was guiltless.


                        Deutro means “two or second”.  Hence this means the second Law.  But this is not second law; the summary of the law of Moses.  However, this book is known as “the words of Moses” in Hebrew.

Author and Date

                        Moses is the author and he wrote it about 1440 BC at the age 120 years.  Israel was in transjordan awaiting God’s signal to cross the Jordan River.  Before they crossed, God inspired Moses with the three major speeches and various concluding remarks given to Israel to prepare them for the conquest of  Canaan.

                        Each book of the Pentateuch has a particular emphasis.  Genesis teaches man’s ruin and God’s sovereignty.  Exodus describes man’s redemption and God’s power.  Leviticus emphasizes man’s worship and God’s holiness. Numbers records man’s walk and God’s goodness and severity.  In Deuteronomy the emphasis is on God’s faithfulness and love to man and man’s complete obedience to God.

General Outline

  1. Introduction (1 : 1-5)
  2. Historical Prologue (1 : 6 – 4 : 49)
  • General Requirements (5 : 1 – 11 : 32)
  1. Public Worship (12 : 1 – 16 : 17)
  2. Proper Administration (16 : 18 – 26 : 19)
  3. The Blessings and Curses (27 : 1 – 28 : 68)
  • The contents of the Palestinian Covenant (29 : 1 – 30 : 20)
  • The conclusion of Moses’ Ministry (31 : 1 – 33 : 29)
  1. The Death of Moses (34 : 1 – 12)


  1. Introduction (1 : 1-5)

“These be the words” is a common introductory formula to begin treaties.  One important difference between Deuteronomy and secular treaties needs to be noticed.  In secular treaties, the king speaks.  In Deuteronomy, Moses speaks not as the king but as God’s representative or mediator.

  1. Historical Prologue (1 : 6 – 4 : 49)

Moses reviewed Israel’s history from Horeb to Heshbon to remind Israel of the faithfulness of God and Israel’s unfaithfulness.  Moses commanded Israel to love God and be faithful to Him.

III.      General Requirements (5 : 1 – 11 : 32)

Moses exposed and explained the Ten Commandments in the chapters.  The important verse in this section is 6 : 4.  “Hear O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is One”.  It means Jehovah is unique.  The phrase “God of gods, and Lord of Lords” (10 : 13) is the Hebrew way of expressing a superlative:  “the greatest of gods and the most supreme of Lords”.


  1. Public Worship (12 : 1 – 16 : 17)

God provided a central sanctuary. (Tabernacle).  Tabernacle first was at Gilgal then moved to Jerusalem. Israel was to worship at this central altar.  Their offerings, tithes and firstlings were to be brought there.

After people of Israel spread over Canaan, God permitted them to kill animals in their communities for family meals without coming to the Tabernacle (12 : 15-28; Lev. 17).  However, their tithes, firstlings, sacrifices, for vows and other sacrifices had to be brought to the central altar. These offerings would help support the Levites. (14 : 22-27).  The third and the sixth year of the sabbatical schedule Isrrael was to deposit another tithe within their own cities and distribute it to the needy in their area.  There appear to be three tithes.  The tithe was probably brought to the sanctuary at the festival of Tabernacle.  The first tithe (Num. 18 : 20-32; Lev. 27 : 30) was for the support of the Levities and the priests.  The second tithe (Deut. 14 : 22-27) was for the celebration of feasts at the Temple and perhaps also for the maintenance of the sacrificial worship.  The third  tithe was taken every third year, “the year of tithing” and was for the support of the poor (Read – Deut. 26 : 12-15).

God reminded Israel they were to appear before Him three times each year: at Passover (combined with the feast of unleavened Bread), at Pentecost (Feast of weeks) and at the Feast of Tabernacle.

  1. Proper Administration (16 : 18 – 26 : 19)

Administrative principles were given here.  Any difficult matters were to be brought before the judges and priests at the central sanctuary (17 : 8-13). God also gave regulations for Kings if they were.  The king was to make for himself a copy of the law (17 : 14-20).  Non-Israelite could not be their king.

Chapter 18 explains more about Levitical systems.  The Levites received certain portions of a sacrifice and the firstfruits.  This chapter deals about a special prophet.  That is Jesus Christ (18 : 15-19). God graciously promised that He would give His people guidance.  This guidance was to be through the corporate office of the “prophet”, but primarily through the divine Prophet, “Jesus Christ” (Jn. 1 : 21, 25, 43-45; 6 : 14 ; 7 : 40 ; Acts. 3 : 22, 23 ; 7: 37).  The prophet that was to come was to be an Israelite and would be like Moses.  Jesus was alone like Moses in His ministry.  Thus this passage (18 : 15-19) introduces the true prophetic office which would culminate in the prophetic ministry of Jesus Christ.

The rules for war were also given.  In them, Trees near enemy cities were not to be indiscriminately destroyed.  This shows how God cares about environment too (20 : 19-20).  Then the laws of personal purity were given (21 : 10 – 26 : 19).  “Dog” in 23 : 18 refers to a male homosexual cult prostitute.

  1. The Blessings and Curses (27 : 1 – 28 : 68)

Either blessings or cursings were given to Israel based on their attitude towards God and His word.  The curses were more numerous than the blessings.  The blessings and curses were an aspect of Palestinian covenant.

VII.     The Contents of the Palestinian Covenant (29 : 1 – 30 : 20)

Deut. 30 : 1-10 gives the details of the Palestinian covenant and foretells how God would eventually establish Israel in Palestine after He would cast Israel out of the land for its great transgression.

God had promised to Abraham three things: a land, a seed, and a blessing (Gen. 12 : 1-3).  This is known as the Abrahamic covenant and it was repeated to other patriarchs (Gen. 26 : 3 ; 28 : 13-15).  This covenant was the basis of God’s redemption of Israel from Egypt (Deut. 7 : 7 – 8), and His provision of a land for Israel in Palestine.

However, God had made another covenant with Israel at Mt. Sinai: the Mosaic covenant. The Mosaic covenant was a necessary stage because it made Israel into a nation (Ex. 19 : 5, 6) and porepared the nation for the first advent of Christ (Gal. 4 : 1-5 ; 3 : 23-24).  The Mosaic covenant was conditional because its blessings were based upon the keeping of the law.  This legal treatment of Israel brought many curses upon Israel which even affected the Palestinian covenant.  Israel’s failure to keep the law caused God to root it out of the land after He had brought Israel into Palestine (Deut. 28 : 63, 68 ; 29 : 28).

Deut. 30 : 1-10 makes it clear that the Mosaic covenant did not abrogate the Palestinian covenant, nor the Abrahamic covenant (Gal. 3 : 15).  The Mosaic covenant (Law) provided for a religious, political and social organization within the Abrahamic covenant, and Israel’s sin, even if it were so great that she had to be cast out of Palestine would not abrogate the Abrahamic covenant or the Palestinian covenant.  There was always a way back – the way of repentance.  God would even work a spiritual miracle (circumcise Israel’s heart) to enable Israel to repent.

The New Covenant (Jer. 31 : 31-34) given just before God executed judgement in sending Israel into captivity in Babylon (as He had warned in Deut. 27 – 29), explains morefully how Israel would seek God.  God would pour out His Spirit, put His laws within Israel (regenerate Israel) and inaugurate the Millennium.  Jesus Christ sacrificed Himself to provide the blood basis of the New Covenant.

VIII.   The Conclusion of Moses’ Ministry ( 31 : 1 – 33 : 29)

Moses told Israel he was no longer able to lead them.  He was prohibited from entering Canaan because he had rebelled against God (Num. 20 : 7-13 ; 27 : 12-14).  Then Moses sang a song of Praise to God.  The song was a teaching device.  The name Jeshurun is a pet name for Israel and ironically here; it means “upright one” (32 : 15-18).  Moses takes the role of a father giving a deathbed blessing to his children (33 : 1-5).

  1. The Death of Moses (34 : 1-12)

Moses did not die from natural cause, but he died for his disobedience to God at the waters of Meribah – Kadesh (32 : 51).  The death of Moses prophetically revealed by God as well as it was recorded by Moses or by Joshua perhaps.


  1. Write the supports for Moses’ authorship of Pentateuch.
  2. What are the problems connected with JEDP theory?
  3. Explain the sons of God in Gen. 6 : 1-2.
  4. Why fallen angels cannot marry women? Give at least 12 reasons.
  5. Write the historical setting of Exodus.



Note : Write the answers and send your answer sheet to the Director of  CALS.   Do not forget to mention your name and Register Number in your answer sheet.