BL - 22 Biblical Archaeology



 Purpose of course 

This subject helps the learners to substantiate the historicity of the Bible.  It also helps to confirm the scripture as God’s word in the light of findings of ancient places which are mentioned in the Bible.  Above all, it is helpful to the student to know that the Bible presents the true history of  humanity and that it contains no myth.

What is Biblical Archaeology?


                   The Biblical archaeology is a branch of Archaeology.  In so far as the Biblical archaeology, it discovers the treasures of history by the excavation done in the lands of Bible.

The Necessity of Archaeology


                   A century ago, Higher critics (Unbelieving scholars) expressed their sketpticism concerning some places of the Bible.  They also questioned the historical validity of the Bible.  This skeptical view is called “Higher Criticism”.  The Biblical archaeology positively answers to the  questions raised by higher critics, from the findings of the Bible lands.  As a result of Biblical archaeology, many such critics abandoned their views and became sincere adherers of the Bible.  (Ex.)  Bible scholars Halvy and Sayce.  Thus Biblical archaeology brings out the facts and proves the historical validity of the Bible.  And it helps the students of the Bible to assail the higher critics more confidently.

The Archaeological Ages


                   Human history is calculated by the metals that man used from the time of creation.  Every archaeological finds are dated by using this metal ages.  This ages are as follows:

  1. i) The Stone Age Prior to 3000 BC
  1. ii) The Bronze Age 3000 to 1200 BC
  • The Early bronze Age 3000 to 2000
  • The Middle Bronze Age 2000 to 1500
  • The Late Bronze Age 1500 to 1200

iii)     The Iron Age                           1200 to 300 BC

  • The early Iron age 1200 to 900
  • The Middle Iron age 900 to 600
  • The Late Iron age 600 to 300
  1. iv) Hellenistic Age 300 to 63 BC
  1. v) Roman Age 63 BC to 323 AD

                   These periods are very important in the history of mankind as well as of the Bible.

The Historicity of Genesis


                   The periods covered in Genesis were the stone age and the middle bronze age.  The first eleven chapters are very important to prove the historicity of Genesis.  The Higher critics question about the validity of first eleven chapters, which comes between the stone age and the early bronze age.  Although it is now hard to give answers to few questions raised by critics, archaeology certainly gives many valid answers to critics.  It is possible that archaeology would give proper answers to all their skeptical questions in the days to come, as more archaeological finds come to light.  However, Archaeology has already given enough evidence for the historicity of the first eleven chapters of Genesis.  This lesson also gives some of such evidence to prove the  historicity of Genesis and of the Bible in general.

Deciphering of early inscriptions


The Rosetta Stone :  Boussard, a French Engineer excavating near Rosetta at the mouth of the Nile in 1799 unearthed a black granite stone 3′ 9″ high, by 2′ 4½” wide by 11″ thick.  This stone has 14 lines of Egyptian hieroglyphics (Pictorial language of old Egypt), followed by 32 lines of some other script and 54 lines of Greek at the bottom.

                   In 1818, Champollion, a young Frenchman, successfully deciphered the inscription by comparing the known Greek with the unknown Egyptian.  The decipherment has greatly contributed to study the background of the Bible and its early history.

The Behistun Stone :  Henry C. Rawlinson, a young English army officer in Persia found this inscription  on a cliff in 1835.  He adventurously climbed the cliff, 350 feet above the base of the hill in Behistun and made copies by the impression on the plaster of paris.  It took a decade for him to decipher 1200 lines of inscription which was in three languages.  First language was Old Persian; the second was Median (Elamite) and the third was Babylonian (Akkadian).  The inscriptions were written in cuneiform characters.  The Persian inscription recorded about Darius, the Great (522-486 BC).  By the decipherment of Behistun inscriptions, a gate way was opened to read the cuneiform writings of early Assyrian and Babylonian languages.  Reading of early Assyrian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, provides great light in understanding Biblical History of Genesis.

                   The deciphering of cuneiform letters helped the linguistic scholars to read the clay tablets, unearthed from “the Library of Ashurbanipal” (669-625 BC) in Nineveh.  Some of these tablets recorded the story of creation and of flood in their perverted form of  the so called Babylonian account of creation. 

  • The Babylonian account is recorded on 7 tablets, perhaps corresponding to the seven days of creation.
  • Man is brought forth on the sixth tablet, parallel to creation of man on the sixty day.

Although perverted Babylonian account of creation story is far away from the Biblical account of creation, it clearly reveals that biblical account of creation could be perfectly correct one.

In this way, both the Rosetta stones and the Behistun stones bear the witness of Biblical history and a strong Biblical background of Genesis.

A Garden Eastward in Eden

                   There is much speculation about the exact location of Eden.  Although scholars vary in their opinions, it would have been just above Babylon where the Tigris (Hiddekel – Gen. 2 : 14) and the Euphrates approach each other within a very close distance.  One Babylonian clay tablet has a name Idiglat, which certainly refers to the river Hiddekel.

The Temptation Seals – Gen. 3 : 1-8

                   E.A.Speiser of the University of Pennsylvania found a seal near Nineveh in 1932.  The seal has a fruit bearing tree.  A man and woman are on the right of the tree.  As she is picking fruit from the tree, a serpent was behind her.  This seal is antedated 3000 BC.  It certainly discloses that the story of the temptation is very old and is certainly true.

A city built by Cain – Gen. 4 : 17

                   Archaeological excavations done near ancient Nineveh provide one of the earliest evidence on early civilization and village life.  This civilization was dated by excavators to 4000 BC or a little before.  The cultures of this early civilization have been named Halaf and Pre-Halaf.  It was so named, since one of such civilization was first found at a site in Halaf in Northern Mesopotamia.  The people of the Halaf era lived in houses or huts whose foundations were made of beaten clay.  Arts, crafts and the rise of urban civilization are depicted in many mounds at Mesopotamia.  Perhaps, Halaf civilization came from the descendants of Cain, who first built a city.

Music Instruments

                   Jubal, a descendant of Cain was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ (Gen. 4 : 21).  The harp represents stringed instruments whereas the organ represents wind instruments.  Archaeological discoveries provide much evidence for the early development of musical Instruments, mentioned in the Bible.  The harps were discovered at Ur of the Chaldeans.  The string and wind instruments were pictured on the Egyptian monuments.  Thus Archaeology proves the claims of the Bible that music instruments were used in very ancient period.

Metal Works

                   Tubal Cain was “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron” (Gen. 8 : 22).  This reference is the proof for the early use of metal.  But it was formerly believed by the critics that the use of metal began very late, and metal was not employed in early times.  However, very recent discoveries have proved that metal was well known and used much earlier than previously supposed.  Although the usual date given for the beginning of the iron ages in the Near east was about 1200 BC – and this data is still used for convenience in listing metal ages – modern archaeology proves that there was good knowledge of Iron long before 1200 BC.  At a site about 80 Km. north east of Baghdad, called Tell Asmar today, but known as Eshnunna in ancient times, Henri Frankfort of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago found evidence of iron blade clinging to a dagger handle from the level of 2700 BC.  A small steel axe from Ur and some other very early objects of iron have also been found.  This evidence proves that the use of metal was in very early times, as stated in the Biblical records of Gen.4.

Note :  It is difficult to find many proofs for the use of iron, because iron oxidizes more quickly and completely than copper.

The Flood (Gen. 7, 8)

                   Archaeologist H. Rassman in 1853 at Nineveh discovered some Babylonian flood tablets from the library of the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal.  Those tablets later proved to be the Babylonian account of the flood.  Although Babylonian account of flood is little variant from the Biblical record of the flood, Babylonian account of flood is definitely a reflection of the fact that there must have been a flood.

                   Apart from the Babylonian flood tablets, there are many evidence of flood given by some scientists and historians concerning the Ark of Noah.  History tells that in ancient period many men climbed the mountain in Armenea in search of the ark.  They returned and reported that they had seen the ark.  Moreover, Brother Jehan Haithan, a 13th century Armenian Prince who later became a Christian monk in France, wrote about the ark.  He wrote that in the snow of Mt. Ararat one can see a black spot that is Noah’s Ark which he himself saw in 1254 AD.

                   Although there are numerable proofs for the flood and for the ark, the recent report came regarding the ark of Noah during Second World War.  Both Russian and American Airmen during this war had seen this ark during their flight over Mt. Ararat.  Mt. Ararat was on a direct flight between the allied base in Runisia and the Russian base at Brivan.  A Russian Major Jasper Maskelyn, wartime Chief Camouflage (1941-1945) climed that he had clearly seen the ark.  These evidence strongly prove that the flood was historical and universal.

Tower of Babel (Gen. 11)


                   In southern Mosopotamia, many ancient temple towers (Ziggurats) have been excavated.  Some Babylonian clay tablets also mention about Ziggurats.  Perhaps, Ziggurats are the remains of the tower of Babel.  Ancient people worshiped the moon god.  George Smith who translated Babylonian account of the flood also translated a fragment concerning Ziggurat.  That fragment tells “the building of this temple offended the gods.  In a night, they threw down what had been built. They scattered them abroad and made strange their speech”.  This Babylonian account of fragment may be a later reflection of what actually occurred when God came down at the time of the building of the tower of Babel and scattered the people abroad, by confounding their language.

Ur of the Chaldees – birth place of Abraham (Gen. 11 : 31)

                   Abraham was born in Ur.  He grew up during his younger days in Ur of the Chaldees in southern Mosopotamia.  D. Leonard Wooley excavated Ur during 1922 – 1934.  He found that people lived in Ur from 4000 BC to 300 BC and that Ur was an ancient city where civilized people lived.  Ur was probably one of the cradle of civilization.  It was also true that Ur was well known for education in ancient times.  Excavators found the remains of a School, clay tablets written in cuneiform signs.

                   All these archaelogical discoveries prove the historicity and trustworthiness of chapters 1-11 of Genesis.

Abraham in Canaan

                   The critics doubted about Abraham’s life in Canaan and in Egypt.  Archaeology definitely provides evidence to support the Biblical account of Abraham.  In an excavation, the name “Abraham” has been found on an ancient clay tablet.

                   Genesis 12 : 16 states that Abraham received camels from Pharaoh.  The critics blindly said that the camels were unknown in Egypt during the time of Abraham.  But Archaeology disproves the view of critics.  Archaeology brought strong evidence for the biblical claim regarding camels which were known in Egypt even long before the time of Abraham.  Archaeologist found figurine of camels, besides rock carvings and drawings of camels, camel bones, a camel skull.  These objects of camels range from the 8th century BC to the period before 3000 BC. Thus these evidence again prove the authenticity of the records concerning Abraham.  Therefore one could strongly say that Abraham was a real historical person.

Jordan Valley Civilization (Gen 13 )


                   According to critics, there was no inhabitation at Jordan Valley, where Lot chose to live.  They questioned how could he live alone in such a large isolated empty area?  Dr. Nelson Glueck about 1940 discovered nearly 70 sites near the Jordan, where people lived more than 4000 years ago.  Some of these locations were densely inhabited during 3rd  and 2nd  millennia B.C.  This discovery silenced the arguments of critics concerning Jordan Valley civilization.

The Hittite Empire (Gen. 15 : 20)

                   The Hittites are mentioned many times (47) in the scripture.  However, there was no evidence except the biblical record  for this empire until the nineteenth century.  The critics showed this was an error in the biblical record.  But very recent archaeological findings later to the nineteenth century provides many proofs for the existence of the Hittite empire.  In 1906, German archaeologist Hugo Winkler unearthed the ancient Hittite capital, named Boghaz-keul, in Asia Minor.  Thousands of clay tablets were also found from this area.  Moreover, it is now known that the powerful Hittites occupied Mosopotamia and defeated Egypt.  They made a peace treaty later with King Ramses II after the battle of Kadesh in the twelfth century BC.  This Hittite empire was destroyed by the Assyrian empire in 717 BC.

Lot at Sodom (Gen. 19)

                   The wicked people of Sodom were unable to break down Lot’s door lock.  It was astonishing the scholars for centuries, as to how it was impossible for a great mob to break down the lock.  Excavation done by archaeologists Kyle and Albright at a site of Tell Beit Mirsim during 1926-1930, revealed the mistery of that “mob – proof door”.  Evidence for such a large and strong door socket was still in one of the buildings found in that excavations. This evidence confirms the scripture which never records falsehood.

Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

                   Archaeological explorations at the south end of the Dead Sea have revealed evidence of a break in civilization about 2000 BC.  Great quantities of pot sherds, flints excavated in explored site called Bab-ed-Dra dating between 2500 BC and 2000 BC evidence that the civilization ended abruptly about 2000 BC.  This sudden end of civilization certainly indicates that the region was destroyed by some natural calamities which caused the change of soil and of climate.  That natural calamity was probably a rain of “brimstone and fire”, as it is recorded in the scripture (Gen. 19 : 24).  Perhaps, Sodom and Gomorrah were swallowed by the Dead Sea, after the rain of brimstone and fire.

Abundance of Food in Gerar, a Philistine city

                   Isaac went to Gerar (Gen. 26 : 1) due to famine in Canaan.  Gerar was a known city for food in ancient period.  This was confirmed by archaeologist W.F.Petrie in 1927, by his excavations in Gerar.  He unearthed ancient pottery that revealed Gerar was a large grain center around the year 2000 B.C., the actual time of Isaac. 

Change of Birth right


                   Esau being the elder brother sold his birth right to his younger brother Jacob, for some desired pottage.  Archaeological light on this habit of selling one’s birth right is supplied by the Nuzi tablets, found in Mosopotamia dating from patriarchal period.  One of Nuzi tablets records a contract between two brothers.  In it, one brother changed (sold) his birth right (A plantation) to his brother for three sheep.  This record of Nuzi tablets sounds like Jacob’s bargain with his brother Esau (Gen. 25 : 30-34).

Joseph as Prime Minister in Egypt

                   Some critics doubt about the possibility of the promotion of a slave (Joseph) to a high office in Egypt.  However, the Egyptian monuments and archaeological discoveries reveal of foreigners including Cananites that got prominence in the court of Egypt.  Ex. Dudu, a Canaanite rose to high position in the Egyptian Court.  This is revealed by a Tablet letter found by a peasant woman in 1888.  The letter was written to him by an Amorite, who writes to Dudu “whatever is the wish of Dudu, let me know and I will do it . . . .  thou sittest in the presence of the King my lord as a high dignitary”.

                   There are many other evidence that show foreigners, slaves, Canaanites were promoted to high position in Egypt.  Joseph was certainly one among them.

                   All these archaeological evidence prove that events recorded in the book of Genesis were true in history and they were recorded by Moses who recorded them under the inspiration of Holy Spirit.  Thus Moses was the first ever true historian of ancient period.

Ancient Places of the Bible Land


Jericho  :    It was the first city captured by the Isralites who came from Egypt.  This city is found on a mound called Tell es-Sultan, near the copious spring known as Elisha’s Fountain.  This site was excavated by many archaeologists like Charles Warren (1868), Ernst Sellin (1907-11).  John Garstang (1929-36), Miss. Kathleen Kenyon (1952-58).  Their findings revealed many truths that confirm the Biblical account of the destruction of Jericho.  Garstang dated that this city fell about 1400 BC.  They also found the burnt and charred remains of fallen walls, wheat, barley, dates etc.  Evidence shows that this city fell by a sudden destruction and fire.  As well, it confirms the Biblical account that the incoming Isralites ‘burnt the city with fire, and all that therein’. (Josh 6 : 24)

Hazor (Josua 11 : 11-13)

                   The northern tribes of Canaanites gathered together and made a confederacy under the leadership of Jabin, king of Hazor.  This Canaanite coalition was defeated by the Israelites.  The Israelites also burned the city of Hazor.  Archaeologist Garstang excavated this city of Hazor and provided evidence of being burnt about 1400 BC (Garstang ; Joshua Judges, pp.197, 383)

Tomb of Joshua


                   “And they buried him within the border of his inheritance at Timnath Serah, which is in the mountains of Ephraim, on the north side of Mount Gaash.” (Joshua 24 : 30).  A site named Kefr Ishula, the village of Joshua is located sixteen kilometers northwest of Bethel.  There are many rock tombs in the hillside of this site.  In 1870, a number of stone knives were discovered from one of the tombs.  Probably, this tomb is the tomb of Joshua.  Because the septuagint (Greek version of Hebrew Old Testament) adds “There they put with him into the tomb in which they buried him, the knives of stone with which he circumcised the children of Israel in Gilgal” (Willmington’s guide to the Bible, p. 954).  Based on the information given in the Septuagint, one can certainly believe that this tomb is the tomb of Joshua.

Hidden grain pit

                   “Gideon thrashed wheat by the wine-press to hide it from the Midianites (Jud. 6 : 11).  Archaeologists excavated around Gideon’s area between 1926-1928.  They unearthed many hidden grain pits.  Probably Judges (6 : 11-18) refers to these hidden pits.

House of Saul in Gibeah

                   Saul’s house was in Gibeah which was also the first capital of United Kingdom of Israel.  This site is located about seven kilometers north of Jerusalem.  Dr. W.F.Albright, a renowned archaeologist in 1922 and 1933 unearthed more than six occupational levels, dating from 1100 BC to 80 AD.  In the second level, dating 1000 BC, the excavators unearthed Saul’s two-story, castle-like fortress, measuring about 155 by 170 feet.  It contained a variety of pottery and a number of large cooking pots.  They found an iron plow, which was probably used by Saul when he did agricultural work before becoming the first king of Israel (I Sam. 11 : 5).

Capture of Jerusalem by David (2 Sam. 5 : 6-10)

                   Jerusalem was the city of the Jebusites who first lived in that mount.  David captured this city from the Jebusites.  The Jebusites lived in a well protected city.  Therefore, they challenged and mocked David that He could not capture their city.  However David wisely made a great effort to send soldiers into the city.

                   The Jebusites had made a very secret gutter from the city to a fountain in Kidron valley.  The Jebusites used this gutter to get water, when their city was seized by enemies.  The gutter was very narrow.  David knew this gutter and he sent his soldiers through this gutter into the city of Jebusites.  He defeated them and captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites.  This Biblical account was questioned by critics for many centuries.  The critics said that there was no such secret gutter in Jerusalem.

                   However, Warren, a British captain in 1867 rediscovered the same gutter which was used by David to capture Jerusalem.  He saw a dark cavity a few meters above the spot where a fountain of water came out of the rock.  This water fountain is  now called “the fountain of the Virgin Mary”;  it is called so, because it is believed that Mary, mother of Jesus washed the swaddling cloths of her little son.  Captain Warren adventurously climbed to that cavity and entered into it.  He slowly crawled and finally reached a chink in the rock.  He forced himself through that chink and” found himself in broad daylight in the middle of the city, with the fountain of the Virgin lying far below him” (Willmington’s Guide to the Bible, p. 957).  The rediscovery of this gutter by captain Warren substantiates to the accuracy of the Biblical records, which has no mythological stories.  Thus the Bible is definitely historical and reliable.

Absalom’s Pillar (2 Sam. 18 : 18)

                   Absalom, a son of King David had no son.  Since he had no son, he erected a pillar.  He and his men carved and erected it on a rock during his life time.  The pillar is forty – seven feet high.  This pillar monument is located in the kedron valley, east of Jerusalem.  This pillar still stands and provides evidence for the Biblical record.

Treasures of Solomon

                   King Solomon was the most successful and wisest king of United Israel.  Israel prospered during his reign (I Kings 4 : 26 ; 7 : 46 ; 9 : 19,26 ; 10 : 23).  Solomon had many horses, chariots, horsemen etc.  He also built many stone houses.  Archaeological discoveries proved the statements of the Bible.  Evidence of large stone houses of wealth and treasures have been found by archaeologists from the excavated sites of Megiddo (The chariot city).  Solomon had huge quantity of copper which he used to build the temple of Jerusalem.  Archaeologists Prof. Albright and Nelson Glucck acknowledge the Biblical records through their discoveries.



                   Dr. G. Schumacher first excavated this city in 1903-05.  Later Archaeologist Dr. Henry Breasted along with his team in 1925 excavated Megiddo.  These excavations brought many evidence for the Biblical account.  They found inscriptions, a storage pit, and many ivory articles.  A noted discovery was that they found a horse stable in the fourth occupational level which is considered for the period of Solomon.  The horse stable was well planned so that 450 chariot horses could be accommodated.  The discovery of horse stable clearly confirms the Biblical account of 2 Chronicle 9 : 25 “And Solomon had four thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen; whom he bestowed in chariot cities, and with the King in Jerusalem”.


                   It was the capital of the northern Kingdom (Ten tribes of Israel) after the division of United Kingdom.  Samaria was located on a 300 feet high hill, 67 Km. north of Jerusalem.  Many archaeologists, especially G.A. Reisner in 1908-10 and J.W. Crowfoot in 1931-33 excavated this site.  King Omri bought this land from Shemer and he built this city.  He named the city “Samaria” after the previous owner “Shemer” ( 1 King 16 : 23-24).  Archaeologist found evidence for Omri’s involvement in building this city.  The excavators unearthed the foundations of the palace of Omri. 

                   A noteworthy discovery of the excavators was the articles made by ivories.  Constructing the ivory houses was one of the greatest achievements of Ahab, Son of Omri.  Perhaps, these ivory articles were used by Ahab in his “Ivory house”.  The articles made in ivory validate the Biblical account of “Ivory house of Ahab” (1 Kings 22 : 39).  This discovery is also a proof that the Bible is true in every aspect.


                   This city was the capital of Assyrian empire.  Nineveh was captured and destroyed by the Babylonians in 612 BC.  However, critics often cast doubt about the very existence of Nineveh.  They said there was no such city called Nineveh.  In 1845, archaeologists under the leadership of Henry Austin Layard first unearthed Nineveh and closed the mouth of critics.

                   Layard not only found Nineveh, but also unearthed the royal palace of Sennacherib, who was the emperor of Assyria.  Archaeologist found many clay tablets, a terra cotta, and a baked clay cylinder.  Sennacherib’s eight military expeditions, including destruction of Babylon in 689 BC, are recorded in these clay records.  In one of such tablets, the capture of Lachish is also mentioned.  The record of the capture of Lachish confirms the Biblical accounts in 2 Kings 18 : 13-19, and Isaiah 36-37.  The capture of Lachish by Sennacherb is graphically recorded in one of the walls of palace.

                   The clay tablets, found in Sennacherib’s palace record the list of all cities that he captured, but Jerusalem is not mentioned in the list of captured cities.  Although Sennacherib through long military campaign, captured many cities of Judah, he could not capture Jerusalem but only seiged Jerusalem.  The reason for not capturing it is mentioned in Isaiah 36-37.  Archaeologists found a large six sided baked clay cylinder from the palace of Eserhadden.  This clay cylinder confirms the final days of Sennacherib as the Biblical account mentions in 2 Kings 19 : 36, 37.

                   Moreover, Harmuzd Rassam in 1853 unearthed the palace of Ashurbanipal and found thousands of clay tablets which belong to the library of King Ashurbanipal.  In one of these tablets, the great flood of Noah’s period is mentioned in the form of Chaldean account of flood as “the ship rested on the mountains of Nizir”.

                   The rediscovery of Nineveh not only answers to the questions of critics, but also confirms that the Bible has recorded the ancient history accurately without error.



                   This city was one of the oldest metropolis of the ancient world.  It was built by Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC) and developed by Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC).  After Nebuchadnezzar, it started declaining.  Through archaeological excavations, done in Babylon from 1899 to 1913, Babylon again came into the light of the Bible students.  Archaeology confirms that Babylon was one of the mightiest empires in the ancient world.

                   Archaeologist found the wall of this city.  The wall is 25 Km. long and 136 feet thick.  They also unearthed the palace of Nebuchadnezzar.  A notable achievement of archaeologists who excavated Babylon was that they discovered an outline of a tower named E-Temen-An-ki, meaning “the house of the foundation flatform of Heaven and earth’.  Perhaps, this tower of E-Temen-an-ki was the Tower of Babel, mentioned in the Biblical account.

                   Archaeologist found nearly 300 cuneiform tablets in Babylon.  Those tablets record the distribution of oil and food grains to the workmen who lived in Babylon between 595-570 BC.  Among those tablets, one tablet mentions the name “Yow-keen” (Joiachin) who was the “King of the land of Yehud” (Judah).  It also records Joiachin’s five young sons who were with Keniah, their attendant.  In this manner, Archaeology confirms the Bible which always provides true ancient history.


                   This was a port city and considered as “the Gateway” of ancient Palestine.  The cedars of Lebanon were sent to this port for the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem, built by Solomon.  Prophet Jonah shipped from this port to escape to Tarshish.  Although small amount of excavations has been done in this area, archaeologist found ancient pottery and many artifacts which prove that this port city was very ancient.

Babylonian fiery furnaces


                   The book of Daniel records about the three Hebrew young men who were cast into fire.  The critics of the Bible mocked and said that there was no such furnace and that there was no such events happened in the history of Babylon.  But the archaeological discoveries refuted the claims of the critics.  Archaeologists discovered a special shaped building a brick kiln.  There is an inscription that explain the purpose of such building.  The inscription mentions “This is the place of burning where men who blasphemed the gods of  Chaldea died by fire” (Willmington’s Guide to the Bible, p. 964).

                   This inscription proves that there was such furnaces in Babylon so as  to kill those who did not worshiped the gods of Babylon.  Perhaps the same furnace might have used to punish those three Hebrew young men who are mentioned in Daniel Chapter 3.

                   Archaeological evidence furnished in this subject are a few examples among ten thousands of archaeological evidence which prove that the Biblical account is true.  New Archaeological discoveries that are being found every year still prove that the Bible has recorded the true history of the world.   If any part of scripture is untouched, thus far in archaeology such part of scripture will be certainly confirmed by the archaeology in the coming days or years.  However, every passage of scripture is accurate in its historical aspect.  The Biblical archaeology has helped to prove the historicity and reliability of the scripture.  Archaeological evidence confirms the Bible, because the Bible is God’s word which never fails in any aspect including history.  Since the Bible is God’s word, one can hopefully trust it and certainly use it for his faith and practice in his daily life.

Suggestion to the students

                   You are advised to refer books on Biblical archaeology in order to develop your knowledge on this subject.  Those who are access to internet can visit the website given here to know more about this subject.

Useful other Easy References


Archaeological sections given in Thompson Chain Reference Bible.

The Open Bible.

Willmington’s Guide to the Bible.

The Historicity of Genesis Chapters 1-11, M.Th. Thesis,

                                      M.Marshal Branet Allen, Asian Christian Academy.


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2 ehsh. 9 : 25

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 bA¬¿ ¾uµl£ (1925) & FGÉd®

rhbyhnkh¬ uh#h f£oÆUªj gy F½iu yha§f˱ x¬iw¡ f©L ¾o¤jd®. mJ 450 F½iufis¥ guhkÇ¡f¡ Toa KiwƱ ½£lÄ£L f£l¥g£oUªjJ.


ÃÅnt (nahdh ò¤jf«)

bA¬¿ Mµo¬ nyah®£ (1845)

,t® gH§fhy Ãidnt efiu¡ f©L ¾o¤jh®.  nkY« ,§»UªJ gygH§fhy mÇa jft±f´ ml§»a fËk© t£Lf´ »il¤jd.


gh¾nyh¬ nfh£il (jhÅna±)


Muh­¢¼ahs®f´ 25 ».Û. ÚsK«/ 136 mo mfyK« c´s khbgU« gh¾nyhÅa nfh£ilia¡ f©L¾o¤jd®.


gh¾nyhÅa Ô¢Nisf´ (jhÅ.3)


“f±njaǬ bj­t§fis¤ ö¼¤jt®f´ vÇ¡f¥g£L/ ÔÆdh± bfh±y¥gL»w ,l« ,J” – vd F¿¡f¥g£l xU f±bt£L g½¡f¥g£l Ô¢Nisia¡ f©L ¾o¤jd®  ,Jnt jhÅnaȬ e©g®f´ (rh¤uh¡/ nkrh¡/ Mng¤ nenfh) v¿a¥g£l Ô¢Nisahf ,U¡f nt©L«.

F¿¥ò :  ,²thW g±ntW bjh±Èa± Muh­¢¼f´ _y«/ ig¾´ TW« rǤ½u« c©ikbad bjhl®ªJ Ã%gzkh» tU»wJ. vdnt ig¾´ TWtJ c©ik vdî«/ mJ njt kÅjufsh± rÇahf vGj¥g£l njtDila th®¤ij vdî« m¿a Ko»wJ.