BL - 21 Gospels



 Purpose of Study.

  • Knowing the importance of four gospels of the New Testament
  • Knowing the key events in the life of Christ in an orderly manner (Jn. 20 : 30,31; Lk. 1 : 1-4)



Gospel is derived from the Greek word Evangelion which literally means “good news”.  Evangelion signifies “Goodness brought by angels”.  It, in early days, was written “God Spell” meaning God given message.  Later it is written Gospel; the shortened form for “God Spell”.  Gospel in spiritual sense includes the promise of salvation by believing the life, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ. (1 Cor. 15 : 1-4).  However, Gospel in the New Testament books also designates the recorded narratives of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.


Purpose behind writing Gospel

Beginning from the day of Pentecost, the New Testament Church started growing from Jerusalem to Judea, Samaria and many parts of the world. First, it was certainly impossible for the apostles to go to every nations of the world in order to preach the gospel.  Second,   churches were numerically and geographically growing in many parts of the world.  Third, new people groups of believers and their descendants wanted to know the fullest account of the life of Christ.  Fourth, as years passed, written record of the facts concerning Jesus Christ was necessary in order to protect and preserve the truth from perversion of oral messages.  For these reasons, Gospels-explaining the birth, life, death, resurrection and ascension of Christ-were written by the authors of gospels.

Brief Introduction to Four Gospels

Matthew : Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Matthew a disciple of Jesus Christ (Mt. 9 : 9 ; 10 : 2-4 ; Lk. 5 : 27,28).  He was a tax collector before becoming the disciple.  He quoted many Old Testament scriptures in order to prove that Jesus is the promised Messiah of Jews.  He primarily wrote this gospel to the Jews, and presented Jesus as the King of Jews.


Mark : The name of Mark’s mother was   Mary.  He was a relative to Barnabas (Acts. 12 : 1-18 ; 15 : 36-41 ; Col. 4 : 10).  Mark’s name is not found in the list of disciples, since he was not the direct disciple of Christ.  Neverthless, he was saved through the ministry of apostles and he worked with them.  When he worked with them, he collected necessary information concerning Jesus from the apostles.  Based on information collected from the apostles, he wrote his gospel to the Romans.  Since he wrote it to the Romans, he avoided information concerning the genealogy of Jesus.  He avoided such information because Jewish genealogical history would be hard for the Romans to understand.  Therefore Mark did not write genealogy of Jesus which was written by Matthew in his gospel.  However, Mark began his gospel from the  baptism of Jesus Christ.


Luke :  Luke was not a direct disciple like Mark.  He also collected information from the apostles when he ministered with them.  Later, he arranged those information and wrote his gospel to a Greek officer  Theophilus (1 : 1-4).  Luke was an educated man and Doctor (Act. 16 : 1-17 ; 2 : 1-12 ; 28 : 11-16 ; Col. 4 : 10-14).  He accompanied Paul in his missionary journey.  Since Luke was the educated, he could write the genealogy of Jesus from the line of Adam.


                   The first three gospels are identical in nature; hence these are also called synoptic gospels.


John :  John was the youngest and loving disciple of Jesus.  He probably wrote this gospel at his old age (85-90 AD).  Synoptic gospels dignify the human nature of Jesus whereas gospel of John dignifies the deity of Jesus.  John wrote this gospel with the purpose that the people of the world may believe Jesus and have the eternal life (Jn. 20 : 31).


Language of gospels


                   In the first century (AD), Lingua Franca of Philistine (Present Israel) was Aramaic language.  Hebrew was also spoken in Jerusalem area.  However, the Jews who came from other countries spoke Greek.  Although three languages were in usage, Greek was used to communicate with the people of other parts in the Roman Empire.  Therefore Gospels as well as other New Testament books were written in Koine Greek which was common language of people.


Note :  Although the New Testament was written in Greek, the mother tongue of Jesus was Aramaic.  Mark therefore wrote many Aramaic words that Jesus spoke. (Tali-tha Cumi – 5 : 41 ; Ephpha-tha- 7 : 34 ; Eloi, Eloi, lama Sabach thani – 15 : 34.  These are original Aramaic words).


Necessity of four gospels


                   Every gospel has a speciality in itself and has fullness in its written purpose.  Since each gospel is written with a special purpose, its structure and nature have distinctions.  One should not presume that such distinctions are contradictions.  Moreover, those distinctions clearly distinguish one gospel from the other. (Example) Luke explains Jesus’ genealogy from Adam whereas John mentions that Jesus was even before Adam.  In this manner, Luke and John differs; because Luke specially distinguishes humanity of Jesus whereas John distinguishes divinity of Jesus.  Therefore, these differences are  not contradictions, but special distinctions.  When one studies all these special distinctions of four gospels together, he would clearly understand the fullness of Jesus Christ.


                   In each gospels, Jesus is specially dignified and distinguished as the King in Matthew, Good servant in Mark, the Son of Man in Luke and the Son of God in John.  When these divine titles are put and studied together, it is easily understandable that “Jesus is the Divine Saviour who incarnated in human form” (Jn 20 : 31).  Man is truly saved by trusting Jesus.  Since these four gospels clearly and fully explain the truth of salvation, these four gospels are certainly indispensable.  The early church properly understood the significance of those four true gospels and added them in the New Testament while rejecting pseudonymous gospels.  Therefore, the church does not need more than four gospels given in the New Testament.  In order to explain the necessity of four gospels, it is well stated that “Gospels do not contradict each other but they complement each other”.


Preparations that God did for the birth of Jesus


                   “But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the Law: (Gal. 4 : 4).  As this verse says, it was God’s plan, that to send Jesus Christ into the world at “the fullness of time”.  God did necessary preparation in the world for the birth of Christ when the fullness of time has fully come.  The preparations that God did are classified into two categories.  The first is general preparations and the second is special preparations.


General Preparations:


                   God systematically prepared these preparations for many centuries in the history of the world.


  1. Preparation of Nation : As God promised in Gen. 3 : 15, a particular nation was necessary for the birth of the Saviour of the world (the promised seed of woman) and for His royal ruling. In order to prepare that nation, God called Abraham and promised him a nation (Gen. 12 : 1-3).  The Messiah would be born in the nation which was promised to Abraham in order to rule the promised descendants of Abraham and the world.  God prepared Canaan (present Israel) as a nation for the birth of the Saviour, As Micah’s prophecy fulfilled (Micah 5 : 2), Jesus was born in Bethlehem, a small village in Israel the promised land.


  1. Preparation of Language : Alexander, the Great had established his Grecian empire in three continents; Asia, Europe and Africa.  Greek language spread everywhere in these three continents due to the influence of Grecian empire.  Greek was then Lingua Franca of the world.  The influence of Greek continued during the Roman rule.  Moreover, Greek was popular for its arts, literature and philosophy (From 300 BC to 300 AD).  Since Greek was spoken in three continents, the gospel spread fast when Jesus and his apostles preached the good news.  The New Testament was also written in Greek.  God prepared and used Greek to spread the gospel.


  1. Preparation of Roman Roads : After the Grecian empire, Roman empire became super power.  The Roman lay roads to every nook and corner of their empire in order to send troops fast at the time of necessity.  Moreover, these roads were useful to go easy from one place to another place in the Roman empire.  The Roman empire experienced peace without civil riots and   attacks from 27 BC to 180 AD.  This peaceful period was called “Pox Romana”.  Jesus was born (5-4 BC) and did ministry during this period.  This peaceful situation and the Roman roads helped the gospel to spread fast in the first century AD.


Special Preparations


                   God did some favourable conditions through general preparations for the birth of Christ and for the spread of gospel.  He did some special preparations  as well.


  1. Mary : A human vessel was necessary for God to take Incarnation (Incarnation = God taking birth in human form).  When God incarnates, His incarnation would be through the virgin birth.  This virgin birth was prophesied some seven hundred years ago by Isaiah (7 : 14).  God mentally and physically prepared Mary for the birth of Jesus in order to fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah.


  1. Joseph : Although Jesus was born through Mary, the virgin, a responsible person was necessary in order to sustain and protect Jesus during His childhood.  For this responsibility, God prepared Joseph as a helpmate to Mary (Mt. 1 : 18-22).


  1. John, the Baptist : Jesus lived like an ordinary man in the world from His birth until the beginning of His ministry.  An introduction was necessary, so that people might know Jesus as the Messiah.  Moreover people had to be prepared religiously, psychologically to receive the message of Jesus.  In this manner, to introduce Jesus as the Messiah of the Jews, and to prepare the minds of the people for Jesus’ message, God specially prepared John the Baptist.  He introduced Jesus to the Jews after the baptism of Jesus (Jn. 1 : 29).


Life of Jesus in the gospels


                   All four gospels declare four distinctive characteristics of Jesus.  When these four gospels are systematically arranged, the important events in the life of Christ can be known properly.  By this systematic rearrangement, it is possible to know How Christ was before His birth in the earth, How he lived, How He died and what He did after resurrection.  Hence, this course is prepared to explain the Life of Christ, based on four gospels.



Introduction to the Life of Jesus


                   Luke systematically recorded the life of Christ from the information that he verbally collected from the apostles (Lk. 1 : 1-4).  Based on Luke’s model, four gospels are combined together in this course, to get the entire episodes of  the Life of Jesus (Event / Place / Year / Text).


Life of Jesus Christ


Before Christ’s Incarnation (Jn. 1 : 1-18)


                   “In the beginning was the word”.  John used Old Testament phrase “in the beginning” as it is in Gen. 1 : 1.  The term “beginning” refers to the beginning of creation (Beginning never refers to the beginning of God, since it is impossible to limit God within the span of time).  God is beyond every beginning (Rev. 22 : 13).  Therefore beginning refers to the beginning of creation.


                   LOGOS in Greek is translated as “word” in English.  Greek philosophers belived there is “One Highest Being” who is above all and who created everything.  Since those philosophers did not know the name of that Highest Being, they named the Highest Being “LOGOS”.  Therefore the term LOGOS in Greek represents “God who is above all”.  John uses the same Greek philosophical concept and writes “the word was God”. (1 : 1).  This Logos (God) was made Flesh (1 : 14).  The statement in   Jn. 1 : 14 that the word was made flesh, and dwelt among us full of grace and truth  depicts “whom?”  Its answer is in 1 : 17 as mentioned that “Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ”.  Jesus was made flesh, dwelt among us, full of grace and truth.  Therefore, Jesus is Logos (God) manifested in flesh. 


WORD     =   LOGOS   =   GOD Þ ” was made flesh”   =   Jesus Christ

(Jn. 1 : 1)       (Greek)          (1:1)            (1 : 14)                (1 : 17-18)


                   In this scripture portion (1 : 1-18), John postulates and proves that God who existed before all creations and who created all, revealed Himself in the form of flesh through Jesus Christ.  Therefore, it is true that Jesus Christ is God Himself.




Genealogy of Jesus (Mt. 1 : 1-17 ; Lk. 3 : 23 – 38)


                   Jesus is the name which was given, when God revealed Himself to the world.  When Jesus incarnated, He was born in the tribe of Judah in the lineage of Abraham.  Jacob blessed Judah with blessing of Messiah’s birth (Gen. 49 : 10).  According to that blessing, Jesus was born in the tribe of Judah.  Hence, Matthew begins Jesus’ Genealogy from Abraham.  But Luke draws His genealogy from Adam.  Matthew gives importance to the kingship of Jesus whereas Luke gives importance to the  humanity of Jesus.


                   Moreover, when both genealogies are compared together, there can be seen a remarkable difference in the list of names.  This variation is not a contradiction.  Because Matthew used narrative method in order to summarize the genealogical history.  (Ex.) David was not the direct son of Abraham but he was a descendant of Abraham.  Hence Matthew summarizes and mentions that David, son of Abraham.  This summary method was commonly prevalent among the Jews.  Likewise, both genealogies have two distinctions; that Matthew recorded the lineage of Joseph (Legal father, not real father), whereas Luke recorded the lineage of Mary, the virgin mother of Jesus.


Birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ


  1. Announcement of the birth of John the Baptist

(Angel’s announcement / Jerusalem Temple / 7 BC / Lk. 1 : 5-25)


  1. Announcement of the birth of Jesus to Mary

(Angel Gabriel / Nazareth / 7 or 6 BC / Lk. 1 : 26-38


  1. Elizabeth – Mary meeting

(Song of Elizabeth / Hill country of Judah / 6-5 BC / Lk. 1 : 39-45)

(Praise of Mary / Hill country of Judah / 6-5 BC / Lk. 1 : 46-56)


  1. Birth of John the Baptist / Judah / 5 BC / Lk. 1 : 57-80


  1. Announcement of Jesus’s birth to Joseph

(Angel’s announcement / Nazareth / 5 BC / Mt. 1 : 18-25)


  1. Birth of Jesus / Bethlehem / 5-4 BC / Mt. 1 : 24, 25 ; Lk. 2 : 1-7

Jesus was born after six months of the birth of John the Baptist.  Prophecies concerning the virgin birth of Jesus (Is. 7 : 14) and the place of birth (Micah 5 : 2) fulfilled exactly as they were predicted.  These prophets predicted these events some hundreds years ago, before the actual happening of these historical events.


  1. Proclamation of Angels / Bethlehem / 5-4 BC / Lk. 2 : 8-14


  1. Visit of Shepherds / Bethlehem / 5-4 C / Lk. 2 : 15-20


  1. Jesus’ circumcision / Bethlehem / 5-4 BC / Lk. 2 : 21


          Jews used to name the child at the circumcision on the eight day.  Angels proclaimed that His name would be Jesus, when God incarnates.  This is the human name to the Incarnated one.  Whereas prophet predicted His name as “Emmanuel” (Is. 7 : 14 ; Mt. 1 : 23).  When prophetic name and human name are compared together, His name can be called “Emmanuel Jesus”.  This means “God who is with us saves”.  The prophetical name depicts His Divinity whereas His human name depicts His Humanity.


  1. The presentation of Jesus in the Temple on the day of Purification

(Praises of Simeon and Anna / Jerusalem Temple / 4 BC / Lk. 2 : 22-38)


          Every mother of Jewish male child must offer sacrifice after forty days of purification (Lev. 12).  She must sacrifice either Lamb or young pigeon, if she is very poor.  Mary also offered pigeon.  It shows that Jesus’ family was very poor (Jesus who created the world incarnated in a poor family).


          Simeon prophesied that Jesus gives the light of salvation not only to the Jews but also to the Gentiles (2 : 31, 32).


  1. The visit of wise men / Bethlehem Via Jerusalem / 4 BC / Mt. 2 : 1-12


The wise men were probably the Jewish scholars from the east of Medo – Persia.  It is very difficult to ascertain as to how many of them were.  They presented gold, frankincense and myrrh.  Since they presented three gifts, some assume that there were three wise men.  This assumption might be false probably.  Because in those days, those who travel for distant places would travel in a large group, not as a small group of three persons.  They travel in large group in order to protect themselves from bandits.  In such a group, there were usually forty persons minimum.  Hence, it is right to presume that atleast forty wise men visited Jesus and presented huge quantity of gifts.  Gold presented by them helped to the family of Joseph and Mary to overcome their poverty and to care Jesus.  Moreover, it helped them to buy the necessities when they lived in Egypt for   fear of Herod.


Gold                     –        Divinity of Jesus

Frankincense         –        Humanity of Jesus

Myrrh                             –        Suffering and Death of Jesus


          Three gifts depicts Jesus’ characteristics mentioned above.


Jesus is the King of Jews.  Since He is the king, the wise men first went to the palace of Herod, expecting Jesus in palace.  God again guided them by the guiding star to the house where Jesus was.


Note : It is not necessary to explain scientifically concerning this star here.  Since God is wise above all scientists, He could have used that star, a natural means, in order to achieve His purpose.


  1. Herod’s attempt to kill Jesus / Bethlehem / 4 BC / Mt. 2 : 13-18


Since angel’s warned, the wise men went to their country through a different way.  Being a power-monger, Herod thought that he could not be the king when Jesus become the King of Jews.  Hence, he attempted to kill Jesus.  Since he could not identify Jesus, he massacred infants below two years according to the approximate date given by the wise men.  However, Joseph and Mary had already escaped to Egypt by the warning of  angels.


  1. Jesus’ returning from Egypt to Nazareth / 4-1 BC / Mt. 2 : 19-23 ; 2 : 39


           Herod  the Great who attempted to kill Jesus died in 4 BC.  Hence, Jesus’ birth was prior to Herod’s death.  On account of this, it is right to assume that Jesus’ birth would have been between 5-4 BC.  After Herod’s death, Jesus’ parents returned from Egypt to Nazareth, which was native place to them.  Nazareth was despised village situated in Galilean area (Jn. 1 : 46).


  1. Childhood of Jesus / Nazareth / 4 BC – 7 AD / Lk. 2 : 40-51


According to the Jewish customs, Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of the Passover (41).  Jesus was then twelve years old.  Every Jewish male used to become the member of synagogue at the age of twelve.  Thus, Jesus also became the member of synagogue.  Being the member, Jesus could make contact with the elders and He could discuss with them as well (46, 47).


          Jesus’ words of His childhood are first recorded here “How is it that you sought me?  Were you not that I must be about my Father’s business” (49).  Jesus really referred to Heavenly Father by saying “My Father”.  Through this statement Jesus indirectly claimed that He is the Son of God.  His parents could not understand it (50).


  1. Youthhood of Jesus / Nazareth / 8 AD – 27 AD/ Lk. 2 : 51,52


        Jesus, after observed the feast of Passover at the age of twelve, went to Nazareth and lived there upto the age of thirty (3 : 23).  During this period, He learned carpentry from Joseph (Mt. 13 : 55).  According to the Jewish customs, carpenter’s son used to do carpentry (Mk. 6 : 3).  Along with carpentry, Jesus could have done cultivation, with His villagers, because Nazareth had many cultivations like vineyard and grain fields.  Hence, Jesus said many parables from His experience in cultivation.  (Ex.) Parble of sower (Mt. 13 : 3 -32) ; True vine (Jn. 15).


          “Jesus increased in wisdom and stature” (52a).  Jesus, growing in wisdom, could learn His mother tongue Aramaic, so also Hebrew and Greek.  He discussed in Hebrew with the elders of Temple (Lk. 2 : 46,47), because Jewish scribes used Hebrew in the Temple (Lk. 4 : 16-21).  He used Aramaic to speak with the public.  When Pilate interrogated, Jesus replied him in Greek or Latin (Lk. 23 : 1-3).  Therefore, it is right to say that Jesus is the Polyglot, having ability to speak in many languages.


          Jewish parents used to teach  the  scripture to their children (Deut. 6 : 1 -3, 7-9, 20-25).  Jesus also learned from His parents.  He did not learn regular Religious Education from the Jewish scribes, since His family could not afford for such scribes.


Note :  Some assume that Jesus came to India before starting His ministry at the age of thirty.  This assumption is utterly false and unprovable, because Jesus, after conversing with the Jewish scholars in the Temple of Jerusalem, “went down with them (parents) and came to Nazareth and was subject unto them” (Lk. 2 : 51).  This verse clearly shows that Jesus, from twelve years till baptism at the age of thirty, lived in His house at Nazareth.  He never came to India.  There was no reason or necessity for Him to visit India.  He started His ministry with Baptism.


Ministry of Jesus, starting from 27 AD.


  1. Jesus’ Baptism / River Jordan / Mt. 3 : 1-17 ; Mk. 1 : 1-13 ; Lk. 3 : 1-23 ; Jn. 1 : 19-34


          John, the Baptist was sent by God in order to introduce the Messiah to the Jews.  The Jewish leaders were unable to know who John the Baptist was (Jn. 1 : 19-25).  Hence, John the Baptist replied them that he was not the Messiah but came to introduce the Messiah to Israel (31).  John’s threefold proclamation concerning Christ refers as following.


  • He is preferred before me (27) = Divinity of Jesus
  • The Son of God (34) = Incarnation of God
  • The Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world (29) =

Purpose of Incarnation


Those who repented at John’s preaching received baptism from John the Baptist (Lk. 3 : 6-18).  Although Jesus did not commit any sin, He received baptism from John.


Possible Reasons for Jesus’ Baptism


  1. i) Jesus is the King of Jews (Mt. 2 : 2). It was mandatory for the citizens of Jesus’ Kingdom to be baptized.  So the Jews were baptized.  Jesus, being the King, also voluntarily took baptism in order to identify Himself with His subjects.


  1. ii) Jesus is the heavenly High Priest (Heb. 8 : 3 ; 10 : 21). Every high priest must be washed with water (Lev. 8 : 6).  Although Jesus was completely free from any moral degradation, He did receive baptism in order to prepare and declare Himself for the work of High Priest.


iii)     Jesus lived under the dispensation of Law (Gal. 4 : 4,5 ; Rom. 15 : 8, Mt. 3 : 15).  The Jews believed that they fulfilled a requirement of law by receiving baptism of John.  One who did not receive the baptism of John was considered and accused as disobedient to law.  Jesus probably took baptism in order to avoid such a false accusation. 


  1. iv) Jesus received baptism that God might show a sign to John, the Baptist who did not know the real Messiah (Jn. 1 : 33).


  1. v) Jesus probably took baptism to give a model to church which He wished and promised to build (Mt. 16 : 18).


Would Jesus be the King without baptism?


                   Yes.  He would be the king, because He was born to be so (Mt. 2 : 2), and to be the saviour (1 : 21).  By baptism, He neither added to His being nor deducted anything from His being.  Jesus was divine Being before His baptism.  He is so even after that.  There was no change in His Being due to baptism for He is unchangeable (Heb. 13 : 8).


                   If there was no change in Jesus, what was the benefit by baptism?  There was no personal benefit to Jesus but  John, the Baptist received benefit of Jesus’  baptism. The benefit that John received was that he could perfectly know Jesus during baptism.  John was unable to know Jesus as the Messiah.  He sometimes said Jesus was Messiah (Mt. 3 : 11-15 ; Mk. 1 : 7,8 ; Jn. 1 : 26-30).  Othertimes he questioned Jesus “are you the Messiah? (Lk. 7 : 18-24).  Thus John, the Baptist was confused about Jesus.  Hence, God identified Jesus to John at baptism by descending of the Holy Spirit like dove (Jn. 1 : 30-34).  This incident at baptism helped John the Baptist to know that Jesus was really the Messiah.  After the baptism, John, the Baptist was free from such confusion.  Therefore he could perfectly identify and witness that Jesus is the Messiah.  Thus, Jesus’ baptism was really a benefit to John, the Baptist.


  1. Satan tempted / Wilderness / Mt. 4 : 1-11 ; Mk. 1 : 12, 13 ; Lk. 4 : 1-13


              Jesus fasted forty days after baptism.  Satan tempted Him after those days.  Satan knew that Jesus is the Son of God.  He thought that Jesus’ power and divinity would have diminished due to His incarnation.  Hence he cunningly decided to tempt Jesus.


  1. i) Asking to turn stones into bread : Jesus was hungry due to fasting.  He needed food.  Based on this need, Satan tempted Him.  Satan uses men’s physical necessities to tempt men.  He used the same method when he tempted Eve.  (Gen. 3 : 6).  He acted as if he were so concerned for Jesus.  If one attempted to meet his physical need based on Satan’s advice, that one would fail as Eve failed.


Jesus did not yield to Satan’s command, although He was very  hungry.  But He rightly replied to Satan by quoting appropriate scripture (Lk. 4 : 4 ; Deut. 8 : 3).  Yes!  One must use scripture only to overcome Satan’s temptation (Eph. 6 : 17).


  1. Suggestion of dominion over the world : By showing all kingdoms of the world, Satan hinted that he would give the dominion over them to Jesus.  He tempted Jesus by showing worldly dominion, which is lustful for human eyes.  He tempted Eve as well (Gen. 3 : 6- lust of the eye).  Satan presumes as if he were the sole ruler of the world (Rev. 13 : 7 ; Jn. 14 : 30).  Jesus, to overcome Satan, again replied from the scripture by quoting appropriate verse (Lk. 4 : 8 ; Deut. 6 : 13)


  • Telling to jump from a pinnacle of the Temple : Jesus replied from the scripture for the first two temptations. Hence Satan used and quoted the scripture in this third temptation (Ps. 91 : 11,12).  He also perverted the basic meaning of scripture by interpreting it falsely.  He tempted Eve as well (Gen. 3 : 1-6).  God said that Adam and Eve would die on the day that they eat the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.  But  Satan perverted the meaning of God’s word and said to Eve “you shall not surely die . . .  and you shall be as gods knowing good and evil”.  Since Adam and Eve believed Satan’s false interpretation, they fell in sin.


As Satan tempted them, he tempted Jesus by quoting Scripture and by perverting its meaning.  Satan quoted the Scripture out of context.  Jesus rightly quoted another scripture from God’s word (Lk. 4 : 12 ; Deut 6 : 16).  He overcame temptation and defeated Satan by quoting appropriate verse from the Bible (Lk. 4 : 13).  Jesus proved Himself that He is the Son of God by overcoming Satan’s temptation.  One can overcome Satan today, by using the scripture properly.


Early Ministries of Jesus – 27 AD


As Old Testament priests began their ministry, Jesus began His ministry at the age of thirty to be the eternal High Priest (Heb. 3 : 1)


  1. Calling of the first Disciples / Near Jordan / Jn. 1 : 35-51


          Two disciples of John, the Baptist became the first disciples of Jesus.  One is Andrew and the other is probably John, author of the gospel of John, although his name is not explicitly mentioned.  Andrew brought his brother Simon (Cephas) to Jesus (41, 42).  Jesus called Philip in the next day.  Philip invited Nathanael to Jesus.


          Nathanael doubted when Philip told him that Jesus of Nazareth is the one whom Moses predicted (Deut. 18 : 15).  Because Nazareth was a despised village (46).  Hence Nathanael asked “Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?”  When Nathanael saw Jesus, he confessed in astonishment  “Rabbi, You are the son of God and you are the king of Israel”.  (49).  In this manner, Andrew, John, Simon Peter, Philip and Nathanael first became the disciples of Jesus.


  1. First miracle / Cana of Galilee / Jn. 2 : 1-12


This is the very first miracle that Jesus ever did.  He did not perform any miracle during His childhood as some claim.  He performed miracles only after He began His ministry.  After this miracle, He stayed in Capernaum along with His mother, brothers and disciples.  Since Joseph (Earthly father) is not mentioned, it is supposed that he was probably dead before Jesus began His ministry.


  1. First cleansing of Temple / Jerusalem / Jn. 2 : 13 – 22


          Money changers were there to change coins that were valid in the Temple.  Because the coins of other nations were invalid in Jerusalem.  Merchants were there to sell the animals for sacrifice.


          The Jews would not believe any one  or  any thing without seeing a sign (1 Cor. 1 : 22).  Hence, they asked Jesus to show a sign in order to believe Him as the Messiah.  Jesus replied them “Destroy this  temple, and in three days I will raise it up” (19).  “This temple”  here refers to Jesus’ body.  But the Jews   misunderstood Jesus’ word and thought that temple refers to the  temple which was at Jerusalem.


  1. Village ministries / Judean localities / Jn. 2 : 23-25


          Many villagers, who saw miracles of Jesus   in Jerusalem during Passover, believed and accepted Jesus.  Jesus knew what was in man (in heart), because Jesus is God.


  1. Nicodemus visiting / Judea / Jn. 3 : 1-21


          Nocodemus was a Jewish scholar.  Neverthless, he was unable to grasp as to what Jesus said about “Born again”.  “Born again” experience comes by faith in Christ (Jn. 1 : 12) and through renewing of the Holy Spirit (Tit. 3 : 5).  Becoming a child of God is as good as being born in the spirit as New man   (2 Cor. 5 : 17 ; Eph. 2 : 15).  This simple truth seemed hard to Nicodemus to understand.  Hence, Jesus explained him this truth by comparing earthly things with heavenly things.  This comparison is given in the following chart.



Earthly comparison

Heavenly/Spiritual comparison



Human birth

Born again

Verse 3


Born of water

Born of the Spirit

Verse 5


Born of the flesh

Born of the Spirit

Verse 6



Born of the Spirit

Verse 8


Earthly things

Heavenly things

Verse 12


 Note :  There is a huge difference between Born again teaching of Jesus and Re-birth philosophy of Pythagoras (Greek Philosopher).  Born again experience happens to a man when he   believes that Jesus is the Saviour (Jn. 1 : 12).  On the contrary, rebirth, is a next birth that a man would be born as an animal after his death.  Thus, Born again is the spiritual birth during one’s life time but rebirth occurs after death.  Hence, Born-again teaching is biblical whereas rebirth is unbiblical.  Born again believers will be like angels after death (Jn. 1 : 12 ; Mat. 22 : 30).


  1. Jesus’ ministry with John, the Baptist / Judea / Jn. 3 : 22-36

Both baptized near Salim where was much water (23).  John compared Jesus to the bridegroom and himself to the friend of bridegroom (29).  Jesus’ bride is the New Testament Church (Rev. 19 :  7-9).  Bridegoom – Bride teaching refers to the spiritual fellowship between Christ and Church.


  1. Going to Galilee / Judea to Galilee / Mt. 4 : 12 ; Mk. 1 : 14 ; Lk. 4 : 14 ; Jn. 4 : 1-4


          Pharisees knew that many received baptism from Jesus than from John, the Baptist.  Hence, Jesus moved from Judea to Galilea in order to avoid opposition growing.  He passed through Samaria which was despised by the Jews.


  1. Salvation of Samaritan woman / Samaria / Jn. 4 : 5-42


          Samaritans were disparaged by the Jews.  They belonged to the ten tribes which got separation from Judah after the period of Solomon.  They intermarried with the Assyrians after Assyrian invasion in 722 BC.  Due to this intermarriage, the Jews would not allow the Samaritans into the temple of Jerusalem.  Hence the Samaritans worshiped in Gerizim (4 : 20).  However, they also expected the Messiah.  “Taheb” was the term used by the Samaritans instead of Messiah.  Taheb means “Renovator”.  When the Samaritan woman mentioned the Messiah (Taheb), Jesus replied her “I am He”. (26).  Hence Jesus is the Messiah of Jews and the Taheb of Samaritans.  As the king and Renovator, He renewed the life of Samaritan woman.  He now renews sinners who trust Him.  He will renew the whole universe at His Second coming as well.


  1. Arrival in Galilee / Mk. 1 : 16 ; Lk. 4 : 14 ; Jn. 4 : 43-45


Galilean Ministries of Jesus : 27-29 AD.


1) Healing the son of noble man / Cana / Jn. 4 : 46-54


   This was the second miracle that Jesus did in Cana.


2) Own village people opposing Jesus / Nazareth / Lk. 4 : 16-30


     Jesus read Isaiah 61 : 1,2 in the synagogue in order to reveal the purpose of His first advent and of His incarnation.  However, His villagers did not accept Him as the Son of God but as a son of Joseph.  He was rejected by His own people as Elijah and Elisa were (25 -27).


3) Nazareth to Capernaum / Mt. 4 : 13-17


    The key aspect of the message of Jesus and of John, the Baptist was Repentance.


4) Gathering of disciples / Sea of Galilee / Mt. 4 : 18-22 Mk. 1 : 16-20

    Lk. 5 : 1-11


    Andrew and Peter did not go to Nazareth.  Hence, Jesus again called them  as soon as He returned from Nazareth.  This time, Jesus revealed the purpose of their calling (Mt. 4 : 19).  James, the brother of John also became disciple of Jesus.


5) Casting out unclean spirit / Capernaum / Mk. 1 : 21-28, Lk.4 : 31-37


    Even this unclean spirit could identify Jesus as the second person of Trinity (Mk. 1 : 24).  Hence it said “the Holy one of God”.


6) Peter’s mother-in-law healed / Capernaum / Mt. 8 : 14-17; Mk. 1:29-34

    Lk. 4 : 38-41


Here, He did not allow devils to speak, for they knew Him God.(Mk.      1 : 34)


7) First preaching tour / Galilee / Mt. 4 : 23-25 ; Mk. 1 : 35-39 ; Lk. 4 :   42-44


He daily began His ministry with prayer.  He visited every synagogue and preached on “Kingdom of God”.  Kingdom of God is also mentioned in Gospels as “Kingdom of Heaven”.


8) Healing of leper / Galilee / Mt. 8 : 1-4 ; Mk. 1 : 40-45 ; Lk. 5 : 12-16


The Jews would not touch lepers.  Neverthless, Jesus touched and healed them. The healed lepers must be pronounced by the priests as healed (Lev. 13-14).  Hence Jesus sent them to the priest.  This shows that Jesus did not violate any command of law.


9) The palsied healed / Capernaum / Mt. 9 : 1-8 ; Mk. 2 : 1-12 ;           Lk.5 : 17-26


      Jesus healed this man and forgave his sins.  The scribes thought “How can a man forgive?”  Knowing their thoughts, Jesus said to them “the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”.  In this incident, healing of palsy is a proof of forgiveness of sin.


  • Call of Matthew / Capernaum / Mt. 9 : 9-13 ; Mk. 2 : 13-17 ; Lk. 5 : 27-32


                Matthew is also called Levi. He collected tax as a tax collector.


  • Protecting His disciples / Mt. 9 : 14-17 ; Mk. 2 : 18-22 ; Lk. 5 : 33-39


When Pharisees accused disciples concerning fasting, Jesus replied them about a parable of marriage function.  He asked “Who will fast when bridegroom is with them”.  Jesus compared Himself to bridegroom and the disciples to His friends at marriage.     Who will fast in marriage house?  None will fast in a marriage party.


                Jesus’ Ministry in 28 AD


  • Visiting Jerusalem / Jerusalem / Jn. 5 : 1-47


   Jesus removed the merchants from Jerusalem temple at His first visit.  Jesus visited Jerusalem the second time probably during a Passover.  Hence, He had perhaps done ministry for two years.  Moreover, He healed the impotent man who had infirmity for thirty eight years, in His second visit to Jerusalem.  He did this miracle near Bethesda.  Bethesda means “House of Grace”.  Bethesda is in Jerusalem.  However, miracles are not happening in Bethesda in these days.


Note :  When Jesus said “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work”, the Jews understood that Jesus “making Himself equal with God” (v:18).  This text is a clear proof that Jesus is God.  However, the Jews did not accept Jesus as God.  Since the Jews did not believe Jesus presented five more additional proofs concerning His Messiahship and Divinity.


  • Testimony of John, the Baptist (5:33 ; 1 : 29,34)
  • Jesus’ miracles (5 : 36)
  • Testimony of the Father (5:37 ; 1 : 32-33 ; Mt. 3 : 17)
  • Testimony of the Scripture (5 : 39 ; Deut. 18 : 15 : Lk. 24 : 27)
  • Testimony of Moses (5 : 45, 46 ; Deut. 18 : 15, 18)


However, the Jews rejected all  these testimonies.


  • False accusation concerning Sabbath / Way to Galilee / Mt. 12 : 1-8 ; Mk. 2 : 23-28 ; Lk. 6 : 1-5


  • The withered hand healed / Galilee / Mt. 12 : 9-14 ; Mk. 3 : 1-6, Lk. 6 : 6-11


    Sabbath is important for the Jews.  They should worship God in Synagogue without doing any work on Sabbath.  Jesus perfectly practiced Sabbath day (Lk. 6 : 6).  Neverthless, they falsely accused Jesus concerning Sabbath.  Jesus appropriately replied them.  He showed an example from the life of David who ate the shewbread of Priests (1 Sam. 21 : 6, Lk. 6 : 4).  Hence, He said to them “It is lawful to do good on Sabbath”.  Moreover, Jesus is the Lord over Sabbath.


  • Many more miracles / Seashore of Galilee/ Mt.12 : 15-21, Mk. 3 : 7-12 ; Lk. 6 : 17-19


    During this period, Jesus travelled to Jerusalem, Judea, Tyre, Sidon and Galilee and healed many people.  He healed all who came to Him.


  • Selection of Apostles / Capernaum / Mt. 10 : 2-4 ; Mk. 3 : 13-19 ; Lk. 6 : 12-16


   Jesus called a few disciples willingly, but many followed Him voluntarily.  Hence He selected the twelve to be His apostles.  Their name list is given below:



Mt. 10 : 2-4

Mk. 3 : 16-19

Lk. 6 : 13-16

Acts. 1 : 13


Simon Peter

Simon Peter

Simon Peter

Simon Peter





































James, Son of


James, Son of


James, Son of


James, Son of





Simon the


Simon the Zealot


Simon, the


Simon, the


Judas, brother

of James

Judas, brother of



Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot



          The First four disciples were very close to Jesus. They were called Inner circle of Jesus.  “Nathanael’s” name is mentioned by his other name “Bartholomew”.  Taddaeus was Judas, brother of James whose father was Alphaeus.  Simon, the Zealot was also called Simon, the Cananaean in Aramaic language.  The Zealots were very strong fundamentals concerning their religion, Judaism.  He selected the twelve after a long night prayer (Lk. 6 : 12,13).


  • The Beatitudes / Capernaum / Mt. 5 : 1-7, 29 ; Lk. 6 : 20-49


    “The Beatitudes” refers to the teaching that He did near the foot hill of Capernaum.  Jesus compares him who does according to His word  to the one who builds his house on the rock (Mt. 7 : 24,25)


  • Healing centurion’s servant / Capernaum / Mt. 8 : 5-13 ; Lk. 7 : 1-10


              This centurion was an officer in the Roman Army.  He loved his servants.  Although he was a gentile, he loved the Jews and built a synogogue for them.  Jesus appreciated his faith.


  • Raising of widow’s son / Nain / Lk. 7 : 11-17


  • Confession of John, the Baptist / Galilee / Mt. 11 : 2-30 ; Lk. 7 : 18-35


    Although John saw the Holy Spirit descending down like a dove on Jesus, he sometimes got confusion about the Messiahship of Jesus.  Hence he sent his disciples to enquire Jesus concerning His Messiahship.  In order to remove their doubts, Jesus performed many miracles before their eyes.  He, Himself proved His Messiahship through these miracles.


Note : John, the Baptist was filled with the Holy Spirit, when he was in his mother’s womb (Lk. 1 : 15).  Though he was so filled with the Holy Spirit, he did not do any miracles.  Jesus performed miracles, since He is God.


  • Anointing of Jesus’ feet / Capernaum / Lk. 7 : 36-50


  • Second preaching tour of Jesus / Galilean Area / Lk. 8 : 1-3


    During His tour, the twelve were with Jesus.  Many rich ladies financially helped them for their ministries.


  • Blasphemy against Jesus / Capernaum / Mt. 12 : 22-45 ; Mk. 3 : 20-30 ; Lk. 11 : 14-36


    The prophets of Old Testament did many miracles, and raised a few from death (2 King. 4 : 32-37).  But they never cast out demons as Jesus did.  Hence, when Pharisees, seeing Jesus casting out demons, thought   Jesus cast out demons with the power of Beelzebub, who was considered as the prince of the devils.  They could not realize that Jesus cast out demons with the power of the Holy Spirit.  Therefore, they blasphemed against the Holy Spirit by attributing the works of God’s spirit to devil’s spirit.  They also blasphemed against Jesus Christ by saying Him as the Prince of the devils.  Jesus warned them for their indiscriminate remarks (Mt. 12 : 32).  Comparing Jesus with Beelzebub and rejecting Jesus are equal to speaking against the Holy Spirit.  Hence, rejecting Jesus is equal to blaspheming against the Holy Spirit.  Thus, one who rejects Jesus indeed blasphemes against the Holy Spirit. Such person will not be forgiven of his sins.  Those who reject Jesus by their unbelief will never be forgiven and they  will be punished in eternal hell. (Mk. 3 : 29).


Note : Jesus is better and greater than any other, especially Solomon and Jonah (Mt. 12 : 41, 42).  This is also a proof for His divinity.


  • Confusion of Jesus’ relatives / Capernaum / Mt. 12 : 46-50 ; Mk. 3 : 31-35 ; Lk. 8 : 19-21


Jesus’ relatives including Mary (Mother) were confused and worried when they heared Pharisees’ accusation on Jesus.  They therefore came to catch Jesus for they did not believe Jesus as the Messiah (Jn. 7 : 3-5).  In order to correct their false idea, Jesus said “Whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother and my sister, and mother”.


  • Parables of Jesus / Seashore of Galilee / Mt. 13 : 1-52, Mk. 4 : 1-34 ; Lk. 8 : 4-18


    Parables of Jesus are treasures that explain the Kingdom of God.  They explain the nature of His kingdom as well.


  • Calming the Sea / Sea of Galilee / Mt. 8 : 23-27 ; Mk. 4 : 35-41 ; Lk. 8 : 22-25


    Jesus has control over nature because He is God.


  • Casting out demons / Seashore of Galilee / Mt. 8 : 28-34 ; Mk. 5 : 1-20 ; Lk. 8 : 26-39

    Legion is equal to 6000 soldiers in the Roman regiment.  Hence, it is supposed that this man was possessed by many demons, which systematically work like an army.


  • Many more miracles / Galilee / Mt. 9 : 18-34, Mk. 5 : 21-43; Lk. 8 : 40-56


  • Second rejection in Nazareth / Nazareth / Mt. 13 : 53-58 ; Mk. 6 : 1-6


  • Sending of the twelve / Galilee / Mt. 9 : 35-11: 1 ; Mk. 6 : 7 – 13 ; Lk. 9 : 1-6


    The disciples preached the message of repentance as Jesus and John, the Baptist preached.  They did miracles as well.  This was a “Practical Ministry” that Jesus had given them.


  • Death of John the Baptist / Galilee / Mt. 14 : 1-12 ; Mk. 6 : 14-29 ; Lk. 9 : 7-16


    This Herod was Herod Antipas, the son of Herod, the Great.  Herod Antipas killed John, the Baptist.


  • Series of miracles / Galilee / Mt. 14 : 13-36 ; Mk. 6 : 30-56 ; Lk. 9 : 10-17 ; Jn. 6 : 1-21


  • Many disciples Backsliden / Capernaum / Jn. 6 : 22-71


    A great multitude followed Jesus (6 : 2) to become His disciples.  That multitude did follow Him no longer, when he said ” I am that bread of life” (48) and “whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood hath eternal life: (54).  This teaching of Jesus seemed hard to people  to accept, because Jesus said to them “eat my flesh”.  The Jews were forbidden to eat meat of some animals and birds (Lev. 11).  Moreover, the Jews should never drink blood (Lev. 17 : 11,12).  Hence they were offended when Jesus said “eat my flesh”.  The Jews did not understand the real meaning of Jesus’ teaching.  Since they thought it was a hard teaching, they no longer followed  Jesus.  However the twelve followed and ministered Him.  One among them too was wicked.


  • Jesus challenging Jewish traditions / Galilee / Mt. 15 : 1-20 ; Mk. 7 : 1-23


“The tradition of the elders” refers to Mishnah that are the explanations given by the elders to the law of Moses.  The Jews believed Mishnah is as good as the law of Moses, although Mishnah has some misinterprettion of the scripture.  Some explanations of Mishnah are totally against the law.  Hence Jesus opposed and challenged such misinterpretations of the law.  (Ex) “Honour thy father and thy mother” (Ex. 20 : 12 ; 21 : 17) is the fifth one in “Ten commandments”.  Its plain meaning is that Children must respect their parents.  But the elders explained the opposite to this scripture, saying that “it is Corban, that is to say a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free”.  The elders said “if one pays to the temple a gift (Corban), he needs not to take care his parents”.  This explanation is completely opposed to the word of God.  Jesus pointed out this false explanation of the elders and told them that “you, the Pharisees disobey the scripture”.  Hence, He strongly said “Pharisees are hypocrites”.


  • Healing the daughter of Syrophenician woman / Tyre – Sidon / Mt. 15 : 21-28 ; Mk. 7 : 24-30


    “Dog” is not “a disparaged remark” against the woman in this verse, although it unfortunately seems so.  It really refers to a loving treatment given to a “pet animal”.  One must  first care his own children in spite of his love for a pet animal.  Jesus proved her faith to the disciples by telling the example of a pet dog and He showed His love for gentile people through the example of “pet dog”.


  • Next series of miracles / Decapolis / Mt. 15 : 29-39 ; Mk. 7 : 31-8:9


  • Accused by the Pharisees / Magdala / Mt. 16 : 1-4 ; Mk. 8 : 10-13


  • Peter’s confession / Caesarea Philippi / Mt. 16 : 5-28 ; Mk. 8 : 14-9:1 ; Lk. 9 : 18-27


  • Transfiguration / Transfiguration Mount / Mt. 17 : 1-21 ; Mk. 9 : 2-29 ; Lk. 9 : 28-42


  • Prediction of His resurrection / Galilee / Mt. 17 : 22,23 ; Mk. 9 : 30-32 ; Lk. 9 : 43-45


  • Tax Paying / Capernaum / Mt. 17 : 24-27


    The Jews used to collect “Temple Tax” every year for the maintenance of the temple (Ex. 30 : 13-15).  Jesus paid this tax from the coin which was taken from the fish.


  • Teaching of values / Capernaum / Mt. 18 : 1-35 ; Mk. 9 : 33-50 ; Lk. 9 : 46-62


    Jesus taught “Humility, Patience, Faithfulness, Forgiveness etc. ” Especially forgiveness is the best of all.  These teaching ever become the  guiding values for all.  If the world follow these values of Jesus’ teaching, there is no place for Terrorism and violence in the world.


  • Criticised by His own brothers / Galilee / Jn 7 : 2-9


  • Rejected in Samaria / Way to Jerusalem / Mt. 19 : 1, Lk. 9 : 51-56, Jn.7 : 10


  • Importance of Discipleship / Way to Jerusalem / Mt. 8 : 18-22, Lk. 9 : 57-62


Jesus’ Ministry in Judea and Perea – 29 AD


 Jesus ministered in Galilee during the first part of His ministry approximately two years.  Later part (One and half years),  He ministered in Perean and Judean areas.


  1. Feast of Tabernacles / Jerusalem / Jn. 7 : 2, 10-52


This feast was observed by the Jews in order to commemorate wilderness life and to thank God who led their forefathers in wilderness during their journey from Egypt to Canaan.  At this feast, the Jews lived in temporary shelters made of palm and other tree branches.  They celebrated this feast between the last weeks of September and the first week of October.


  1. Forgiveness to Adulteress / Jerusalem / Jn. 8 : 1-11


All her accusers left as soon as Jesus permitted them by saying “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first”.  Because every one is sinner (Rom. 3 : 23).  It is unknown what Jesus wrote on the ground.  Perhaps, Jesus wrote the scripture of the law, which deals with adultery (Lev. 20 : 10 ; Deut. 22 : 23,24).


  1. Jesus, the light of the World / Jerusalem / Jn. 8 : 12-20


  1. Proclaiming His Deity / Temple of Jerusalem / Jn. 8 : 21-59


Jesus presented some valuable proofs to substantiate His Deity.  In verse 24, Jesus says “I am He”.  He refers to “God”.  Hence, Jesus really says “I am He (God)”.  As well, He told them another historical proof, by saying “verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am” (58).  Before the birth of Jesus, Abraham lived approximately two thousand years ago.  This statement of Jesus reveals that Jesus is eternal One, existing before Abraham.  But the Jews rejected these proofs of His Deity and tried to kill Jesus.


  1. The bornblind healed / Jerusalem / Jn. 9 : 1-41


  1. The Good shepherd / Jerusalem / Jn. 10 : 1-21


  1. Ministry of the seventy disciples / Judea / Lk. 10 : 1-24


Apart from the twelve, Jesus had another seventy disciples from the general mass.  Jesus sent them two by two to the places that He had planned to visit.


  1. The Good Samaritan Parable / Judea / Lk. 10 : 25-37


  1. Martha’s hospitality / Bethany / Lk. 10 : 38-42


  1. Importance of Prayer / Judea / Lk. 11 : 1-13


  1. Jesus rebuked the Jewish leaders / Judea / Lk. 11 : 37-54


  1. More Teachings / Judea / Lk. 12 : 1-59


Jesus taught about Hypocrisy, Love of money, anxiety.  If one follows these principles, he will be free from mental tension and he will live peacefully.


  1. Importance of Repentance / Judea / Lk. 13 : 1-5


  1. Parable of fig tree / Judea / Lk. 13 : 6-9


  1. Woman having a spirit of infirmity healed / Judea / Lk. 13 : 10-17


  1. Teaching through parables / Perea / Lk. 13 : 18-21


  1. Feast of the dedication / Jerusalem / Jn. 10:22-42


Antiochus Epiphanes, (176-163 BC), a Grecian ruler defiled the Temple of Jerusalem by offering a sacrifice of unclean animal.   Maccabeans again took control of the temple and sanctified and dedicated it in 165 BC.  In order to commemorate this dedication, the Jews celebrated the feast of the dedication.  This festival is also known as Hanukkah.


  1. The teaching of Narrow gate / Perea / Lk. 13 : 22-35


“This narrow gate”  symbolically means that Salvation is only in Jesus Christ (Act. 4 : 12).  Some good Pharisees reported Jesus about Herod’s attempts to kill Him.  Neverthless, Jesus was not afraid.


  1. Hospitality in Pharisee’s house / Perea / Lk. 14 : 1-24


  1. Teaching of discipleship / Perea / Lk. 14 : 25-35


  1. Many Parable teachings / Perea / Lk. 15, 16


The Silver coin (15 : 8-10) was not a coin used for commercial purpose.  But it was  a special   coin, presented by husband to his wife at marriage.  Wife used to keep that coin over her dress or in a chain around her  neck.  Every Jewish married woman would keep it for her life, because it was a symbol of her love and loyalty towards her husband.  Failing to keep that coin was considered that she was disloyal to husband and to their marriage relationship.  Keeping that coin safe is very much important to a married woman in order to show her loyalty to her husband.  Hence, this woman carefully sought the coin that was lost.  She rejoiced when she found it, because she could prove her loyalty to her husband.


  1. Teaching concerning the duty of servant / Perea / Lk. 17 : 1-10


  1. Raising of Lazarus / Bethany / Jn. 11 : 1-54


                    After raising of Lazarus, the Jewish leaders vehemently attempted to kill Jesus; because Lazarus was the living witness to the deity of Jesus (12 : 10,11).


Jesus’ Ministry in 30 AD


  1. Final Journey to Jerusalem / Via Galilee, Samaria, Peria / Lk.17 : 11


  1. Healing ten lepers / a village / Lk. 17 : 12-19


  1. Teaching of Kingdom / Way to Jerusalem / Lk. 17 : 20-37


  1. Parables of Prayer / Way to Jerusalem / Lk. 18 : 1-14


  1. Explanation of divorce / way to Jerusalem / Mt. 19 : 1-12, Mk.10:1-12


                   God dislike divorce (Mk. 10 : 6-9).  However, He permitted it due to the hardness of human heart (5).  Divorce is only permissible in the law for adultery (Deut. 24 : 1, Mt. 19 : 9).


  1. Blessing the children / Perea / Mt. 19 : 13-15, Mk. 10 : 13-15, Lk.18:15-17


  1. Rich Young ruler / Perea / Mt. 19 : 16-30 ; Mk. 10 : 17-31 ; Lk. 18 : 18-30


                   All who believe Jesus Christ will be saved.  Jesus can save both the rich as well as the poor.  During the life time of Jesus too, many rich were saved by trusting Jesus (Ex.) Zacchaeus – Lk. 19 : 1-10.


  1. Parable of the labourers in the vineyard / Perea / Mt. 20 : 1-16


                   The Jewish time is used in this parable.  The first hour of the Jewish time is our 6.00 A.M.; the third hour is our 9.00 A.M. The Jewish eleventh hour is 4 P.M. of ours.


  1. Prediction of His death and Resurrection / near Jordan / Mt. 20 : 17-19 ; Mk. 10 : 32-34, Lk. 18 : 31-34


  1. Desire sons of Zebedee / way to Jerusalem / Mt. 10 : 20-28, Mk. 10 : 35-45


                   The sons of Zebedee were John and James.  They desired to sit at His both side of Jesus.  But they did not know God’s plan. (Mk. 10 : 38).  God’s plan probably refers here to Jesus’ crucifixion in which two thieves were crucified at His sides.


  1. Bartimaus healed / Jericho / Mk. 10 : 46-52, Lk. 18 : 35-43


  1. Salvation of Zacchaeus / Jericho / Lk. 19 : 1-10


                   Although Zacchacus was rich, he was saved by his faith in Christ.  But the rich young ruler was not saved due to lack of faith in Christ (18 : 18-30).


  1. Parable of the Ten Pounds / Jericho / Lk. 19 : 11-27


                   Some multiply the gifts and talents given by God, as Jesus taught in this parable.  But many waste their talents without using them.  God is pleased with those who use their talents and gifts for the growth of His ministry and Kingdom.


  1. Jesus visiting Lazarus’ house / Bethany / Jn. 11 : 55-12:1


                   After preaching in many villages of Galilee, Samaria, Perea, Jesus reached Bethany, the village of Lazarus.  Lazarus invited Him in his house; Jesus stayed there.  Many villagers of Bethany believed Jesus for they saw Jesus along with Lazarus, raised from the dead.  Hence, the Jewish leaders attempted to kill Lazarus too (12 : 10-11).  This event happened six days prior to Jesus crucifixion (12 : 1).


          Note :  Jesus was crucified in 30 AD.  The events, happened during the last week of Jesus’ earthly life, are given below with the days that occurred.


Events occurred in the Last week of Jesus – 30 AD


Sunday (Week before Resurrection – Mt. 21 : 1-9, Mk. 11 : 1-11, Lk. 19 : 28-44, Jn. 12 : 12-19)


                   Jesus went procession from Bethany to Jerusalem.  He went on a young ass which was the animal for the symbol of peace.  Jesus, the Prince of peace used the animal which represents peace.  Hosanna means “Save Now”.  This event is a fulfillment of Zecharia (9:9).  After the procession, Jesus went back to Bethany.


Monday – Mt. 21 : 10-19, Mk. 11 : 12-18, Lk. 19 : 45-48


                   Jesus cursed the barren fig tree on his way back to Jerusalem.  He also cleansed the temple.  This was the second cleansing of the temple.  After cleansing the temple, He taught to the people who came to Him (Jn. 12 : 20-50).  He predicted His death on the cross by stating that He would be lifted up from the earth (12 : 32,33).  After teaching, He again went back to Bethany.


Tuesday – Wednesday


  1. The withered Fig tree – Mt. 21 : 20-22, Mk. 11 : 19-26


The barren fig tree that Jesus cursed on Monday had withered away on Tuesday.  The disciples marveled at this miracle.


  1. Reply to the Jewish Leaders – Mt. 21 : 23-22:14, Mk. 11:27-12 : 12, Lk. 20 : 1-19


The Jewish leaders questioned over Jesus’ authority.  He mostly replied them through parables.


  1. Question on tax to Ceasar – Mt. 22 : 15-22, Mk. 12 : 13-17, Lk. 20 : 20-26


The Jewish leaders were stunned by Jesus’ answer to their question, because they could not get any more chance to accuse Him.  Every Christian has to pay tax to the Government by which He is ruled. (Rom. 13 : 1).


  1. Question of Sadducees – Mt. 22 : 23-33, Mk. 12 : 18-27, Lk. 20 : 27-40


Pharisees and Sadducees were two sects of Jews.  Pharisees believed resurrection after death (Act. 23 : 8).  But Sadducees did not believe so.  Hence, Sadducees questioned Jesus concerning resurrection.  Jesus replied them that “You do err not knowing the scripture nor the power of God”.  He also told them, the resurrected will be like angels.  Moreover, He said, there would be no marital relationship in resurrection.


  1. Question of Pharisees / Mt. 22 : 34-40, Mk. 12 : 28-34


          They questioned concerning the chief command of Ten commandments.  Hence, He summarized the ten into the two.  The first and foremost important command is “Love your God”.  The second is “Love your neighbour as yourself”.  By doing these two, all the law and prophecies will be fulfilled.


  1. Question of Jesus – Mt. 22 : 41-46, Mk. 12 : 35-37, Lk. 20 : 41-44


Jesus questioned “what you think of Messiah?  Whose son is he?”.  They replied “the Son of David”.  Immediately He quoted Psalm 110:1, and asked further “Since David called Him Lord, How could the Messiah be his son?”.  They could not answer to this question.  Through this question, Jesus hinted to the Jewish leader that “Messiah (the Christ) is God”.  It implies that Jesus Christ, the incarnated one is Messiah, the Lord and God.


  1. The last Public address of Jesus – Mt. 23 : 1-39, Mk. 12 : 38-49, Lk.20 : 45-47


                   Jesus, at this public address accused the Jewish leaders as “Hypocrites”.


  1. Widow’s two mites – Mt. 12 : 41-44, Lk. 21 : 1-4

                   This incident happened in the temple of Jerusalem.


  1. Announcement concerning the end of the world – Mt. 24, Mk. 13, Lk.21 : 5-36


                   Jesus taught concerning His second coming, the great tribulation, and the final judgement when He was at Mt. Olivet near Jerusalem.


  1. Parable teaching to the Disciples on Mt. Olivet – Mt. 25 : 1-46


  1. Announcing the day of His death – Mt. 26 : 1-5, Mk. 14 : 1,2, Lk. 22 : 1,2


                   After teaching to the disciples, He went and stayed in Simon’s house at Bethany.  This Simon was a leper healed by Jesus.  Jesus announced that He would be killed on the day of Passover.


  1. Annointing to Jesus – Mt. 26 : 6-13, Mk. 14 : 3-9, Jn. 12 : 2-8


                   When Jesus was in the house of Simon, the leper, Marry anointed Jesus on His head.  This oil is very precious and costly.  Hence disciples, especially Judas murmured about  the price of Oil.  Knowing their thought, Jesus said, “She did it for my burial”.  Judas was angry and went out from them.


  1. Judas – Jewish Leaders meet – Mt. 26 : 14-16, Mk. 14 : 10,11, Lk. 22 :3-6


                   At this meet, Judas agreed to betray Jesus.




  1. Passover – Mt. 26 : 17-29, Mk. 14 : 12-25, Lk. 22 : 7-38, Jn. 13.


                   Passover was observed to commemorate the deliverance that God gave them from the Egyptian bondage.  When Jesus and disciples observed it, Judas also joined with them.  Jesus washed their feet according to the Jewish customs of showing hospitality to the guests.


  1. Long discourse with the disciples and His Prayer – Jn. 14 : 1-17:26


                   During this discourse, Jesus revealed His relationship with the Father and with the Holy Spirit.  When the disciples asked Him to show them  the Father, He replied them “he that has seen me has seen the Father” (14 : 8,9).  The Jews called God as the Father.  Since Jesus referred Himself to the Father, He makes clear that He is God.


                   Since Jesus knew that His departure was fast approaching, He told the disciples “Let not your heart be troubled” (14 : 1).  He also promised them about sending of the comforter (The Holy Spirit) who would be abiding with the disciples as well as the believers (14 : 16).  As Jesus revealed His relationship with the Father and with the Holy Spirit, He explained His relationship with the disciples through the parable of vine (Jn. 15).  Finally He prayed for the disciples and for the believers (Jn. 17).


  1. Prayer at Gethsemane – Mt. 26 : 30 , 36-46, Mk. 14 : 26, 32-42, Lk. 22 : 39-46, Jn. 18 : 1


                   Gethsemane is located at Mt. Olivet near Jerusalem.


Note : Observance of Passover and Prayer at Gathsemane were done by Jesus before 12.00 PM on Thursday night.




  1. Betrayal of Judas – Mt. 26 : 47-56, Mk. 14 : 43-52, Lk. 22 : 47-53, Jn.18 : 2-12


                   The Jews used to kiss the friends in order to express their love.  Judas betrayed Jesus as if he kissed the friend.   Following Judas betrayal, the Jewish leader and the soldiers arrested Jesus. 


  1. Enquiry of Annas – Jn. 18 : 12-14, 19-24.


                   Annas was father-in-law to Caiaphas, who then was  the high priest.  He bound Jesus with chains.


  1. Enquiry of Caiaphas – Mt. 26 : 57, 59-68, Mk. 14 : 53,55-65, Lk. 22:54, 63-65, Jn. 18:19-24


                   Jesus was greatly mocked in the house of Caiaphas.  This enquiry continued till morning.  During this enquiry Jesus said that He is the Son of God” (Lk. 22 : 69).  Immediately the Jewish Religious leaders asked “art thou then the Son of God?” Because the “Son of God” and “the Son of Man” refer to “the Messiah” according to Jewish Theology.  The term “Messiah” refers “Incarnation” which means “God taking birth as Man”.  Hence “The Son of God” really means “God” according the Jewish theology.  In this manner, Jesus strongly declared “His Deity”.  Neverthless, the Jews rejected Jesus’ claim (Jn. 5 : 18).


  1. Peter’s denial – Mt. 26 : 58, 69-75, Mk. 14 : 54, 66-72, Lk. 22 : 54-62, Jn. 18 : 15-18, 25-27


  1. Decision of the council – Mt. 27 : 1, Mk. 15 : 1, Lk. 22 : 66-71


                   The council was Sanhedrin, which had supreme authority (The Supreme Court) over matters related to the Jewish religion.  Its judgement was final in all disputes.  However, the council decided on Jesus without having proper evidence.


Note : According to the law of Judaism, enquiry should not be done in the night.  But they enquired Jesus in the night.  Thus, the council violated its own law.  Moreover, the council should not pass any judgement without having valid witness (Num. 35 : 30, Deut. 17 : 6 ; 19 : 15).  But the council passed its judgement on Jesus on the basis of false witnesses (Mk. 14 : 56).  In this manner, the council greatly erred in its decision on Jesus.


  1. Suicide of Judas Iscariot (Mt. 27 : 3-10)


                   Judas died falling headlong, burst asunder in the midst, gushing out all his bowels, when he hanged himself (Acts. 1 : 18,19).


  1. Pilate’s first enquiry – Mt. 27 : 2, 11-14, Mk. 15 : 1-5, Lk. 23 : 1-7, Jn. 18 : 28-38


                   He could not find any unlawful matter on Jesus.


  1. Herod’s enquiry – Lk. 23 : 6-12


                   Pilate could have sent Jesus to Herod for two reasons; one is in order to free himself from judging Jesus who was innocent; the other is in order to make again friendship with Herod who was angry over him for he (Pilate) punished some of Herod’s servants in the past.


9        Pilate’s  second enquiry – Mt. 27 : 15-26, Mk. 15 : 6-15, Lk. 23 : 13-25, Jn. 18 : 39-19:16


                   During both enquiries, Pilate found that Jesus did not commit any unlawful activities against the Roman Government.  Thus, Jesus was free from any guilt.  As well, he found that the Jewish leaders falsely accused Jesus for they were envious over Jesus’ popularity.  Hence, Pilate tried to free Jesus.  But the leaders instigated people against Jesus and they demanded the release of Barabbas.  Hence, Barabbas was released, instead of him, Jesus was handed over for crucifixion.


  1. Mocking of Governor’s soldiers ; Mt. 27 : 27-30, Mk. 15 : 16-19


  1. Crucifixion of Jesus- Mt. 27 : 31-34, Mk. 15 : 20-23, Lk. 23 : 26-33, Jn. 19 : 16,17


                   Jesus was crucified at the third hour according to the Jewish time (9.00 AM – Indian Time)  He was crucified on Mt. Calvary, near Jerusalem.  According to customs, Pilate wrote on the cross “JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS”  The Jewish leaders asked Pilate to change this title, but he did not grant their demand.


Note : The Jews used to kill the criminal by stoning,  Whereas the Romans killed the criminals by crucifying.  Hence, Jesus was killed according to the Roman method.  Jesus was crucified on the cross which was made for Barabbas.


  1. The events of the First three hours (9.00 AM – 12.00 Noon) – Mt. 27 : 35-44, Mk. 15 : 24-32, Lk. 23 : 33-43, Jn. 19 : 18-27


                   During these three hours, Jesus was mocked by the soldiers, the travellers, the Priests, and the thieves who were crucified with Him.  Among the seven verses that Jesus spoke on the cross, three verses were spoken by Jesus at these hours.


          First : Father forgive them; for they know not what they do (Lk.23:34)

          Second : Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise (Lk. 23 : 43)


          Third : Jesus said unto His mother “Woman, behold thy Son”.  Then He said to the disciple “Behold thy Mother” (Jn. 19 : 26,27).


                   When He said these words, it was 12.00 Noon. (Six hour of Jewish time – Lk. 23 : 44).


  1. The events of the second three hours (12.00 Noon – 3.00 PM) – Mt. 27 : 45-56, Mk. 15 : 33-41, Lk. 23 : 44-49, Jn. 19 : 28-30


                   There was darkness over these hours.  All wondered, since darkness spread during day hours.  The centurion said “Truly this was the Son of God” (Mt. 27 : 54).  The veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent.


                   Jesus further spoke four verses from the cross during these hours.


          Fourth : Eli, Eli, Lama Sabach Thani?  (Aramaic language)

                       (My God, My God, Why hast thou forsaken me?” – Mt. 27 : 46)


          Fifth : I thirst (Jn. 19 : 28)


          Sixth : It is finished (Jn. 19 : 30)


          Seventh :  Father into your hands I commend my spirit (Lk. 23 : 46).


  1. Burial of Jesus Friday Evening – Mt. 27 : 57-60, Mk. 15 : 42-47, Lk.23 : 50-54, Jn. 19 : 31-42


                   It commonly took many hours to die for the one who was crucified.  But, Jesus died about six hours by hanging on the cross.  Hence, Pilate marveled (Mk. 15 : 44).  After conforming Jesus’ death, Pilate gave the body of Jesus to Joseph who was a secret follower of Jesus among the members of Jewish council.


Note :  Joseph of Arimathae (Mk. 15 : 43) and Nicodemus (Jn. 3) were secret followers of Jesus, although they were members of the council (Jn. 19 : 38).  Among these two, Joseph boldly went to Pilate and received the body.  After that, He along with Nicodemus buried Jesus.  Mary Magadalene and some other women saw the tomb where Jesus was buried.


Saturday (Sabath) – Mt. 27 : 61- 66, Lk. 23 : 55,56


                   Saturday was Jewish Sabbath.  The Jews crucified Jesus by their false accusation concerning Sabbath.  The same Jewish leaders went and asked Pilate on Sabbath to seal and to watch the tomb of Jesus.  By going to Pilate on Sabbath, the Jewish leaders broke and violated the law of Moses.  Pilate accepted their request and allowed them to seal the tomb.  Hence, they again went and sealed the tomb on Sabbath day.


Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus (30 AD)


Sunday (First day of the week)


  1. Women going to the tomb – Mt. 28 : 1-10, Mk. 16 : 1-8, Lk. 24 : 1-11


Mary Magdalene along with other women went to the tomb in order to embalm the body of Jesus.  It was morning.  When they reached the tomb, they found   the stone, which covered the tomb was removed.  The body was not in the tomb.  Hence, Mary ran to inform to the disciples.  After Mary ran away, angels appeared and told about resurrection to the women who accompanied Mary.  Moreover, the  Angels instructed to the women to tell to Peter about resurrection of Jesus.  However, they did not tell it to anyone for fear (Mk. 16 : 7,8).


  1. Peter and John coming to the tomb – Lk. 24 : 12, Jn. 20 : 1-10


As soon as Mary reported about the body of Jesus that was missing in the tomb, Peter and John rushed to the tomb.  John, being young, ran fast and reached the tomb first, but he did not enter into the tomb.  Peter came little later and went into the tomb.  He did not find Jesus’ body but found the cloth that was used to wrap over the body.  Therefore, they returned with astonishment.  They had forgotten what Jesus told them about His resurrection when He was with them. 


  1. Jesus appearing to Mary Magdelene – Mk.16 : 9-11, Jn. 20 : 11-18


When Mary went to call the disciples, angels announced Jesus’ resurrection to other women.  But they went away without informing it to anyone for fear.  Hence, Mary who came after reporting the disciples was crying alone.  At that time, she saw two angels, sitting in the tomb.  As they were speaking with her, Jesus came behind Mary.  She turned back and saw Jesus.  But she thought he is the gardener.  Thinking Him gardener, she enquired Him about the body of Jesus.  At this point, Jesus gently called her “Mary”.  As soon as Jesus gently called Mary, she realized that He was Jesus by recognizing his voice.  Being the first woman, who directly saw Jesus after His resurrection, Mary again went and reported to the disciples as to how she saw the resurrected Lord Jesus.  But they did not believe her.


  1. Jesus appearing to other women – Mt. 28 : 9,10


The same woman who did not report to any one for fear, later courageously went to report to the disciples about the message that angels told.  As they were going to meet the disciples, Jesus appeared to these women and greeted them on their way.


  1. Report of guards – Mt. 28 : 11-15


The guards who watched Jesus’ tomb reported to the Priests  about what happened at the time of resurrection in the tomb.  The Jewish Priest bribed the guards lest they reveal the truth to anyone.  They also instigated the guards to lie by saying “His disciples came by night and stole Him away while we slept”.


Note :  What a great lie!  How could they see while sleeping, that the disciples came and stole Jesus’ body?  They could not see while sleeping.


Sunday Afternoon


  1. Jesus appearing to two disciples – Mk. 16 : 12,13, Lk. 24 : 13-35


Emmaus, a village is 12 Km. away from Jerusalem.  When two disciples were going to this village, Jesus appeared to them as a traveller.  Jesus made them to understand, when they approach near the village.  Immediately, they rushed back to Jerusalem to report it to the other disciples.  Before they come and report it to the other disciples, Jesus appeared once to Peter (Lk. 24 : 34).  When the ten disciples come together, they reported each other about Jesus appearing to them.


Sunday Evening


  1. Jesus appearing to ten disciples – Lk. 24 : 36-43, Jn. 20 : 19-25

As they were talking, Jesus appeared in their midst.  And He proved Himself the resurrected and living.  But Thomas was not with them in this meeting.


Jesus appearing after one week


  1. Jesus appearing to the eleven – Jn. 20 : 26-31


Thomas was not present, when other disciples saw Jesus.  Hence, he did not believe their report about resurrection of Jesus.  However, Thomas saw Jesus in  this time.  Jesus lovingly rebuked Thomas for his unbelief.  Thomas then confessed Jesus “My Lord and My God”.


Note : Jesus rebuked whenever the disciples erred.  Ex. Jesus rebuked Peter “get behind me Satan” (Mt. 16 : 23).  As well, He rebuked Thomas for his unbelief.  But for this statement He did not rebuke Thomas when he confessed Jesus “My Lord and My God”.  Because Thomas’ statement and confession was true about Jesus and His Deity.  Since Jesus has accepted the confession of Thomas “My God” without rebuking, Jesus silently declares that “He is God for ever”.  Yes!  Jesus is God who never changes (Heb. 13 : 8).


After one week but before forty days


  1. Jesus appearing to the disciples while fishing – Jn. 21 : 1-25


The day of this appearing is not given.  However it must have been before the 40th day.  Although the disciples had directly seen the risen Lord, they returned for fishing.  Therefore Jesus asked Peter “Feed my sheep”.


  1. The Great commission – Mt. 28 : 16-20, Mk. 16 : 14-18, Lk. 24 : 44-49


Jesus commanded the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world.


  1. Ascension of Jesus from Mt. Olivet – Mk. 16 : 19-20, Lk. 24 : 50-53


After His resurrection, Jesus was in the earth for forty days (Act. 1 : 3).  On the 40th day, He ascended to heaven from Mt. Olivet before the eyes of the disciples.  HE that came from heaven returned to heaven gloriously.


Important Prophecies that fulfilled in the life of Christ



Prophecies fulfilled

Bible verse




Birth in Bethlehem

Mich. 5 : 2

Lk. 2 : 4-7


Virgin Birth

Is. 7 : 14

Mt. 1 : 23


Calling from Egypt

Hos. 11 : 1

Mt. 2 : 15


Jesus, the greatest prophet

Deut. 18 : 15

Jn. 1 : 45


Journey on Ass

Zech. 9 : 9

Mt. 21 : 4,5


Betrayal for 30 coins

Zech. 11 : 12

Mt. 26 : 15


Casting lot

Ps. 22 : 18

Jn. 19 : 24


Drinking of vinegar

Ps. 69 : 21

Mt. 27 : 34


Piercing of nails

Ps. 22 : 16

Jn. 20 : 25


Unbroken bones

Ps. 34 : 20

Jn. 19 : 33


My God, My God – Jesus cry

Ps. 22 : 1

Mt. 27 : 46


Wounds of Jesus

Is. 53 : 5

Mk. 15 : 15


Patience of Jesus in suffering

Is. 53 : 7

 Mt. 27 : 14


Crucifixion with thief

Is. 53 : 12

Lk. 23 : 32


Burial with the rich

Is. 53 : 9

Mt. 27 : 60


Buying of Potter’s field

Zech. 11 : 13

Mt. 27 : 7






Write a report to prove the Deity of Jesus Christ from this notes.  Send your report to CALS.