BL - 12 Bible Geography



Purpose of course
This subject helps the students to know and familiarize with the geographical location and places of Bible lands.  It also helps to establish that the events recorded in the Bible are not myths but factual history, happened in these geographical locations. Introduction
Key lands of Bible geography include present West Asia, North Africa and South Eastern Europe.  Thus the areas covered in Bible graphy spread in three continents.
Important plans and nations
The following plains and nations are important in Bible geography and they have close relation with the history of Israel.
  1. Mesopotamia (plain between Euphrates and Tigris rivers)
  2. Egypt
  3. Assyria
  4. Babylon
  5. Medo-Persia
  6. Greece
  7. Canaan
Among these, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece were super powers in the time of Old Testament.  At the beginning toward New Testament period, Roman Empire was super power.

Key Places  
  1. Eden (A garden in which man lived first after creation)
  2. Er (Birth place of Abraham)
  3. Sodom and Gomorrah (Twins citieis situated near Dead Sea, which were destroyed due to wickedneww of people)
  4. Haran (Abraham’s father died here)
  5. Shushan (Capital of Medo-Persian Empire; Esther lived here)
  6. Nineveh (Capital of Assyria where Jonah preached)
  7. Tyre (A port city at the eastern shore of Mediterrarean Its kind  Hiram sent carpenters and masons to build the palace of David.  I Chro. 14 : 1)
  8. Babylon : It was named as Babel in Hebrew; Babilu in Assyrian and Babylon Greek. Babel Tower was built here.  It was located in Shinar.  Nimrod ruled Babel and Acad.  Babylon was divided into two geographical areas named Sumer and Acad.  Babylon was also called Chaldea.
Important Rivers
  1. The Euphrates (The Great River) : It flows through Babel and Ur.  It has its source in Armenian ranges.  It makes a confluence with Tigris before uniting into the Persian Gulf.
  1. The Tigris (Hiddekel) : It has it is sources in the ranges of Ararat and flows through Assyria, Nineveh and Elam before fall into the Persian Gulf (Gen. 2 : 14).
  1. The Nile (6680 Km. Approximately) : The great river of Africa, rises in the central part of the continent.  It flows towards north into Meditterranean sea.  This river makes a fertile delta.  This area was also known as Goshen where Israelites lived in Egypt for 400 years approximately.  The Nile is the main water source to Egypt.  It is named as Sihor in the Bible (Isa. 23 : 3).
  1. The Jordan (100 Km. Approximately) : It rises from Lebanon and flows through the lake of Merom and the sea of Galilee.  It finally reaches into the Dead Sea.  Naaman dipped himself seven times in Jordan and got healed (2 King 5 : 10-14).  Jesus took baptism in Jordan (Mt. 3 : 13-17).
  Important Seas
  1. Red Sea : It divides the lands of Egypt and Arabian Sub-continent. It has two arms, namely the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah.  Israelites when they got freedom from Egyptian bondage crossed this sea on their way to Canaan, the promised land.
  1. The Mediterrarean Sea : It is also known as the great sea (Josh. 1 : 4) and the utmost sea (Joel. 2 : 20).  This sea is the western border of Israel.
  1. Sea of Galilee (Length 20 Km. & Width 10 Km.) : It is on the way of Jordan which rises in Lebanon and flows into the Dead Sea. Since it is a big lake, it is called sea.  This sea is also known as the sea of Chinneroth.  Many important events recorded in the gospels happened in this area in the time of Jesus.
  1. The Salt Sea (76 Km.) : Places around this sea has many salt rocks.  Since this sea also has many of such rocks, it naturally has more density of salt.  Since salt density is high, this sea has no living creatures.  Therefore this sea is also called the Dead Sea.

  Important Mountains
  1. Ararat : It is located in Armenia. It is traditionally believed that the Ark of Noah rested in one of the peaks of Ararat (Gen. 8 : 4).
  1. Sinai : Israelites on their way to Canaan wandered in this area.  When they were here, God gave them the Law through Moses.  When Moses smote a rock of this mountain, water gushed out (Ex. 17 : 6).  It is also known as the mountain God and horeb (Ex. 3 : 1 ; Deut. 9 : 8,9).

  1. Moriah : Abraham went to this mountain to sacrifice Isaac (Gen. 22 : 1-14). David purchased this mountain by paying price.  Solomon built the temple on it (1 Chro. 21 : 8-27; 2 Chro. 3 : 1).
  1. M Seir : Horites lived on this mountains. They named this mountain after their father (Gen. 14 : 6).  Esau and his descendants lived here after defeating Horites.  Therefore it was called Edom and Idumea (Gen. 36 : 6-9 ; Mk. 3 : 8).  A part of this mountain is now with the country of Jordan.
  1. Lebanon (10,000 feet Height) : It was the northern boundary of Israel (Deut. 1 : 7 ; Jud. 3 : 3,4).  It is a beautiful mountain with Cedar trees.
  1. Nebo : Nebo means “highest”.  It is one of the peaks on the mounts of Abarim ranges.  Moses climbed over this mountain and viewed the promised land in which he was forbidden to enter.  He probably died here (Deut. 32 : 49 ; 34 : 1).
  1. Tabor (1929 ft.) : It is located at the boundaries of Issachar and Zebulon tribes (Josh. 19 : 2 –12).  Saul was called to be the first King of Israel, when he was at this mountain (I Sam. 10 : 3-8).
  1. Gilboa (1690 ft.) : It is located at the eastern side of valley of Jazreel.  Israelites failed here in a war with Philistines.  King Saul was also killed in this war (1 Sam. 31 : 1-5).
  1. Gerizim (2849 Ft.) : People of Israel were blessed on this mountain.  Therefore it became the sign of blessing (Deut. 11 : 12, 13, 29).
  1. Ebal (3000 Ft.) : Ebal is located just opposite to Mt. Gerizim.  It is the symbol of curse (Deut. 11 : 29).  It was in Samarian area.
  1. Carmel (1721 ft. ) : Israel captured this mountain from Philistians.  On this mount, Elijah sacrificed and killed many false prophets (Josh. 19 : 26 : 1 King 18 : 19-45).  King Saul erected a memorial pillar for his victories (1 Sam. 15 : 12).
  1. Hermon (9232 ft.) : Hermon means “holiness”. It is located in the northern boundary to Israel.  The Sidonians called it Sirion and the Amorites called it Shenir (Deut. 3 : 8,9).
  1. Gilead (3000 Ft.) : Manasseh’s grand son was Gilead whose name was given to this Mount, since they lived there (Num. 26 : 29, 30).  It is located at the eastern side of River Jordan.  Elijah was native of this area (1 King. 17 : 1 ; Jud. 7 : 3).
  1. Calvary : It is called in Hebrew Gollgotha, which means the place of a skull (Jn. 19 : 17).  Jesus Christ was crucified ib this mount.
  1. Olive (2600 ft.) : It is at the eastern side of Jerusalem.  Jesus ascended from this mount to heaven (Acts. 1 : 9-12).  Jesus will come on this mount at His second coming (Zach. 14 : 4).

Wilderness of Sin

It is located at south of Philistina near Arabian Peninsula.  Wilderness of Sin is adjacent to wilderness of skur and wilderness of Paran.  All these three are in Sinai Peninsula.  Israel, on their way from Egypt to the promised land, wandered in this wilderness nearly forty (40) years.  It was also known as the wilderness of the Red Sea (Ex. 13 : 18 ; 14 : 3 ; Deut. 32 : 50).  When the people of Israel wandered in the wilderness of Sin (Zin), God did  many miracles such as giving of Manna; water from the rock.

Mountain Ranges of Ancient times

  1. Armenian Mountains : Armenian mountain ranges are located between Caspian Sea and Black Sea.  Ararat in which the Ark of Noah rest is a part of Armenian mountains (Gen. 8 : 4; Jer. 51 : 27).  Some parts of Armenian mountains are with Russia as well as Turkey.
  1. Mountains of Mediai : These mountain ranges start from Ararat of Armenia.  Mountains of Media are also called the Zagros mountains.  Media was named after Madai, a son of Japheth who was a son of Joah (Gen. 10 : 1,2).  Kingdom of Media was formed in this area.  The Medes were a war-like and independent people group.  Therefore, Media was not annexed to Assyria, although Assyria conquered it.  Later Medes, with full force, defeated Assyrians and Babylonians and they along with Persia, formed Medo-Persian Empire (Esther 1 : 19).  Some parts of present Iran come under this area.
  1. Persian Mountains : These mountains are located South of  mountains of Media.  Present Iran includes these mountains as its parts.  The capital of the Persian Empire was Susa.  It was mentioned in the Bible “Sushan the Palace”, situated in Elam.  (Esther 1 : 2 ; 2 Chro. 36 : 20 ; Ezek. 27 : 10 ; 38 : 5 ; Dan. 8 : 20 ; 10 : 13 ; 11 : 12)
Lands of the Plain
  1. Assyrian Plains : It  was ruled by Assyrian Empire.  Its capital was Nineveh which was first built by Nimrod, a famous hunter.  There was a world’s largest library in Nineveh in ancient times.  Babylonians defeated Assyrian Empire in 612 BC.  Kurdistan, parts of Iraq are in this area (Gen. 10 : 11,12 ; Jonah 1 : 2 ; Nahum 1 : 1).
  1. Plains of Mesopotamia : Mesopotamia means “between the rivers”.  It lies between the Tigris river and the Euphrates river (Gen. 11 : 31).  Iraq is located in Mesopotamian plains.
  1. Plain of Chaldea : It was also known Shinar and Babylonia.  Ahraham’s birth place (Ur) was situated here.  Cushitas lived in ancient times in Chaldea.  (Jer. 34 : 1 ; Dan. 1 : 1 ; 2 : 48 ; Esther 2 : 6 ; Gen. 11 : 31).
  1. Plain of Arabia :  The plains of Arabian peninsula occupies more than half of the map of the Old Testament.  It is mentioned in the Bible, the land of Kedar (Ps. 120 : 5 ; Songs 1 : 5 ; Isa. 21 : 16, 17 ; Jer. 49 : 28).

Lands around the Mediterrarean

  1. Asia Minor : It is located at the north of the Mediterrarean sea. Hittites of the Old Testament lived in this region (Gen. 15 : 20).  Many early churches in the First Century (AD) were established in New Testament times.  Turkey is the modern name for this land.
  1. Syria : It is at the eastern direction of the Mediterrarean Sea and at the north eastern direction of Israel. Damascus was its principal cited during Old Testament times.  But later, Antioch in the north was prominent city and capital of the province during the Greek and the Roman rule.
  1. Phoenicia :  It is at the eastern direction of the Mediterrarean Sea and at the western direction of Syria.  It is at the north of Israel.  Phoenicia includes sea shore, plains and mountains. Sidon (Mother Port of the Mediterrarean) and Tyre (Daughter Port of the Mediterrarean) were important port cities of Phoenicia.  Lebanon is the present name of country.
  1. Egypt : It is at the southern shore of the Mediterrarean Sea and at the northern part of African continent.  The Nile flows through Egypt on its way to the Mediterrarean.  Israelites were slaves in Egypt.  Its present name is also Egypt.  Egypt was a poweorful nation for some period of Old Testament times.  However, it was later ruled by Babylonians (605 BC), Persians (525 BC), Greeks (332 BC), Romans (48 BC), Muslims (700 AD) and Britain (1882 AD).  It is now an independent nation.
  1. Philistine : It is located in the eastern direction of the Mediterrarean Sea and in the southern direction of Phoenicia.  This land is also called Canaan, River Jordan is the key water source.  Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea are two important inland seas.  This land was promised by God to Israel.
Casluhim was forefather of Philistines. (Gen. 10 : 14).  They came from Caphtor and occupied Canaan (Jer. 47 : 4 ; Amos. 9 : 7).  Since Philistines occupied and lived in Canaan, it was later called Philistine.  The important cities of Old Philistine were Ashkelon (Jer. 47 : 5 ; amos 1 : 8), Ashdod (I Sam. 5 : 1-8), Gaza (Jud. 16 : 1-3, Deut. 2 : 22) Ekron (Josh. 13 : 3 ; Jud. 1 : 18) and Gath (1 Sam. 17 : 4).   Small Neighbouring countries around Philistine  
  1. Amalekiites : The land of Amalekites was in Sinai Peninsula; South of Philistine, South west of the Dead Sea and west of Edom and it was upto Egypt.  The red Sea was its western border.  Amalekities waged was against Israel in Rephidim, when Israel journeyed to the promised land after getting freedom from Egyptian bondage (Exo. 17 : 8).
  1. Edom : Descedants of Esau lived in Edom.   Edomites captured this land from the Horims (Gen. 25 : 30 ; 36 : 8 ; Deut. 2 : 12, 21).  This land was also called “the mount Seir” (Josh. 24 : 4).  It’s name in the New Testament times was Petra and Idumea (Mk. 3 : 8).
  1. Moab : Moab was a son of the first daughter of Lot (Gen. 19 : 37).  Moab’s descendants lived in this land.  It was located in South East of the Dead Sea.  Since Lot was Abraham’s relative, Israelites did not wage war against Moabites on their way to the promised land (Deut. 2 : 9).
  2. Ammonites : Ammon (Benammi) was a son of the second daughter of Lot (Gen. 19 : 38).  Benammi’s descendants were Ammonites.  The land in which ammonites  lived was called after their name.  The country of Ammonites was located in the eastern part of Jordan and in the north of the Dead Sea.

  From the West towards the east   Four major land divisions are seen, when Philistine (Present Israel) is geographically divided from the west towards the east.
  • Plains of Sea shore
  • Mountain region
  • Jordan valley
  • Eastern Table Land (High Land)
  1. Plains of Sea shore : This plain land is stretched from the north towards the south at the eastern shore of the Mediterrarean Sea.  The width of this plain is very narrow (8 miles) in the north near Mt. Carmel and it further becomes wider towards the south and forms twenty mile wider plains (1 Mile = 1.6 Km.)
  1. Mountain Region : This region is located between the western plains of Sea shore and Jordan  This mountains are continuity of Mt. Lebanon ranges.  The mountain region stretches from Mt. Lebanon at the north to Judea towards the south through Galilean and Samarian areas.  The highest peak of this mountain ranges is about 2800 ft. at the North eastern Galilean ranges and the lowest peak is approximately 500 ft. hight near the plains of sea shore.  Israelites mostly preferred and dlived in this region.
  1. Jordan Valley : River Jordan rises from the ranges of Hermon and Mt. Lebanon above 1700 ft.  height.  As it flows towards the south, its height gradually lowers.  Finally it dips down to 1300 ft. below the sea level in the Dead Sea.  Gorges of Jordan are very fertile.
  1. The Eastern Highlands : The lands in the eastern side of Jordan are higher than valley.  Therefore this lands are called so.  It was also called Bashan.
  From the North towards the South
                               There are four divisions, when the land of Philistine is divided from the west towards the east.  However, there are only thre major divisions, when Philistine is divided from the north towards the south.  Such divisions are Galilee, Samaria and Judea.
  1. Galilee : It is the northern part of Israel. Sea of Galilee is in this area.  Nazareth, where Jesus grew up is also in Galilean area.  Early ministry of Jesus mostly happened in Galilean area.
  1. Samaria : It is the central part of Philistine.  Galilea is in the north and Judea is in the South of Samaria.  After Solomon’s rule, when United Israel divided into two as Northern Israel and Southern Judea, many of the important cities of Northern Israel were situated in Samaria.  Samaria became the capital of northern Israel as well.  When the Assyrians captured Samaria, they inter-married with the people of Samaria.  People born through this intermarriage were called the Samaritans.   Jews would not keep any relation with the Samaritans.  Jews ostracized this Samariitan community.  However, Jesus walked through Samaria and talked with the Samaritans, when he went from Jerusalem to Galilee (Jn. 4).
  1. Judea : It is located, south of Samaria.  Places at the western part of the Dead Sea come under this.  When the nation Israel was divided, the two tribes (Jude and Benjamin) lived in this part.  Therefore it was called so.  Jerusalem, Bethlahem, and the wilderness where Jesus was tempted by Satan belonged to Judea.
Divisions of Eastern Table Land Galilee, Samaria and Judea are in the western side of Jordan, whereas two land divisions are in the eastern side of Jordan.
  1. Perea : The land of Perea is located in the east of Jordan and in the North east of the Dead Sea.  The place where was baptized was in this area (Jn. 10 : 40 ; Mt. 19 : 1).
  1. Decapolis : It is located in the north of Perea and the east of the Sea of Galilee.  Decapolis means ten cities.  Decapoliis has no geographical name.  Decapolis is not a precise term, referring to ten cities.  It is right to presume that Decapolis was an area of ten cities.
Important cities of Philistine – Israel  
  1. Jerusalem : It is located in the west about 24 Km. away from the northern end of the Dead Sea.  It is situated on a hillock (3000 ft. height from sea level).  The word “Salem” in Hebrew means “Peace”.  Therefore Jerusalem means “City of Peace”.  This city was surrounded by wall.  It had totally twelve gates; three gates in each side of the wall.
                   The other names of Jerusalem are Zion, city of the great King, city of God (Ps. 48 : 1-2), Jebus (Jud. 19 : 10,11), Ariel (Ariel means the lion of God; Isa. 29 : 1), throne of the Lord (Jer. 3 : 17) and Holy mountain (Dan. 9 : 20).  Jerusalem became popular after David shifted his capital from Hebron to Jerusalem.
  1. Bethleham (Fruitful) : It is just 10 Km. away in the south from Jerusalem.  It is the birth place of Jesus.  Shepherds as well as wisemen visited Jesus here (Lk. 2 : 1-20 ; Mtt. 2 : 1-12).  This city is very famous.  Therefore Israel is also called Holy Nation.
  1. Hebron : It is 32 Km. away in the south of Jerusalem. Abraham burried his wife Sarah here (Gen. 23)
  1. Beersheba : It is 80 Km. away in the south west direction of Jerusalem. It was a beautiful city.  Abraham and Isaac lived here.
  1. Bethel (House of God) : It is located 19 Km. away in the north of Jerusalem.  Jacob slept here when he fled for fear of his brother Esau.  He saw a vision of ladder and named the place, Bethel (Gen. 28).  Jeroboam built an altar for the golden calf and caused the people to turn away from God (I Kings 12 : 28 : 33).
  1. Jericho : It is 8 Km. away in the north of the Dead Sea as well as in the west of Jordan.  Israel first captured this cited after they came from Egyptian bondage (Josh. 6 )
  1. Bethany (House of dates) : It is located at the eastern slope of Mt. Olivet. This was native of Martha, Mary and Lazarus (Jn. 11 : 1-46).
  1. Emmaus : It is located just 12 Km. away in the north west direction of Jerusalem.  Jesus met two of His disciples after His resurrection (Lk.     24 : 13).
  1. Shechem (Shoulder) : It lies between Mt. Gerizium and Mt. Ebal.  Abraham lived here (Gen. 12 : 6).  It was also a city of refugee (Josh.    20 : 7).
  1. Samaria : It was the capital of Ten tribes which parted away from Judah. Omri, the King of Israel built this city (I Kings 16 : 23, 24).  It lies just 9 Km. away in the north west direction from Shechem.  Jesus here shared gospel to the Samaritan woman (John. 4).
  1. Joppa : It was a sea port in the eastern shore of the Mediterrarean Sea.  Jonah boarded ship (Jonah 1 : 2-3).  Peter in the New Testament lived here (Act. 10 : 5 ; 11 : 5).
  1. Nain (Pasture) : It is 10 Km. away in the South east direction from Nazareth. Jesus vised widow’s son in Nain (Lk. 7 : 11-15).
  1. Capernaum :  It is a seashore city which lies at the edge of the sea of Galilee.  Many events in the early years of Jesus’ Ministry occurred around Capernaum (Mk. 2 : 1,2).
  1. Petra (Rock) : It is 80 Km. away in the south of Dead Sea.  It was the  capital of Edamites.  It was a fortified city (2 Kings. 14 : 8 ; Jer. 9 : 1,  16-17)

Brief Early History of Humanity
God, after creating man, brought him in the garden of Eden and blessed “Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth” (en. 1 : 28).  According to God’s command, human race began to spread everywhere from the garden of Eden.  As men spread all over the world, sins also increased (Gen. 6 : 5,6).  God punished the world for its sin but proteced Noah and his family from the flood. The ark in which Noah was protected in the inundated deluge rested on Mt. Ararat.  Noah came out of the ark after water drained.  Humanity again spread out all over the world from the region of Mt. Ararat through the descendants of Noah.  Noah had three sons Japheth, Ham and Shem (Gen. 10).  Descendants of Japheth mainly lives in Europe; Decendants of Ham lives in Africa and Descendants of Shem largely lives in Asia. As humanity spread out all over the world, God specifically called Abraham to fulfill His plan for the world.
Early History of Israel
  Journey of Abraham (800 Km.)
  1. From Ur to Haran (Gen. 11 : 27-32) : Abram, native of ur of Chaldea was called by God.  He by faith departed from Ur and arrived in Haran along the river bank of Euphrates.  He stayed in Haran until his father Terah died.  Abram’s another name is Abraham.
  1. From Haran to Canaan (400 Km.) (Gen. 12 : 1-9) : Some of relatives of Abraham stayed back in Haran.  Abraham and his nephew Lot came into Canaan, the promised land.
  1. Sojourn in Egypt – 240 Km. (Gen. 12 : 10-20) : When there was famine in the land of Canaan, Abraham went to Egypt. Abraham’s going to Egypt was not God’s will.  Hence, he immediately returned back to Canaan and stayed in Bethel (Gen. 13 : 3-4).
  1. Abraham in Canaan (Nomadic life) : When there was dispute between the servants of Abraham and of Lot, both separated. Abraham stayed in Hebron (Gen. 13 : 5-18).  He again lived in Hebron after he rescued Lot from his enemies (Gen. 14 ).  However He stayed in Beersheba after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 19 : 3-25).  He went to Mt. Moriah to offer sacrifice and again returned to Beersheba (Gen 22 : 19).  he buried his wife in a cave at Machpelah near hebron (Gen. 23).  Abraham finally died and was buried in Machpelah (Gen. 25 : 7).

Sajourning life of Isaac
Although Isaac (180 years) lived longer than Abraham and Jacob, his life was fully confined within Philistine.  He first put his tent in Beerlahairoi of which exact location is hitherto unknown.  Neverhless, Beerlahairoi would have been near Kadesh (Gen. 16 : 13, 14).  Isaac later moved from place to place; Gerar (26 : 1, 6), Rehoboth (26 : 22), Beersheba (26 : 23-35), and Hebron (35 : 27-29).  Jacob fled to Haran for fear of Esau, when Isaac lived in Beersheba (28 : 10).  Isaac was buried near the tombs of his parents (35 : 28,29).
Jacob’s Journey
Jacob fled from Beersheba to Haran as far as 600 Km., for he was afraid of Esau.  After living in Haran about 20-40 years (approximately), he returned to Canaan with his two wives, children and flocks (Gen. 28-33).  On his way back to Canaan, he made a treaty with his father-in-law at Mizpah (32 : 23-30) and he wrestled and prevailed over the Angel of God at Peniel (32 : 24-32).  He also reconciled with his brother Esau (33) and stayed Shalom near Shechem. He moved from Shechem to Bethel, after the dispute between his sons; Simeon and Levi and inhabitants of the land (Gen. 34).  Jacob remembered his covenant with God in Bethel (Gen. 35).  He further moved towards the South and stayed in Ephrth (Bethlehem, Gen. 35 : 19).  Rachel died when he was in Bethlehem.  Joseph was also sold to the Midianites, when Jacob was in bethlehem. Joseph who was sold to the Midianites by his brothers lived as slave in Egypt and later became the Prime Minister of Egypt.  During this period, Jacob moved to Egypt with his family (Gen. 45-50).  Jacob died in Egypt, but his body was burried in their family tomb in Canaan by Joseph (Gen. 50).  Jacob died at the age of 147 Years (Gen. 47 : 28).
Isralites Travel after the freedom from Egypt
Jacob’s family which went to Egypt during Joseph’s Prime Ministership, great in number, after 430 years (approximately).  Hence the Egyptian enslaved the Israelites.  At that period, God delivered the people of Israel through Moses and led them to Canaan which was the promised land to Abraham.
Journey – I (From Rameses to the Red Sea : Ex. 12 : 37-14:31)
  They started from Rameses and arrived in Succoth.  From Succoth, they encamped in Etham (Ex. 13 : 20).  Later they had encamped at Pihahiroth near Balizephon, the Egyptians again followed Isralites in order to capture them.  Isralites cried unto God.  Moses stretched out his hand over the Red Sea, which immediately parted off to make a way (Ex. 14).  Isralites went into the midst of the Sea upon the dry ground.  God did this great miracle in the Red Sea (Near Present day Suez).
Journey – II (Red Sea to Mt. Sinai : Ex . 15 -19)
During this journey, they wandered in the wilderness of Shur, and in the wilderness of Paran and arrived at Mt. Sinai.  The following important event happened at this period.
  • Fall of Manna (Ex. 16)
  • Water from the Rock (17 : 2-7)
  • Ten commandments and the Ark of covenant were given (Ex. 20)
  • Israel stayed nearly one year at Sinai (Ex. 19)
  • Tabernacle was consecrated
Journey – III (Mt. Sinai to Kadesh Barnea)
                     From Mt. Sinai, they journeyed towards the north and arrived at Kadesh – Barnea, northern part of wilderness of Paran.  They travelled along with the Ark of covenant and with the Tabernacle.
  • Twelve spies were sent into Canaan to spy the land (Num. 13)
  • Isralelites were defeated at Hormah (Num. 14 : 44,45)
Since Israelites were unable to enter into Canaan, they rturned through the wilderness of Paran and wandered in the wilderness of Zin, and to Ezion Geber in Elath near the Red Sea.  They wandered nearly 38 years in these areas.  The following important incidents happened in this period.
  • The budding of Aaron’s rod (Num. 17)
  • the death of Miriam (Num 20 : 1)
Journey  – IV (Elath to Jordan)
                     In the fourtiet year, they journeyed from Elath toward north. They passed around Moab and arrived at Mt. Nebo.  Moses viewed the promised land from the peak of Mt. Nebo.  He died before entering the promised land (Deut. 34). After the death of Moses, Joshua took the leadership and led the people of Israel.  They crossed the Jordan river and possessed the promised land.

Draw the map of Israel and mark the important places

Prepared By :      Rev. S. J. Chellathurai
                         Bro. H. Ravi Kumar